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Military suspends flight of Surion choppers over defective gearbox

Published : 2016-07-07 11:43
Updated : 2016-07-07 11:43

Korea’s military has suspended the flight of locally-developed KUH-1 Surion helicopter after defects in the imported gearbox were reported following the deadly crash of a Norwegian chopper using the same European component, the defense procurement agency said Thursday.

The EC-225 Super Puma chopper of Norwegian oil company Statoil crashed off the Scandinavian country’s southwest coast on April 29, killing all 13 people aboard.

Korea has recently been informed by the chopper’s manufacturer, Airbus Helicopters, that the crash was due to the defective main gearbox that connects the aircraft’s engine with the rotor system.

“Some of Surion choppers are equipped with the same main gearbox, so the flight of these aircraft has been put on hold to prevent potential accidents,” an official at the Defense Acquisition Program Administration  said.

The multi-role Surion chopper was produced by Korea’s sole aircraft manufacturer Korea Aerospace Industries Ltd. as part of a 1.3 trillion won military procurement project. About 57 percent of the military-use Surion choppers are equipped with the gearbox made by Airbus Helicopters.

Since its first flight test in 2010, the indigenous aircraft has been adapted for military purposes as well as other non-military missions for the police and the firefighters.

With financial reimbursement from Airbus Helicopters, the DAPA plans to replace the defective components by the end of this year, the official said. (Yonhap)

Original post


EC225 Main Rotor Head and Main Gear Box Design

EC225/H225 Main Rotor Head and Main Gear Box Design

Following the recent tragic accident at Turøy near Bergen, Norway involving EC225/H225 LN-OJF there is a lot of interest in the Main Rotor (MR) and Main Gear Box (MGB) design of the EC225.  Here we provide some background information on the design and updates on the investigation and regulatory action.

The EC225/H225 MRH/MGB Design

CIMG4051-300x225EC225 MRH and MGB (c) Aerossurance

Unlike some other types, the 11t+ lift load from the Main Rotor is not imposed on the casing of the MGB, but is instead transferred via a Double Taper Bearing to the Lift Housing (see the diagram below).  When static the Double Taper Bearing also transmits the weight of the MR assembly to the Lift Housing.

The Lift Housing is connected to the fuselage via three Suspension Bars (which connect to fittings secured to the fuselage by 4 bolts).  The Lift Housing also takes the suspended weight of the MGB via the Flared Housing.  The MGB is supported underneath by the flexible titanium Barbeque Plate which absorbs the MR torque, longitudinal and transverse loads and damps out vibrations.

ec225-mgb-mrhEC225 MRH and MGB (Credit: Airbus Helicopters via Aerobuzz with Aerossurance Labelling)

The EC225 has a integral Main Rotor Head (MRH) and MR shaft, which mates with output of the MGB Epicyclic Module via a spline.  The five Blade Sleeves (and their associated Blade Dampers) are attached to the MRH.  The composite Main Rotor Blades (MRBs) are fitted to the Blade Sleeves.

As is conventional on a helicopter, the pitch of the MRBs is controlled by Pitch Change Rods connecting the Rotating Swashplate to the Blade Sleeves.  The Rotating Swashplate follows the position of the Non-Rotating Swashplate, which is moved by three flying control Servo Units (not shown above), in responses to movement of the pilot’s Cyclic and Collective Controls.  The Rotating Swashplate oscillates around a ball joint which can also slide up and down a Guide Tube that surrounds the MR Shaft.  Each part of the Swashplate has a two part articulating Scissor.  The one connected to the MRH drives the Rotating Swashplate, while the one connected to the Lift Housing prevents the Non-Rotating Swashplate from rotating.

The MGB is modular, with a main module which drives an epicyclic module and two accessory modules.  Drive from the two 2101 shp Turbomeca Makila 2A engines enters the front of the MGB via two high speed (22962 rpm) shafts (known as Bendix shafts). The MGB Main Module and the 2 stage Epicyclic Module reduce the speed to the nominal Main Rotor speed of 265 rpm.  The Main Module also drives various accessories and the Tail Rotor Drive Shaft (TRDS).

ec225-mgbEC225/H225 MGB Schematic (Credit: Airbus Helicopters via Step Change in Safety)225mgbClose Up on EC225/H225 MGB Main Module and Epicyclic Module (Credit: Airbus Helicopters via AIBN)

The LN-OJF Investigation

The independent Accident Investigation Board Norway (AIBN – the Statens Havarikommisjon for Transport [SHT] in Norwegian) is leading the LN-OJF accident investigation in accordance with the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Annex 13 on air accident investigation.

The AIBN have issued the following press releases:

Read entire article: Here

Related news:

Norway helicopter crash: Airbus grounds Super Puma after 13 presumed killed – ABC

KAI KUH-1 Surion: Details

BK-16 High-Speed Landing Craft

Russia’s Kalashnikov company, makers of the world-famous AK-47 assault rifle, has begun deliveries of their first transport and amphibious assault boats for Russia’s special forces, the TASS news agency reported Wednesday.

The company unveiled its boat designs last year at the International Maritime Defense Show in St. Petersburg as part of the company’s efforts to diversify its product line. Known as the BC-16 and BC-10 landing craft, the new boats mark a significant departure from Kalashnikov’s traditional experience as a small-arms manufacturer.

“In 2015, the boats successfully passed the tests of the courts and were adapted to fit the technical requirements of the Russian army. Our boats’ equipment is in no way inferior to foreign models,” company director Alexey Krivoruchko said in a statement.

The BC-16 is capable of speeds up to 42 knots and can travel at least 400 miles with a manned crew of two and up to 19 passengers. The BC-10 is capable of 40 knots with room for 12 onboard.

The boats are able to carry out specialized tasks such as the high-speed delivery of troops, fire support, and patrol, sabotage, and anti-sabotage operations.

The purchase is part of a Kremlin effort to modernize Russia’s military. Snap exercises for military outposts all over Russia were carried out last month.

Original post

BK-16 is a high-speed, multi-purpose amphibious landing craft developed by Russian firearms manufacturer Kalashnikov Concern, for the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation.

The landing craft is intended for a variety of missions such as coastal area patrol, personnel transportation, coastal landing operations, fire support, counter-piracy, counter-terrorism, medical evacuation, assistance to vessels in distress, and other special operations.

A model of the BK-16 was exhibited at the Army 2015 International Military-Technical Forum held in Russia in June 2015.

Furthermore, the landing craft’s ability to launch and retrieve an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was demonstrated during the International Maritime Defence Show (IMDS 2015) held in St Petersburg, Russia, in July 2015.

BK-16 multi-purpose landing craft design and features


The hull and superstructures of the landing craft are made from AMg alloys. The vessel has a length of 16.45m, width of 4m, a draft of 0.87m, and a height 4.33m from the waterline. It has a crew of two members and can accommodate up to 19 personnel.

The vessel is operated and controlled from a bridge located on the upper deck. The bridge features large windows with wipers to provide operators with 360° view.

The crew enter / exit the bridge through the rear door, while two hatches are provided for emergency exit.

The front section of the upper deck facilitates launch and recovery of light reconnaissance UAVs such as ZALA 421-16EM developed by Kalashnikov Concern’s subsidiary ZALA Aero Group. The UAV provides increased situational awareness and the ability to engage targets effectively over land and sea.

ZALA 421-16EM


The range of video / radio channel of 25 km / 50 km

Flight duration 2.5 hours

Wingspan UAV 1810 mm

The length of the UAV (without CN) 900 mm

Maximum altitude 3600 m

Running the handle

Rise Elastic Catapult

Landing Parachute / network

Engine Type Electric pusher

The speed of 65-110 km / h

Maximum take-off weight of 6.5 kg

Mass target load of 1 kg

Navigation INS-corrected GPS / GLONASS, electronic telemeter

Target loads type “+ 16E”

Additional CN Integrated camera 16 megapixel

Glider Two removable console and fuselage

Battery 21000 mAh 5S

The maximum allowable wind speed of 15 m / s

Operating temperature range -30 ° C … + 40 ° C

Built-in automatic tracking

Unmanned aircraft medium-range with an automatic control system (autopilot), a navigation system with inertial correction (GPS / GLONASS), built-in digital telemetry system, navigation lights, built-in three axis magnetometer module retention and active target tracking (AC unit), digital integrated camera, digital broadband video transmitter C-OFDM-modulation radio modem with the receiver SNA to operate without the SNS signal (electronic telemeter), the self-diagnosis system, a humidity sensor, a temperature sensor, a current sensor, sensor propulsion system temperature, unhook the parachute, the protective element ( visor) payload and search the transmitter. Source

Zala 421-08M


Radius Video / Radio Channel 15 km / 25 km

The flight duration of 80 minutes

Wingspan UAV 810 mm

UAVs length 425 mm

Maximum altitude 3600 m

Running For housing UAV

Rise Elastic Catapult

Landing Parachute / network

Engine Type Electric pulling

The speed of 65-130 km / h

The maximum take-off weight 2.5kg

Mass target load of 300 g

Navigation INS-corrected GPS / GLONASS, electronic telemeter

Target loads type “08”

Glider whole wing

Battery 10,000 mAh 4S

The maximum allowable wind speed of 20 m / s

Temperature range -30 ° C … + 40 ° C

Built-in automatic tracking

Drone tactical range with an automatic control system (autopilot), a navigation system with inertial correction (GPS / GLONASS), built-in digital telemetry system, navigation lights, built-in three axis magnetometer module retention and active target tracking (AC unit), digital integrated camera, digital broadband video transmitter C-OFDM-modulation radio modem receiver with SNA <diagonal AIR> to operate without the SNA signal (electronic telemeter) system samodiagnosti and unhook the parachute and search the transmitter. Source

The passenger compartment in the lower deck seats up to 18 members and is equipped with two windows on both sides. The engine room located at the aft of the lower deck is accessed from the upper deck through two hatches.

Armament of BK-16 landing craft


The BK-16 boat can be equipped with Modul Boyevoy Distantsionno Upravlyaemiy (MBDU) remote weapon station (RWS), which is manufactured by Kalashnikov Concern.

Gun carriage options for the MBDU weapon station include a 7.62mm machine gun, a 12.7mm machine gun, AG-17 30mm automatic grenade launchers and 40mm grenade launchers.

MBDU Kalashnikov is remote controlled weapon station

MBDU can be fitted with one of four types weapons: 7.62 mm or 12.7 mm machine gun; 30 mm AG-17 AGL; or new designed 40 mm grenade launcher.

It has a two-axis gyro-stabilizing device and an automatic target tracking system and can memorise 10 static targets. It has the equivalent of Level III STANAG 4569 armoured protection against 7.62 x 54 mm armor-piercing bullets fired from the SVD sniper rifle or PKM machine gun.

The MBDU’s traverse arc is 360°, and the rotating speed is 60° per second. The module is equipped with cameras, which has wide and narrow fields of view, a laser range-finder, and filters for image-quality enhancement. Its maximum target acquisition distance is 2.5 km.


The boat can also be armed with Kornet anti-tank guided missile system and mine countermeasures.

Kornet E Anti-Tank Missile: Details

Fire control

The MBDU remote weapon station features a two-axis, gyro-stabilised sighting device equipped with surveillance cameras that have a wide and narrow field of view (FOV), automatic target tracking system, and laser rangefinder.

he MBDU module is also fitted with filters for image enhancement and can acquire targets over a distance of 2.5km and memorise up to 10 static targets. It has a horizontal travel angle of 360°, a vertical travel angle between -20° and 70°, and angular velocity of rotation of 60° a second.

The weapon station offers armoured protection against 7.62x54mm armour-piercing bullets from the SVD sniper rifle / PKM machine gun up to Level III STANAG 4569 standard.

Sensors onboard BK-16 landing craft

The landing craft is equipped with navigation and communications systems, a loud speaker, search lights, antenna mast, and radars for improved surveillance and target acquisition.


Propulsion and performance

Powered by two 780hp engines, the landing craft has a maximum speed of 42kt and an economical speed of 30kt. It can cruise over a distance of 400mi and endure for up to 24 hours.





Hull design:

Sea Tech Ltd.


Rybinsk Shipyard, 2014
Length overall /hull, m 16,3 /15,0
Breadth, m 3,8
Overall height up to nonremovable parts, m 3,35
Draft, m 0,9
Displacement, t 20,5
Speed cruise/max, kn 20/40
Rangeml 400
Capacity, pers. 18+2(crew)
Material ALU



Images are from Kalashnikov unless otherwise stated

Updated Nov 25, 2020

Project 20380 Steregushchy / Project 20382 Tiger Class Corvettes

Project 20380 Steregushchy Class corvettes are the new multirole vessels being built by the JSC Severnaya Verf shipyard and Amur Shipbuilding Plant for the Russian Navy. Steregushchy Class corvettes are intended to replace the Grisha Class corvettes.

Steregushchy Class can be deployed in coastal patrol, escort and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations. The vessels can engage surface ships, submarines, aircraft and shore-based targets.

The first corvette in its class, Steregushchy, was laid in December 2001 and launched in May 2006. It began sea trials in November 2006, for commissioning into the Baltic fleet in November 2007.

m02014062400009Steregushchy – Russian Ministry of Defense

The second ship in class, Soobrazitelny, was laid in May 2003 and launched in March 2010. It was delivered to the Russian Navy in July 2011.

Boyky was laid in July 2010 and launched in April 2011 for the commissioning in 2013. Sovershenny was laid in June 2006. It is expected to be launched in 2013 for the commissioning in 2014. Stoyky was laid in November 2006. It was launched in May 2012 for the commissioning in 2013. Construction of the sixth ship in class, Gromky, began in February 2012.

In June 2011, United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) signed a contract with Russia’s official weapons exporter Rosoboronexport to supply two new Tiger Class corvettes for the Algerian Navy. Tiger Class is an export variant of the Steregushchy Class corvette.

Project 20382 Tiger Corvette

Rosoboronexport_highlights_latest_Russian_naval_products_in_Paris_640_002Project-20382 “Tiger” corvette  –

Project-20382 “Tiger” corvette is a ship for acting in the near sea zone against ships and submarines, for supporting landing troops, and against air targets. The corvette is equipped with Uran anti-ship missiles. Kashtan antiaircraft missile system, and Ka-27 helicopter. The “Tiger” corvette’s baseline is project-20380 Steregushchy [“Guardian”] corvette, which entered Russian naval forces’ combat strength in 2008. Experts estimateone export “Tiger” corvette at about $120-150 million. Primarily South-East Asian countries, as well as Venezuela and Qatar are interested in the corvette.

A wide range of products of the Russian defence industrial complex is represented at the international exhibition of naval machinery and weapons Euronaval’2004, which opened at Le Bourget near Paris on 24 October 2005. The Russian chief delegate made special note of the latest Project 20382 Tigr corvette, featuring Stealth technology.

In September 2005 Russia named the first potential customers of the corvette Tiger, project 20282. The countries mentioned after IMDS-2005 were India, China, Vietnam, Iran, Indonesia, Kuwait, Algerias, and Egypt. The export version has few differences from the Russian version. It has the same construction and the architecture of the systems. The peculiarity of the ship is that it is built on a module system. This is a totally new principle in the Russian shipbuilding which allows for fast and easy repair and upgrade.

The designer CMKB Almaz suggests different options of the ship. Instead of the Russian 100mm AK-190M it is possible to fit Otto-Melara 76mm. The main ship is to be fitted with four Russian diesels. Two work at cruise speed, two more are switched to gain the max speed of 26-28 knots. Two pair of diesels instead of diesel-turbine give 1.5 times less fuel consumption. German MTU diesels are offered as an option. Zarya-Mashproject gas turbines will also be fitted on some ships. 20380(2) will be able to carry 12 tons helicopter.

After experiencing the Western military equipment embargo, Admiral Slamet Soebijanto turned to the East for possibilities. In September 2005, the Navy Chief of Staff and his team visited Russia to explore the purchase of warships from Rosoboronexport, Russia’s armament industry. The navy’s Strategic Plan for 2003-2013, created by Soebijanto’s predecessor Bernard Kent Sondakh, included the purchase of four Sigma Class corvettes from Holland. The plan was already approved by the House of Representatives (DPR). The four ships were to be purchased in two stages-the first in 2003. The Dutch government provided export credit facilities. The first two ships were currently being constructed and were expected to be ready in 2007.

After the presentation of the project 20382 Tiger Corvette, an export variant of the project 20380 Steregushchiy (Guardian) Corvette, a number of participants of the International Naval Salon held in June 2007 in St. Petersburg, there was some customer interest in it. Rosoboronexport (Russian Defense Export State Corporation) was working actively in this direction and hoped to have some particular contracts by the summer of 2008. Source

Project 20382 Tigr-class corvette showcased at Euronaval 2016: Here

Project 20385 Gremyashchy-class corvettes

VMF_ARMIA-2015_04Gremyashchy class Project 20385 –

Gremyashchy class (Project 20385) is an advanced variant of Steregushchy class (Project 20380) multi-purpose corvettes, which have been in service with the Russian Navy since 2007.

The ships are designed by Almaz Central Marine Design Bureau based on the Steregushchy-class, in order to replace the ageing fleet of the Russian Navy.

Gremyashchy-class corvette Project 20385: Here

Project 20380
Project 20385

NATO: Steregushchy Class


Project 20380 – 5+5 units

Yard №
Laid Down
«Severnaya verf`», Sankt-Peterburg – 4+2 units
Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk-on-Amur – 1+3 units
plan 10.2018
under construction
Geroy Rossiyskoy Federatcii Aldar Tcydenzhapov
plan 10.2019
under construction
plan 2020
under construction

Project 20385 – 0+4 units

Yard №
Laid Down
«Severnaya verf`», Sankt-Peterburg – 0+2 units
plan 2018
under construction
under construction
Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk-on-Amur – 0+2 units
under construction
under construction

Reclassified as corvettes


Baltic Fleet: Boikiy, Steregushchiy, Soobrazitelnyy, Stoykiy
Pacific Fleet: Sovershennyy

Hull Numbers

Steregushchiy: 530(2006), 550(2016)
Soobrazitelnyy: 531(2011)
Boikiy: 532(2012)
Stoikiy: 545(2013)
Sovershennyy: 333(2016)
Gromkiy: 335(2018)


Steregushchy Class design features –

Steregushchy Class was designed by the Almaz Central Marine Design Bureau. The corvette incorporates a steel hull, composite superstructure and a bulbous bow. The hull is divided into nine watertight subdivisions.

The stealthy design significantly reduces the radar signature of the ship. The acoustic, infra-red, magnetic and visual signatures were also reduced by incorporating the stealth technology in the construction of the warship.

20380Steregushchy –

Steregushchy Class has an overall length of 105m, width of 13m and draft of 3.7m. Full load displacement of the ship is 2,100t. The vessel can sail at a maximum speed of 27kt. It can complement 100 personnel, including helicopter maintenance crew.

The latest corvette Aldar Tsydenzhapov

Corvette command and control systems – T24

The Steregushchy Class features Sigma combat information management system. The system collects information from the radars and sensors and provides real-time situational awareness. It also allows the ship to exchange intelligence information with other naval units in the battle-group.


Sigma-E combat management system


Steregushchy Class weapons and missiles


The Steregushchy Class is armed with a combination of missile systems, including Kh-35 missiles and 3M-54 Klub missiles. One Kashtan anti-aircraft systems on-board provide close-in air defence against anti-ship missiles, aircraft and small surface targets. Beginning from Soobrazitelny, the new ships in class are being armed with the REDUT-K SAM system, in place of Kashtan system.

Kh-35 anti-ship missiles

The KH-35 is a subsonic, anti-ship cruise missile that was originally developed in 1983 by the Soviet Union.[1] It has a two stage, liquid fueled propellant and weighs 480 kg and can be launched from fighter jets, attack helicopters, bombers, and naval surface ships. Its modern variant, the KH-35U, was deployed in 2003 and will be equipped on Russia’s fifth-generation fighter aircraft, the Sukhoi PAK FA.[2] The KH-35U uses inertial guidance with a Glonass Receiver and an active radar seeker to find its target.[3] Russian officials claim that the KH-35U is immune to enemy countermeasures.[4]


The claim that the KH-35U is immune to enemy countermeasures, if true, makes it an extremely dangerous weapon, especially when coupled with Russia’s fifth generation Sukhoi PAK FA stealth fighter aircraft. Ultimately, improved air defense countermeasures could enable the KH-35U to strike vessels deep within contested airspace, providing Russia with a substantial advantage on the battlefield. Source


Developer and manufacturer: Tactical Missiles Corporation


 Launch range, km  up to 130
 Flight altitude, m:
 en route  10-15
 at terminal area  about 4
 Cruise speed, Mach number  0,8
 Max missile turn angle, ang.deg.:
 in horizontal plane after launch  +;- 90
 Missile launch weight, kg:
 ship/land-based versions  620/620
 aircraft/heliborne versions  520/610
 Warhead type  HE penetrator
 Warnead weight, kg  145
 Missile dimensions,m:
 length of ship/land-based
 and heliborne versions  4,4
 length of airborne version  3,85
 body diameter, m  0,42
 wing span  1,33


Project 20380 2 × 4 Uran Kh-35 (SS-N-25) launch tube on Stoikiy – КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИProject 20380 2 × 4 Uran Kh-35 (SS-N-25) launch tube on Stoikiy – КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИProject 20380 2 × 4 Uran Kh-35 (SS-N-25) launch tube on Stoikiy – КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИProject 20380 2 × 4 Uran Kh-35 (SS-N-25) launch tube on Stoikiy – КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ

The main gun fitted forward is an Arsenal A-190 100mm naval gun. Two 30mm six-barrelled AK-630M automatic gun mounts are also installed on the vessel.

A-190 100mm naval gun

m02018022700025Steregushchy – Russian Ministry of Defense

100-mm А190 Lightweight Multipurpose Naval Gun is a single-barrel turreted automatic gun that may be installed on ships with the displacement of 500 t and more. Upon the operator’s command the fire control module automatically turns the artillery system to standby or combat-ready position, ensures ammunition selection and feeding, gun laying and firing. As a result, the artillery system has minimum response time and high rate of fire. – T24

Main technical data

Rate of fire, rpm up to 80
Maximum firing range, km over 20
Elevation, degree -15 to +85
Training, degree ±170
Projectile weight, kg 15,6
Number of ready-to-fire rounds 80
Weight, t 15

А190 Naval Gun can fire HE (impact fuze) and AA (time fuze) case ammunitions

The main advantages of А190 system:
– automatic firing mode with main and back-up control means and the capability to operate in EW battlefield environment;
– minimal dead zones when engaging various target types;
– fast reaction (2…5 sec) to counter air threats. Quick shift of fire when engaging multiple targets. – – – T24m02017080900010Sovershennyy

The upgraded version designated as А190-01 provides significant increase in combat effectiveness. High survivability, reliability and combat effectiveness make it possible to operate the gun in various environments day and night all year around. Source

Kashtan anti-aircraft systems – MINEKRAFT Minecraft

The Kashtan-М shipborne air defence gun/missile system is designed for protection against anti-ship missiles, anti-radar missiles, guided aerial bombs, aircraft, helicopters as well as for engagement of small-displacement vessels and small-size sea and ground targets.


  • combat module;
  • surface-to-air missiles;
  • command and control module;
  • ground support equipment.


The command and control module serves to detect and classify aerial (including low-flying) and stationary targets, to track, to distribute and to designate them to combat modules.

The combat module consists of a gun/ missile unit, radar and optical fire control system, computer system.

Normally, the ship can be armed with one to six combat modules depending on its displacement and self-defence capability required.

9M311-1 two-stage solid-propellant SAM features a fragmentation rod warhead with a proximity fuse. Missiles are housed in transport-launch containers ensuring their safe handling and reliability.

8 x 9M311-1 two-stage solid-propellant SAM


A solid propellant bicaliber two-stage missile with discardable booster.

Caliber ……………………………………………………. 152/76 mm
Length …………………………………………………….. 2570 mm
Mean flight velocity
to maximum range ………………………………….
550 m/s


The gun mount comprises two 30mm six-barrel GSh-6-30K rapid-fire cannons with a linkless ammunition feed and evaporative cooling system.

2 x 30mm six-barrel GSh-6-30K cannons


High density of fire due to intensive discharge of large amount of ammunition, provided by employment of forced one-through water cooling system of the revolving barrel cluster. The AD automatic gun is a NAVY modification (with high degree of unification) Зof basic 30mm GSh-6-30 cannon.

Ammunition type ……………………… AO-18
Caliber …………………………………….. 30 mm
Rate of fire ……………………………….. 4000-5000 rds./min
Muzzle velocity …………………………. 890 m/s
gun ………………………………………… 200 kg
round ……………………………………… 0,828 kg
projectile ………………………………… 0,390 kg
Artillery mount weight
(AK-630, AK-630M) ………………….
1000 kg
Artillery mount ammunition
load (AK-630, AK-630M) …………..
2000 rds.


The integrated control system simultaneously tracks targets and guides one or two missiles onto them via its radar and TV/optical channels with autonomic selection of optimal mode.

To work in adverse weather conditions Kashtan-М is equipped with a termal imaging system.

Kashtan-M ADGMS also comprises a below-deck storage/loading system (capacity – 32 or 48 SAMs, four-missile launch unit is loaded within 1.5 min).

Kashtan-M system ensures efficient self-defence of the carrier-ship thanks to high probability of interception of approaching air targets at longer distances (10,000 m to 1,500 m) with missiles, and a follow-on engagement of survived targets at a close-in range (4,000 m to 500 m) with gunfire.

Fully automated combat operation of the system (from target acquisition till engagement) allows it to engage up to five targets a minute. Kashtan-M ADGMS can be installed on ships displacing 400-plus tonnes.



According to all active Russian Navy ships using Kashtan will be upgraded to Kashtan-M versions. – MINEKRAFT Minecraft

The AK-630M can fire up to 5,000 rounds a minute for a maximum range of 5,000m. Steregushchy is fitted with two quadruple torpedo tubes for Paket-E/NK antitorpedo missile.

2 x 30 mm AK-630M – T24
Date Of Design 1963
Date In Service AK-630:  1976
AK-630M:  1979
AK-306:  1980
3M87:  1989
Gun Weight AO-18 (for AK-630):  under 452 lbs. (under 205 kg)
AO-18L (for AK-306):  341.7 lbs (155 kg)
GSh-6-30K (for AK-630M1-2):  352.5 lbs. (160 kg)
Gun Length oa 64.13 in (1.629 m)
Bore Length 63.78 in (1.620 m)
Rifling Length 57.48 in (1.46 m)
Grooves 16
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume N/A
Rate Of Fire AK-630:  4,000 – 5,000 rounds per minute
AK-630M:  4,000 – 5,000 rounds per minute
AK-630M1-2:  10,000 rounds per minute
AK-306:  600 – 1,000 rounds per minute
3M87:  10,000 rounds per minute
Palash:  1,000 rounds per minute – T24


Type Fixed
Weight of Complete Round 1.834 – 1.839 lbs. (0.832 – 0.834 kg)
Projectile Types and Weights HE-FRAG (OF-84) – 0.86 lbs. (0.39 kg)
FRAG tracer (OP-84) – 0.86 lbs. (0.39 kg)
Bursting Charge HE-FRAG (OF-84) – 0.107 lbs. (0.0485 kg)
FRAG tracer (OP-84) – 0.026 lbs. (0.0117 kg)
Projectile Length up to 11.54 in (293 mm)
Propellant Charge N/A
Muzzle Velocity All:  2,953 fps (900 mps)
3M87:  2,822 fps (860 mps)
Palash:  3,609 fps (1,100 mps)
Working Pressure N/A
Approximate Barrel Life AK-630:  8,000 rounds (automation resource)
AK-306:  18,000 rounds
Ammunition stowage per gun AK-630:  2,000 rounds
AK-630M:  2,000 rounds
AK-630M1-2:  4,000 rounds
AK-306:  500 rounds


Elevation With 1.2 lbs. (0.54 kg) HE/Frag Shell
Max Ballistic Range 8,860 yards (8,100 m)
Self Liquidation range 5,470 yards (5,000 m)
Effective Targeted Range 4,375 yards (4,000 m)


Soobrazitel’niy Corvette improved design

69af2-203802bgrc3a1fico2bstoykiySoobrazitel’niy Corvette improved design

‘Poliment-Redut’ system (2nd ship onwards) – T24

3 x 4 SAM system 3K96-3 «Redut» launchers (32 9M96 or 9M96D missiles or 48 9M100 missiles) Source

The ‘Poliment-Redut’ is a naval-based air defense missile system with a vertical launch system for destroyers, frigates and corvettes. They are installed on next-generation ships of the Russian Navy.

Russian warships of the Steregushchiy-class (Project 20380) and the Gremyaschiy-class (Project 20385) corvettes are equipped with the ‘Poliment-Redut’ system. Moreover, this system with a larger number of modules is installed on the Admiral Gorshkov-class (Project 22350) frigates. The system can simultaneously strike 16 targets. Source

The system boasts four or eight vertical launch systems. It can fire three types of surface-to-air (SAM) interceptors: the short-range 9M100, medium-range 9M96M, and long-range 9M96 missiles.

The 9M100 is a solid-propellant weapon with a range of 10–15 km. and an inertial guidance system with active infrared (IR). The 9M96M is an IR-guided missile with an active radar terminal homing guidance system. Its FRAG-HE 26 kg. warhead travels at a speed of 900m/s and it has a maximum range of 40-50 km.

9M100 short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) missile for naval 9К96 Redut SAM system

The 9M100 is a short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) being developed by the Fakel Design Bureau, part of Almaz-Antey concern, for new air defenses that should be in place within Russia by 2015. It is targeted at countering the latest generation of fighter aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles, guided bombs, supersonic missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) which pose a grave threat to ground forces and key facilities. The highly maneuverable 9M100 missile is being designed for launch by means of a vertical launching system (VLS). As of early 2010 the 9M100 missile system is associated with Vityaz medium-range air defense system and might be the primary weapon for the Morfei short-range air defense system.

The 9M100 guidance system combines an inertial navigation system (INS) with an infrared seeker along with a contact and proximity fuze which ignites the warhead. Such a guidance system means that the 9M100 missile is a fire-and-forget weapon capable of engaging multiple targets simultaneously. The solid propellant rocket motor features thrust vectoring control providing outstanding maneuverability.

Diameter: 125 millimeter (4.92 inch)
Length: 2.50 meter (98 inch)
Max Range: 10 kilometer (5.40 nautical mile)


The 9M96 is a new missile that is resistant to jamming and can intercept targets at a speed of Mach 15 (4,800-5,000 m/s) and at an altitude of 35 km. It can hit incoming threats at a range of 150 km. An active radar homing head and inertial navigation system are used for midcourse guidance. The thrust vectoring control system offers impressive maneuverability at any altitude or range.

9M96M, and long-range 9M96 missiles

The S-400 Triumph also launches 9M96E and 9M96E2 medium range ground-to-air missiles. Designed for direct impact, the missiles can strike fast moving targets such as fighter aircraft with a high hit probability. The maximum range of the 9M96 missile is 120km.

9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles (Fakel in
9M96E 9M96E2
Target engagement envelope, km:
Weight, kg:
container with four missiles
Average velocity, m/s 750 1,000
First shot hit probability:
piloted target
unpiloted target
target═s payload


The SAM is equipped with a directed explosion warhead to improve the chances of fully destroying fast moving and agile targets upon direct impact. The hit probability is 0.9 against aircraft, 0.8 against drones, and 0.7 against missiles. Thrust vectoring makes it possible to achieve high Gs and angular rate capability.

A datalink from the MFMTR X-band radar blast is used for midcourse guidance. Its 24 kg. fragmentation warhead produces a controlled pattern. A radar fuse controls the warhead’s timing.

The 9M96 missile was initially developed for the S-400 Triumf ground-based air-defense system that has already been delivered to China. It will soon be sent to Turkey. India, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar are also quite interested in this system.

The three vertical-launched, solid-fuel, one-stage missiles have a variable range of 1-150 km. at an altitude of 5 m. to 30 km. At a speed of 2,100 m/s they can hit targets traveling at 1000 m/s. A Poliment-Redut-equipped frigate can carry 32 medium/long-range or 128 short-range missiles. Any combination is possible — one launcher can house either one medium- or long-range weapon or four short-range SAMs. The four-faced phased array antenna can track 16 targets at once. The detection range is 200 km. Russian sources report that the system can engage surface targets as well. – T24

The combination of various-range missiles makes it possible for one Poliment-Redut to carry out the missions of three air-defense systems. It provides multi-tier defense, reducing reaction time. It can fire at a rate of one launch per second. The vertical start is an important advantage, enabling the system to counter a target approaching from any direction. These highly agile missiles can use an optimal trajectory to kill highly maneuverable threats. Source

1 x 45 mm 21KM

SONY DSCStoikiy –
Gun Characteristics
DESIGNATION 45 mm/68 (1.77″) 21-KM
SHIP CLASS USED ON Many warships 1942 – 1947
GUN WEIGHT 346.1 lbs. (157 kg)
GUN LENGTH OA 134.33 in (3.412 m)
BORE LENGTH 121.54 (3.087 m)
RIFLING LENGTH 104.72 in (2.660 m)
RATE OF FIRE up to 40 rounds per minute


2 x 4 330 mm SM-588 «Paket-NK» launchers – T24

MTT torpedoes


The MTT small-size thermal torpedo is designed to destroy submarines and is used as part of ASW torpedo systems installed on board surface ships, submarines, ASW rocket systems installed on board surface ships and submarines, as well as airborne systems.


The MTT torpedo and its layout scheme:

  • equipment module;
  • warhead section;
  • adaptation section;
  • fuel tank section;
  • power section;
  • tail unit.


The MTT is fired from a common transport-launch canister mounted on board a surface ship or from a submarine torpedo tube.

This torpedo incorporates:

  • a new more powerful piston engine operating on a pronit-type high-energy single-component fuel, which gives the torpedo a capability to kill high-speed nuclear-powered submarines;
  • a new homing system with digital signal processing;
  • on-board computer;
  • directional explosive charge. – T24

The torpedo can simultaneously track several targets, including in a sonar countermeasure environment, and can be used in a wide envelope of depths, including shallow waters.

The MTT has modular design, allowing the replacement of its component parts. Compatibility of its onboard systems with the platform’s battle management systems is achieved by programming its system unit during adaptation to the given ship project.

Source – T24

Paket-E/NK ASW system with anti-torpedo capability


The Paket-E/NK ASW system with anti-torpedo capability is designed to engage
submarines and torpedoes within ship’s close-in range.

1. Paket-E control system;
2. Paket-AE special-purpose target designation sonar set;
3. launchers (rotary and fixed);
4. launcher-mounted combat modules;
5. standard transport-launch torpedo containers loaded in combat modules:

  • small-size heat-seeking torpedoes;
  • anti-torpedoes.

The small-size heat-seeking torpedo is used against submarines, whereas the anti-torpedo against attacking torpedoes.

The launchers have combat modules armed with heat-seeking torpedoes and/or anti-torpedoes in combination as required by the mission assigned to the carrier ship.

Provision is made for delivery of an automated combat module control and diagnostic system during maintenance.

The Paket-E/NK is a pioneering naval weapon, ranked second to none worldwide. It provides ships with a unique anti-submarine/antitorpedo capability. Warships equipped with such systems have their anti-torpedo defence effectiveness augmented 3-3.5 times.


The Paket-E/NK can be employed independently or as part of the ship anti-submarine/anti-torpedo defence system, performing the following tasks in automatic/automated modes:

  • generation of target designation data for small-size heat-seeking torpedoes, based on feeds from ship’s sonar sets and systems;
  • detection of ship-attacking torpedoes, their class identification, motion parameter calculation, target data generation for anti-torpedoes;
  • launcher control;
  • combat module pre-launch preparation, fire data calculation and feeding to combat modules;
  • launching of anti-torpedoes and small-size heat-seeking torpedoes.

Main characteristics:

  • Torpedo caliber, mm: 324
  • Effective anti-submarine defence zone, m: up to 10000
  • Effective anti-torpedo defence zone, m: 100-800


Sensors / radars and helicopter deck – T24

The sensor suite consists of a Furke-E 3D, E/F band air search radar, a Garpun-B/3Ts-25E/Plank Shave surface search radar, Hot Flash radar, Ratep 5P-10E Puma fire control radar and a Monument targeting radar. The corvette is also equipped with a Zarya-ME sonar suite and Vinyetka-EM towed sonar array.

Furke-E 3D, E/F band air search radar“Furke-E” – Boikiy – T24

“Furke-E” development NIIRT Concern PVO “Almaz-Antei” The range of radio waves – E  Radar detection of the total air and surface targets and target housed in a dome on the top mast.

TTX given in three trim levels radar “Furke-E” (ist. – NIIRT booklet):

option 1 Option 2 Option 3
Range Review 60 km 150 km 60 km
Sector Review azimuth 360 degrees 360 degrees 360 degrees
Sector review in elevation 6 degrees 4 ° 15 degrees
Detection range of sea targets 0.95 radio horizon 0.95 radio horizon 0.95 radio horizon
The detection range of aerial target with EPR 1 sq.m 60 km 120 km 52/60 km
War emergency power
Range Review 40 km 150 km 60 km
Sector Review azimuth 360 degrees 360 degrees 360 degrees
Sector review in elevation 60 degrees 80 degrees 30 degrees
Height 15 km 20 km
The detection range of aerial target with EPR 1 sq.m 30km 75 km 52 km
Detection range RCC ESR of 0.02 m at a height of 5 m 10km 12-14 km 12 km
Suppression of reflections from a fixed underlying surface 50-55 dB 50-55 dB 50-55 dB
Accuracy of coordinate measuring range 50m 50m 50m
Accuracy of coordinate measuring azimuth 4-6 points rangefinder 4-6 points rangefinder 3-4 points rangefinder
Accuracy of coordinate measuring elevation 8-9 points rangefinder 5-7 points rangefinder
Range resolution 150-200 m 150-200 m 150-200 m
Azimuth discrimination 3.2 degrees 3.2 degrees 2 °
Number of simultaneously tracked targets 100 200 50
Energy consumption 8 kW 25 kW 7.5 kW
Weight of antenna post 420 kg 890 kg 90 kg
Weight of the entire radar equipment 1100 kg 2450 kg 860 kg
Mean time before failure 850 hours 850 hours 850 hours

Monument-E (3Ts-25E) in main mast


The 3TS-25E target designation radar is designed to provide surveillance surface using active and passive channels in interest strike missile designation.

The radar is intended to perform the following missions:

  • acquisition, automatic tracking and determination of their coordinates of surface targets by active channels;
  • detection, classification and determination of their coordinates of surface targets based on their radars emissions using passive channels;
  • identification nationality targets and IFF by means of coupled interrogators equipment;
  • generation and transmitting target designation data to missile weapons control system, and combat information management system;
  • interaction with external data sources (e.g. Task Force ships, air remote surveillance posts etc.);
  • tactical and navigation manoeuvring safety providing. Derevyankin


  • active radar channel;
  • passive radar channel;
  • joined multiband antenna and data processing equipment.


The integrated sea situation surveillance is based on use of active and passive channels for acquire and target designation.

It boasts increased operational range and security thanks to employment of high-energy and complex modulated signals, coupled with passive channel in severe ECM and sea conditions.

The active channel uses a multiprocessor system to generate probing signals and radar data. It is integrated with a multi-computer secondary data processing and network.

The passive channel performs hard ware/software-based analysis and classification of incoming radar signals by comparing their parameters with those available in the database (up to 1,000 entries)


5P-10E Puma fire control radar Derevyankin

The 5P-10E universal radar control system (RCS) is designed for fire control of naval artillery against air targets, including sea-skimming anti-ship missiles, sea and shore targets in all engagement envelopes of naval artillery.



  • reception of targeting data from the ship’s sensors, independent detection in a circular scan and tracking of up to 8 targets;
  • automatic acquisition in a sector scan and tracking of up to 4 air, surface and radar-observed shore targets;
  • automatic simultaneous control of several guns, including guns of two different calibers, firing at one or two targets;
  • feeding the current position and the required motion parameters of the tracked targets to a fire direction system for use by other kinds of shipborne weapons;
  • automatic closed-loop fire adjustment;
  • automatic miss distance measuring and sea target correction input;
  • meteorological and ballistic preparation, measurement of and allowance for meteorological and ballistic data;
  • display and recording of current symbolic and video information;
  • crew training against simulated targets with a possibility of firing at a simulator;
  • automated performance monitoring and troubleshooting.


The 5P-10E RCS can be used to equip new-build ships as well as replace overage fire control systems for naval artillery of all types previously delivered to the customer.

Lightweight versions of the RCS, 5P-10-02E and 5P-10-03E, have been developed. They offer the basic set of features and significantly reduced weight and dimension characteristics.


PAL-N Navigation Radar Navigation Radar – Boikiy – T24


NRLS “PAL-N” is intended for the circular radar review, detection, an identification and automaintenance of the found surface purposes with development of recommendations on a safe divergence and tactical maneuvering


Tactical technical characteristics

  1. The scale of scales of range, miles—————————————0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32; 64
  2. Maximum range of detection, miles:

on BPK (s = 5500 sq.m)—————————————————16

on the boat (s = 300 sq.m)————————————————–6

  1. Simultaneous automaintenance, the purposes————————–50
  2. Resolution:

on range, m———————————————————20

on an azimuth, degrees—————————————————-1

  1. Type of antenna system————————————————-ruporno-slot-hole
  2. Pomekhozashchita from inadvertent hindrances——————————–is provided
  3. Time of continuous work, hour————————————————-24
  4. Power of electricity consumption, kW——————————-1,5 ¸ 3
  5. Structure of fighting calculation————————————————————-2

Main features

  1. Combination of antenna system of Gos.opoznavaniya with the NRLS antenna system.
  2. Possibility of imposing of radar information of the circular review on a digital sea chart of this navigation area.
  3. The increased reserve of own radiation.
  4. The increased accuracy of determination of angular coordinate – 1 etc.


MTK-201ME Multipurpose TV shipborne system

The MTK-201ME multipurpose TV shipborne system is designed to surveillance air and surface situation in the ships and boats for all types of defense of self-defense zones, ship`s navigational safety and weapons control.


  • automated and manual search of air, surface and coastal targets, including pinpoint, autonomous or according to targeting;
  • visual detection, recognition and identification by operator of air, surface and coastal targets at round-the-clock;
  • automatic, automated and manual tracking of targets, including high-speed;
  • measuring of targets distance and angle coordinates, the computation of motion parameters;
  • visual (thermal imaging and television), the coordinate and calculated data transmission in ship’s information systems and radar fire-control systems;
  • shipboard helicopters position and trajectory control during takeoff and landing, as well as monitoring of premises within the ship.

The system provides the fire-control of one or two artillery units simultaneously visually observed targets.



  • multi-sensor gyrostabilised turret;
  • digital progressive scanning TV black and white, and color cameras;
  • thermal imager 8-12 m;
  • lasers range-finders, 1.06 m and 1.54 m;
  • electronic units including auto tracker, video processor, and control units.


Zarya-ME sonar suite


The Zarya-ME surface ship sonar system is designed for undersea and surface targets detection to enable underwater weapon application and navigation security.


  • submarines and surface ships detection in hydrolocation mode by hall-mounted, towed and dipping antenna arrays;
  • detection of torpedoes, submarines and surface ships in the listening mode by hall-mounted, towed and dipping antenna arrays;
  • automatic target tracking, localization and motion parameters determination, and targeting to underwater weapons;
  • objects classification into submarine, surface ship, torpedo and decoy classes;
    torpedoes detection in the active mode;
  • hydroacoustic communications with submarines and surface ships, and identification “friend-or-foe”;
  • monitoring of sonar background noise;
  • continuous automatic system’s functional testing and location.


Zarya-ME family sonars share a typical structure, differing only in array dimensions and number of hardware components on a particular ship project. Such unification is obtained thanks to the use of multiprocessor computers, standard color displays, as well as sonar management assets. antenna – Boikiy – T24

Zarya-ME sonar modifications are installed on ships of small, medium and large displacement.


download (2)


Vinyetka-EM towed sonar array – – T24

Designed to equip surface ships, solving the tasks of anti-submarine defense, protection of water areas, escort convoy of ships and patrols. It uses a flexible long towed antenna (GPBA) and a low-frequency radiator towed behind the stern of the ship, which provides effective detection of low-noise submarines in sonar mode. Simultaneously with the sonar, the HAC is operated in the mode of noise-finding, which allows the detection of torpedoes and surface ships at long distances.

screenshot-thaimilitaryandasianregion-wordpress-com-2018-10-05-21-54-031182259734_a30b36cd9c2e0343ae527b263a7b0abb – T24

Main characteristics

Submarine Detection Range:
    in the shallow sea 10-20 * km
   in the deep sea 15-60 * km
Sector of the review (course angles) ± 180 degrees
Accuracy of determining the coordinates of targets in the automatic tracking mode:
    bearing (at the flight angles and on the direct tack of the carrier) 2 degrees
    range 1% of the scale
Towing speed up to 18 knots
Sound attenuation
Detection range:
    torpedoes 15-30 * km
    surface ship 30-100 * km
    Submarine 15-20 * km
Accuracy of direction finding in beam angles and on the direct tack of the carrier 2 degrees
Towing speed up to 14 knots
The operation of the gas at a rough sea up to 5 points

* – depending on the execution of GUS

Translated by google source

Anapa-ME anti-saboteur sonar


The Anapa-ME underwater anti-saboteur detection sonar system is designed for surveillance underwater situation to provides anti-sabotage actions protection of ships stopped in the open roadsteads or basing points, and to safeguard important military and industrial installations, hydrotechnical facilities in ports, open sea and other water areas.


The Anapa-ME sonar main missions are as follows:

  • search and detection of underwater saboteur with flippers or underwater delivery scooters;
  • identification and tracking underwater targets;
  • automatic measurement of target coordinates and their feeding into anti-saboteur weapons launchers.



Source Derevyankin

Steregushchy Class has a stern helicopter deck and hangar, to support the operations of a Ka-27 helicopter for use in reconnaissance and anti-submarine missions.

Countermeasures and propulsion of the Russian Naval vessels

The countermeasures equipment includes a TK-25E-5 ECM system and PK-10E decoy system. The TK-25E-5 can tap emissions of air and surface target acquisition radars, fire control radars and ASM radar seekers.

TK-25E-5 ECM system – T24

TK-25E-5 ECM system is designed to inter-cept emissions of airborne and shipborne tar-get acquisition radars, weapons control radarsand anti-ship missile radar seekers, to performautomatic signal classification, todeterminemost dangerous approaches of attacks againstthe ship, and to provide jamming in threatdirections.TK-25E-5’s configuration depends on carri-er-ship type and displacement. Source

TK-25-2 ESM

Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2000s
TK-25-2 ESM – ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km

TK-25-2 LWR

Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 11.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2000s
TK-25-2 LWR – ESM
Role: LWR, Laser Warning Receiver
Max Range: 11.1 km


PK-10E is equipped with a KT-216-E launch system, firing AZ-SO-50/AZ-SOM-50 rounds to deceive radar and optically guided incoming missiles.

PK-10E decoy system

Steregushchy Class corvettes are powered by a combined diesel and diesel (CODAD) propulsion system.

The four 16D49 diesel engines develop a total power output of 23,320hp. Four diesel sets on-board generate 2,520kW electricity for shipboard lighting. diesel engine – Boikiy – T24

The engines are installed on damped platforms and the diesel gen sets are hooked to the second deck to achieve noise abatement.

The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 27kt and a cruising range of 4,000mi at 14kt speeds. Steregushchy Class has an endurance of 15 days. engine control room – T24

4 x 16D49 diesel engines diesel engine – Boikiy – T24screenshot-kolomna-supportix-ru-2018-10-04-23-15-56

2 x 11660 hp 1DDA-12000 diesels


Diesel-diesel unit (DDA) of full power 12,000 hp it is intended for use as part of the main power plant of the last generation ships of the corvette type – for operation on a fixed pitch propeller; Project 20385 – to work on an adjustable pitch propeller.

DDA 12000 is equipped with two modern diesel engines 16D49 with a capacity of 6000 liters each. from. each has a two-speed gearbox transmission, which ensures the joint and separate operation of diesels with a sound-insulating composite coupling, a local control, protection and control system built on a microprocessor base. The microprocessor control system allows to level the load on diesel engines, to carry out reverse modes and disable, if necessary, one of the diesel engines.


The register boost system allows you to turn off one of the turbochargers at medium and low loads, thereby increasing the torque taken from the flange of the crankshaft of the diesel engine during maneuvering and acceleration of the vessel.

Parameter name Magnitude
Gross power, kW 8560
Frequency of rotation of the output flange of the gearbox DDA, rev / minsup> -1 240
Unit dimensions, no more, mm:
length 16,000
width 3700
height 3950
Unit weight (dry), no more, kg 79,000
Standard specific fuel consumption (according to ISO), g / kW · h 199
Standard specific oil consumption for waste (according to ISO), g / (kW · h), not more than 1.0
The operating time of the unit before changing the oil, h 2500
Assigned resource before bulkhead, h 15,000
Assigned resource to cap. repair, h 60,000
Assigned resource to write-off, h 100,000

Source layout – T-24

4 x 630 kW ADG-630K diesel generators



General characteristics – Project 20380

Displacement (tons):
Standard: 1800
Full load: 2100 (Project 20385 – 2300)
Dimensions (m):
Length: 111,6 (Project20385 – 115,1)
Beam: 14
Draft: 3,7 (max – 5)
Speed (knots): 27
Range: 4000 nmi (14 knots)
Autonomy (days): 15
Propulsion: 2×11660 hp 1DDA-12000 diesels, 2 fixed pitch propellers (Project 20385 – 2 variable pitch propellers), 4×630 kW ADG-630K diesel generators
Armament: 2×4 KT-184 3K24 «Uran» anti-ship missile complex launchers (3M24 missiles, then 3M24UD) (Project 20385 – 1×8 3S14-20385 UKSK 3K14 vertical launchers («Kalibr-NK» guided missile complex)) (3M54T, 3M14T missiles), 3K55-20385 «Onyx» anti-ship missile complex (P-160 (3M55)) – 8 missiles)
3×4 SAM system 3K96-3 «Redut» launchers (32 9M96 or 9M96D missiles or 48 9M100 missiles) (№1001 – 1 3M87-1 «Kortik-M» CIWS module – 8 SAM launchers, 2×6 30 mm (64 9M311 missiles, 12000 rounds)), Project 20385 – 4x43S97 SAM system 3K96 «Redut» vertical launchers (16 9M96 or 9M96D missiles or 64 9M100 missiles))
SAM system 9K38 «Igla» » (8 9M39 missiles)
1×1  100 mm A-190-01 – 5P-10-02 «Puma-02» fire control system (Project 20385 – without fire control system)
2×6 30 mm AK-630M-6 – MR-123-02 «Sfera» fire control system
1×1 45 mm 21KM – on Boikiy
2 14,5 mm
2×4 330 mm SM-588 «Paket-NK» launchers (8 MTT torpedoes, M-15 anti-torpedoes)
2×2 45 mm DP-64 grenade launchers (240 SG-45, FG-45 grenades)
1 Ka-27 helicopter
Electronics: 5P-20K-A «Monument-A» radar complex, 5P-27M «Furke-2» air/surface search radar, 2 «Sandal-V» radars, 2 MR-231-2 navigational radars, MR-231 navigation radar, MR-231-2 navigation radar, «PAL-N» navigation radar, TK-25-2 ESM radar system, 3 «Parol`» IFF, MTK-201M optical television system, «Zarya-2» sonar complex, «Minotavr-ISPN-M» sonar, «Anapa» GISZ, R-779-16 «Ruberoid» communication complex, «Chardal-20380» complex, MG-757 “Anapa-M” anti-saboteur sonar, «Sigma-20380» combat information system (№1007, 1008, 2103, 2104 – «Sigma-20385-01»)
PK-10 «Smely» decoy RL (4 KT-216 launchers) – 80 AZ-SO-50, AZ-SR-50, AZ-SOM-50, AZ-SK-50, AZ-SMZ-50 rounds (Project 20385 – «Prosvet-M» complex (KT-308 launcher))
Complement: 99 (14 officers)


Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Nov 09, 2018

Updated Aug 28, 2020

Chinese Navy to Introduce Additional New 052D Destroyers


Type 052D destroyer: Here


General characteristics
Tonnage: 7500 tons
Length: 156 m (512 ft)
Beam: 18 m (59 ft)
Draught: 6.5 m (21 ft)
  • Two QC-280 gas turbine engines, each generates 28MW and two MTU 20V 956TB92 diesel engines, each generates 6 MW.
Speed: 30 knots
Complement: 280
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • 1 × H/PJ-38 130mm dual purpose gun
  • 64 VLS
  • 2 × 30 mm remote controlled gun
  • 1 × H/PJ-12 CIWS
  • 1 × HHQ-10 short range SAM in 24-cell launcher
  • 6 torpedo tubes
  • 4 × 18-tube decoy rocket launcher
Aircraft carried: 1 helicopter
Aviation facilities:
  • Stern hangar
  • Helicopter landing platform


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Type 052C Destroyer: Details


Type 055 destroyer: Details

PLAN's Next Generation Type 055 Class Guided Missile Destroyers missile hhq-19 19 missiles age (3)

Updated Sept 13, 2016

Mitsubishi F-2

The F-2 support fighter aircraft is a multi role single engine fighter aircraft principally designed for the Japan Air Self Defence Force (JASDF).

The F-2 support fighter aircraft is a multi-role single engine fighter aircraft principally designed for the Japan Air Self Defence Force (JASDF). It is the result of a joint Japan and USA development programme.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) is the prime contractor and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company serves as the principal US subcontractor. The F-2A is the single-seat version and F-2B is the two-seat version.

The Japanese Defence Agency originally planned to procure a total of 130 F-2 aircraft (83 single-seat and 47 two-seat aircraft) with deliveries to beyond 2010, but in early 2007 this number was reduced to 94.

The initial order was for 81 aircraft. A further five were ordered in March 2007 in a $150m contract. MHI awarded a further $250m contract to Lockheed Martin in April 2008 to manufacture components for eight more F-2 aircraft. The contract was the 12th annual contract awarded by MHI to Lockheed Martin.

Japan is currently developing a new advanced fighter jet to replace the Mitsubishi F-2 support fighter aircraft.

F-2 fighter programme and development

The FS-X program

The FS-X’s origins can be traced back to the early 1980’s and the highly secretive Laboratory Three division of Japan’s Technical Research and Development Institute (TRDI). There, studies were being carried out to investigate the options for an indigenous design, combining long range with maneuverability, to meet the particular requirements of the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). Source


In 1987, the JASDF selected a variant of the F-16C as the Japanese FS-X aircraft to replace the Mitsubishi F-1 aircraft, and in 1988 Mitsubishi was selected as prime contractor for the aircraft, which became known as the F-2. The programme involved technology transfer from the USA to Japan, and responsibility for cost sharing was split 60% by Japan and 40% by the USA.

Test aircraft / Nazotabi ‘s なぞたびさん

Four flying prototypes were developed, along with two static prototypes for static testing and fatigue tests. Flight trials of the prototypes were successfully completed by 1997, and the aircraft entered production in 1998.


The first production aircraft was delivered to the Japanese Defence Agency in  March 2005. The aircraft are being assembled at Mitsubishi’s Komaki South Plant in Nagoya. MHI expects to complete deliveries of 76 aircraft in the near future.

Taniyan 99 たにやん99さん

In June 2007, the F-2 made its first overseas deployment to Andersen AFB in Guam for joint US / Japan exercises. The F-2 dropped live weapons for the first time during the exercises.

F-2 fighter design


Structure & Avionics

The FS-X is quite similar in appearance to the F-16, but structural modifications include:

  • Japanese-designed co-cured composite wing of greater span (1.7m wider) and root chord, with slightly less leading edge sweep. The composites give the wing added strength while reducing the weight;
  • increased span tailplane;
  • slightly reshaped and enlarged radome and forward fuselage (fuselage length has increased by 0.5m);
  • slightly altered Leading-Edge Root Extensions (LERX).

longer and wider nose to accommodate a J/APG-1/J/APG-2 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar.

Mark Rourke

Three-piece cockpit canopy


Increased span tailplan


Slightly altered Leading-Edge Root Extensions (LERX)

Satoshi Hashimoto

Overall, the FS-X is substantially larger than the F-16, resulting in a maximum take-off weight of 49,000lb, compared to the F-16C’s 42,000lb, although both are powered by the same 129kN (29,000lb)-thrust General Electric F110-129 turbofan engine. Other FSX structural-design changes include radar-absorbent material (RAM) applied to the aircraft’s nose, wing leading-edges and engine inlet, the use of titanium in the tail and fuselage, the addition of a braking parachute and a two-piece canopy reinforced against large bird strikes.

The primary difference, although less conspicuous than the structural modifications, between the FS-X and the F-16 is in the use of Japanese domestic technology for much of the avionics, including:

  • a new Mitsubishi Electric (Melco)-designed active phased-array radar comprising 800 3W gallium-arsenide transmit/receive modules;
  • Yokogawa LCD multi-function display (MFD);
  • Shimadzu holographic head-up display (HUD);
  • internal Mitsubishi Electric integrated electronic warfare system;
  • Japan Aviation Electronics laser inertial-navigation system backed-up with four conventional gyros;

Japan has also been forced to develop its own fly-by-wire software by the US Government’s refusal to release the F-16s computer source codes. The FS-X’s software is based on MHI’s control-configured vehicle (CCV) research program flown in the early 1980’s using a modified Mitsubishi T-2 trainer. Source

Johnson ジョンソンさん

Kawasaki is responsible for the construction of the midsection of the fuselage, as well as the doors to the main wheel and engine. Mitsubishi builds the forward section of the fuselage and the wings.


Mitsubishi has also designed the lower-wing box structure, which includes lower skin, spars, ribs and cap, and is made from graphite-epoxy composite and co-cured together in an autoclave. This is the first application of co-cured technology to a production tactical fighter.


Fuji manufactures the upper-wing surface skin, the wing fairings, the ran dome, flaperons and the engine air-intake units and the tail section. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company supplies the rear section of the fuselage, the port-side wing boxes and the leading-edge flaps.


Japan Air Self-Defense Force


The cockpit is equipped with three multifunction displays, including a liquid crystal display from Yokogawa. The pilot’s head-up display was developed by Shimadzu.

Integrated weapons system of F-2 fighter

The aircraft’s integrated electronic warfare system, mission computer and active phased array radar were developed by Mitsubishi Electric.

Japan Air Self-Defense Force

An M61A1 Vulcan 20mm multi-barrel gun is installed in the wing root of the port wing. There are 13 hardpoints for carrying weapon systems and stores: one on the fuselage centerline, one on each wing-tip and five under each wing. The stores management system is supplied by Lockheed Martin.

M61A1 Vulcan 20mm multi-barrel gun

The M61A1 and M61A2 Gatlin guns are externally powered six-barrel 20mm Gatling gun systems that offer lightweight, highly lethal combat support for a variety of air, land and sea platforms.

The M61A1 and M61A2 increases multiple-hit probabilities when compared to single barrel guns operating at lower rates of fire. The M61A1 and M61A2 weapons provide reliability up to 10 times greater than single-barrel guns.

The M61A2 shares the same features as the M61A1, but is 20 percent lighter. The M61A2 will meet or exceed the M61A1 gun’s reliability, maintainability and supportability features. The M61A2 is available for applications where weapon system weight reduction is critical.

Masahiro Kurata

M61A1/M61A2 Specifications


248 pounds (112.5 kg)
202 pounds (light barrel),
228 pounds (heavy barrel) (91.6, 103.4 kg)

Rate of fire

4,000/6,000 shots per minute


8 milliradians diameter, 80 percent circle

Muzzle velocity

3,380 feet (1,030m) per second

Average recoil force
@ 4,000 shots per minute
@ 6,000 shots per minute

2,133 pounds (9.4 kN)
3,200 pounds (14.2 kN)

Drive system

Hydraulic, electric, pneumatic

Feed system

Linked or linkless


Japan Air Self-Defense Force

There are two Frazer Nash common rail launchers manufactured by Nippi. The aircraft is capable of deploying the Raytheon AIM-7F/M medium-range Sparrow air-to-air missile, the Raytheon AIM-9L short-range Sidewinder and the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries AAM-3 short-range air-to-air missile.

AAM-3 (Type 90) short-range air-to-air missile

Mark Rourke

The AAM-3 air-to-air missile is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by Japan . The development name is AAM-3 . The main development and mass production contract company is Mitsubishi Heavy Industries .

Developed as a successor to the AIM-9L Sidewinder [1] , it aims to improve the ability to capture and track targets by detecting more sensitive temperature differences, and improve the flight mobility of the missile body. Research began around 1974, but full-scale development began in 1986, and it was officially approved [1] in 1990 ( Heisei 2) and officially adopted by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force .

The guidance method is passive dual-wavelength light wave ( infrared / ultraviolet ) homing, and the fuze is an active laser proximity fuze . The front is equipped with a large notched canard that improves missile maneuverability and has stabilizing wings at the ends. The seeker developed by NEC is used, and it is said that it is extremely resistant to infrared jamming technology (IRCCM) when combined with a noise elimination circuit . In addition, the seeker has a large swing angle, so the dome at the tip of the missile is larger than the sidewinder. It has a high off-bore sight capability [1] , and uses a direct-drive electric servo actuator that responds quickly and enables fine-grained control, unlike the conventional gas servo system that uses hot gas, to control missiles . In addition, by introducing bank-to-turn technology and expanding the seeker and swing angle to two-color infrared rays, it is demonstrating a high hit rate. Like the seeker, the proximity fuze is made by NEC and is an optical type that uses a laser. A directional warhead that can efficiently give a large attack power is adopted as the warhead. Therefore, the overall capacity is said to exceed that of the AIM-9L.  Source

AAM-4B (Type 99) air-to-air missile


AAM-4 (I’m squeak threshold – borne flight induction), the Japan of the Air Self-Defense Force mid-range is equipped with air-to-air missile is. Also known as AAM-4 [1] [2] . The main contractor is Mitsubishi Electric .

From the beginning, the guidance system uses inertial guidance and command guidance by data link from the launcher for intermediate guidance, and active radar homing (ARH) by radar built into the missile for terminal guidance . It is also possible to let the wingman take over the intermediate guidance. The range is said to be around 100km.

The AAM-4B has changed the seeker to an active phased array and added a new signal processing function [12] , which makes it 1.2 times the standoff range, 1.4 times the autonomous guidance distance, and AIM compared to the AAM-4. -Slightly in the standoff range and 1.4 times more capable in autonomous guidance distance than the 120C-7 [13] [3] . It also supports launching from the rail launcher . [14]

The name was changed to Type 99 Air-to-Air Guided Bullet (B) ( AAM-4B ) from the 2010 budget for the first year of procurement [12] , and battles centered on the F-15 modernized refurbishment aircraft. Deployment to the aircraft unit will be promoted. Source

AAM-5 (Type 04) air-to-air missile


AAM-5 (Maruyon threshold – borne flight I’m induction) is Japan of the Air Self-Defense Force is equipped with short-range air-to-air missile . The development name is AAM-5 . The main development and mass production contract company is Mitsubishi Heavy Industries .

Development began in 1991 as a successor to the 90-type air-to-air guided ammunition (AAM-3), and official approval was granted in 2004 ( Heisei 16).

AAM-3 unlike, canard is not provided, the flight control, TVC (Thrust Vector Control thrust deflection performed in all floating type flight control wing that is provided on the rocket motor and a missile tail control) It secures high mobility. In addition, an elongated strake is provided in the center of the missile .

NEC made seeker also been improved by 3-axis gimbal infrared seeker field other increase in angle, by multi-element seeker infrared focal plane array type infrared image is also performed utilizing the. By discrimination based on infrared images, it counters infrared source obstruction means such as flare . In addition, since the optical fiber gyroscope type inertial guidance (INS) is also introduced in the midway route, it is possible to lock on (LOAL) after launch by combining it with a helmet-mounted sight . Infrared image (IIR) is the guidance method for the terminal stroke . As a generation, it belongs to the same generation as AIM-9X , IRIS-T, etc. Source

The F-2 is armed with the ASM-1 and ASM-2 anti-ship missiles. Mitsubishi started developing the Type 80 series anti-ship missiles, ASM-1 and ASM-2, in 1980, originally for the F-1 fighter.

ASM-1 anti-ship missiles


The ASM-1’s configuration is typical of the earlier generation of antiship missiles. It is a sea-skimming weapon with an INS for mid-course guidance, a radar altimeter for altitude control, and a radar seeker for terminal guidance.

The ASM-1 has triangular cruciform wings mounted in the midbody and small triangular cruciform tailfins. The missile is propelled by a solid rocket motor, and is fitted with a SAP warhead weighing 150 kilograms (330 pounds).

The ASM-1 has been deployed with Japanese Mitsubishi F-1 strike aircraft and Lockheed P-3C maritime patrol aircraft. An improved variant of the ASM-1 was developed, the “Type 91 ASM-1C”, with a longer range of 65 kilometers (40 miles), as well as an improved digital guidance system with enhanced ECCM capabilities. Source

ASM-2 anti-ship missiles

Wikimedia Commons / Hunini

Development of the Type 91 ASM-2 was begun in 1988, with deliveries beginning in 1993. The ASM-2 is very similar in size and appearance to the ASM-1, except that it is turbojet powered and has an underslung air intake. Although many details are classified, the turbojet engine gives it extended range of about 100 kilometers (60 miles), and it has an imaging infrared terminal guidance seeker rather than an active radar seeker. It is believed to incorporate stealth features. The Japanese are now working on an “ASM-3” that will incorporate a ramjet engine for improved performance and range. Source

ASM-3 Anti-Ship Missile

Hamingubad はみんぐばーどさん

XASM-3 is capable of reaching Mach 3 speeds thanks to its ramjet engine fed by two air intakes (in a similar fashion to MBDA’s Meteor air to air missile of to the French ASMP-A air-launched tactical nuclear missile). XASM-3 is flying close to sea level in the final stage of attack to reduce probability of detection and intercept.

XASM-3 basic specifications:
Overall length: 5.25m
Maximum speed: Mach 3 or more
Firing range: 80nm (about 150km) or more
Weight: 900kg
Power: Integral Rocket Ramjet
Navigation and seeker: inertial / GPS (intermediate stage) + active / passive seeker (terminal phase) Source:


Japan to begin mass production of new ASM-3A supersonic anti-ship missile

Deputy Defense Minister Yamamoto Tomohiro

The Japanese Ministry of Defense (MoD) has announced plans to begin mass production of an extended-range version of the domestically developed ASM-3 supersonic, air-launched, anti-ship missile (ASM).

The MoD said on 25 December 2020 that the new missile, which is called ASM-3A, features some of the technologies used in the under-development ASM-3 (Kai) – an upgraded version of the ASM-3 – but did not reveal its range.

The ASM-3, which has an estimated top speed of Mach 3 and a maximum range of 200 km, was jointly developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and the MoD as a successor to Japan’s Type 93 series of missiles.

However, the ASM-3 has not entered service and Janes understands that the missile will now give way to the more modern ASM-3A and ASM-3 (Kai) variants, both of which are expected to be deployed with the Japan Air Self-Defense Force’s (JASDF’s) F-2 multirole fighters and the service’s future F-X fighter aircraft.

The MoD said it has secured funds from the budget for fiscal year 2021 (FY 2021) to procure an unspecified number of ASM-3As.

Tokyo plans to use the ASM-3A – and to continue developing the ASM-3 (Kai) – to bolster the defence capabilities of the country’s remote southwestern islands in response to China’s growing military capabilities and increased assertiveness in the region. Source

The fighter aircraft can also carry 500lb bombs, CBU-87/B cluster bombs and rocket launchers. The centreline and the inner-wing hardpoints can carry drop tanks with a 4,400kg fuel capacity.

Avionics and flight controls

Lockheed Martin is responsible for the avionics systems. The aircraft’s digital fly-by-wire system has been developed by Japan Aviation Electric and Honeywell (formerly Allied Signal) under a joint development agreement.

The fly-by-wire modes include control augmentation, static stabilization, and load control during maneuvers.

Japan Making Its F-2 Fighter Fleet More Lethal

swamp foxさん

In a move destined to give Japanese defense manufacturers hope for the future, Aviation Week reported in late February that Japan plans to upgrade 60 F-2 fighters with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation’s AAM-4B missile, a $468 million deal.  This enhancement is expected to dramatically improve the lethality of the F-2 when engaging enemy aircraft.

A number of Japan’s Boeing F-15J fighter aircraft were equipped with AAM-4 missiles in 2007.  This version of the missile featured an advanced active radar seeker and integrated data link that allowed the pilot to fire and guide the missile to the target until the missile seeker took over allowing the aircraft to begin evasive maneuvers much earlier than in the past.

This deal will go far in helping Japan’s struggling aviation/military industry to continue operating in an environment of intense competition from international rivals.

The AAM-4B is fitted with a missile seeker featuring Active Electronically-Scanned Array (AESA) radar and a greatly improved data link.  The AAM-4B will be coupled with enhanced J/APG-2 radar that gives pilots a detection range far superior to what they have now.  Analysts believe that the AAM-4B will be deployed as a replacement for the Mitsubishi Electric license- built AIM-7F/M Sparrow’s now in service, a missile that was still in production as late as 2010.

With the AAM-4B’s active search capability, coupled to an upgraded J/APG-2 radar system, modified F-2’s are expected to be able to engage multiple airborne targets from medium range without having to close to visual range, greatly improving the aircraft’s survivability and deadliness.

The AAM-4B is reported to be the same size as the AIM-7F/M Sparrow missile, but its AESA radar seeker head will provide an active homing capability and after launch target lock affording pilots the flexibility to begin evasive maneuvers or focus on other threats sooner than is now possible.

By incorporating AESA capabilities into the AAM-4B, it seems possible that Japan has designed a uniquely capable air-to-air missile.  While most front-line fighters of today are outfitted with AESA, no known air-to-air missiles are similarly equipped.

In the 1980s, Japan began development work on the AAM-4, partly as a means of bolstering Japan’s domestic arm’s manufacturers and to expand the nation’s missile technology capability.  It is not known if the early AAM-4’s ever entered active service.

In the early stages of planning and development, Japan’s Defense Ministry’s Technical Research and Development Institute indicated that the AAM-4B could be launched from a far greater distance than the AAM-4, an increase in range of as much as 20 percent.  The Institute also stated that activation of the AAM-4B’s autonomous guidance system would be possible from a range 40 percent greater than that possible with the AIM-120B AMRAAM.  Also, the AAM-4B was reportedly designed to match or outperform the Russian AA-12 Adder.  The enhanced performance of the AAM-4B is claimed to be partly the result of an increase in the level of power transmission incorporated in the AESA.

It is expected that a modified F-2 launching AAM-4Bs would be able to discontinue tracking a target much earlier and from a greater distance than can be achieved with an unmodified F-2.  With the missile’s improved autonomous guidance system giving the aircraft extended firing range, the pilot will be able to target, fire, and execute evasive maneuvers sooner than is now possible.  The upgraded AESA is also believed to improve the F-2’s ability to locate, track, and target “crossing targets,” a scenario where an air threat is flying at a right angle creating a signal of the same frequency as that of the ground.

No information has been provided to indicate how the AAM-4B compares with Raytheon’s AIM-120D AMRAAM.  Some sources have expressed the opinion that the AIM-4B’s performance will hinge on the level of technology incorporated into the control and guidance systems and may not match the performance of Raytheon’s AIM-120C-7 variant, a missile that is eligible for export.

Japan also has an inventory of Raytheon AIM-120 AMRAAMS available for use.  Japanese corporate heavyweights, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Mitsubishi Electric, also had a hand in the design and development of the AAM-4B.  Mitsubishi Heavy managed the missile integration phase of the project and Mitsubishi Electric focused on upgrading the radar systems.  Japan’s Ministry of Defense reported that development was completed successfully.

It is not known how many, if any, operating F-2’s are presently equipped to carry the AAM-4B, but Japan’s FY2012 budget submission does include funding for radar upgrades for 40 aircraft and fire-control upgrades for 16 aircraft.  Funding for the AAM-4B enhancements for 60 aircraft is expected to appear in future budget submissions, possibly to coincide with extensive maintenance plans.

Japan’s Ministry of Defense also confirmed that the modified F-2’s will be capable of launching and coordinating several missiles aimed at more than one target simultaneously.  The Ministry would not reveal the exact number of targets that may be fired upon at the same time, but the modified F-2’s will be configured to mount four AAM-4B’s.

Operational F-2’s are already equipped with AESA and the modified F-2’s will be similarly equipped.  Comparable aircraft fitted with AESA employ a data link that transmits signals from the aircraft to an airborne missile using radar.  The modified F-2’s will be outfitted with a separate data link transmitter, the J/ARG-1.

Additional guidance system modifications will include upgrading the existing J/APG-1 AESA radar to a J/APG-2 standard.  The J/APG-2 is expected to maximize the capabilities of the AAM-4B by allowing for target detection at much longer ranges and to increase the probabilities of scoring a hit.  The J/APG-2 is known to be capable of generating significantly greater power and incorporates a signal processor that is faster and more reliable.  Japanese officials remain secretive regarding the specific J/APG-2 capabilities and have stated that they have not made any comparison with foreign-built radar systems.  Some sources speculate that the J/APG-2 might be comparable to Raytheon’s APG-79 carried on US F/A-18E/F Super Hornets.

The upgraded F-2’s are a critical part of Japan’s air defense system and can be expected to continue in an operational flying status, alongside Japan’s existing fleet of F-15J’s, for many years to come.  It is still uncertain if Japan will continue with its plans to acquire the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighters or if they will select a competing aircraft to beef-up their air fleet.  What is known, with production of the F-2 now completed and discontinued, is that Japan is looking at a future that is getting ever more dangerous by the day. Source

J/APG-2 standard

J/APG-1 is an Active electronically scanned array radar system designed and manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric for use on the Mitsubishi F-2 fighter aircraft. It was the first series production AESA to be introduced on a military aircraft in service. It is currently being upgraded to the J/APG-2 standard for compatibility with the new AAM-4B air-to-air missile. Source

Japanese F-2 support fighter using J / APG-1 AESA radar, as the first practical airborne AESA radar, to promote its domestic data generally it has 800 T / R modules , as well as the early models of the low altitude Small Target only look 35NM known, in fact, whether it is propaganda so bear it?

Actual T / R module number is (24 + 24 + 24 + 90 + 56 + 12 + 288) + 180 = 1216 . …… Cunning little devils can not really stupid, from scratch war era like data to lower reported, it seems that this tradition continues, if known T / R module power (3W GaAs MMIC) power thrust reversers radar, then it will underestimate as many as 52% of the maximum power. Google translated from Chinese

Defense Agency Technology Development Division in 2011 to promote its PDF, practical time and development J 6W GaN T / R modules / APG-2 radar basically consistent.

Under the assumption that the improved J / APG-2 radar uses 6W GaN components to achieve the planned book, said the situation “ultra-high output holds ji ュ Hikaru pay air line”, integrated at least remain the same, the Japanese media exceeds AN / APG- capacity 79 AESA radar can not really be regarded as bragging. Google translated from Chinese  Source

Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 1980s
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km



J / AAQ-2 is an infrared forward monitoring device Mitsubishi Electric has been developed for the F-2 (FLIR).


J / AAQ-2 at night navigation for the system to be mounted in a pod form F-2, navigation function of the time of night or in bad weather , in addition to the identification and tracking functions of the air-to-air and air-to-ground targets , to follow the ground moving target of It has a function . However, the functionality of the targeting pod ( English version ) is not expected to have [1 ] . Further , the turret portion is rotatable , and has a specification that the turret is to expose the one rotating sensor in use .

J / AAQ-2 is developed from the fact that the need for war lessons from nighttime low altitude navigation capability and precision bombing capability improvement of the Gulf War has been recognized was done . Request following specifications in developing is performed

  • land and to the sea target , it is possible detection identification and tracking visually and equal to or greater than the distance at the time of night and bad visibility .
  • At the time of night of fine weather , it is possible visual equivalent of navigation during the daytime of fine weather .
  • that in the time of bad visibility , it is possible to visually equivalent of navigation during the daytime of bad visibility .
  • to have a distance measuring function for the automatic tracking function and ground fixed target for a single goal .
  • mounted embodiment of the present system is based on the exterior .
  • there is no significant decrease in flight performance of the aircraft by the mounting of the device , that flight characteristics are good .



  • Design and Development : Mitsubishi Electric
  • total length : 216cm
  • Diameter:
  • prototype about 36cm
  • mass-produced about 30cm
  • Weight:
  • prototype 164.9kg
  • mass-produced 145kg

Translated by Google – Data


Japan’s F-2 Marks 8th Platform to Fly with Lockheed Martin Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod

August 12/15: Japan acquired external link one Lockheed Martin Sniper targeting pod last year for trials on a Japanese Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) F-2 fighter. The Japanese defense ministry reportedly external link allocated $49.1 million to test the targeting pod as part of a potential upgrade package for the JASDF’s F-2 fleet. Jordan signed a contract for more Sniper pods in June, with the pod’s integration on the F-2 marking the eighth aircraft platform that the pod has operated from. Source

Lockheed Martin Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod

Sniper pods provide improved long-range target detection/identification and continuous stabilized surveillance for all missions, including close air support of ground forces. The Sniper pod enables aircrews to detect and identify weapon caches and individuals carrying armaments, all outside jet noise ranges. Superior imagery, a video datalink and J-series-weapons-quality coordinates provided by the Sniper pod enable rapid target decisions and keep aircrews out of threat ranges.

High resolution imagery for non-traditional intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (NTISR) enables the Sniper pod to play a major role in Air Force operations in theater, providing top cover for ground forces, as well as increasing the safety of civilian populations.

A sniper advance targeting pod is attached to the B1B Lancer Mar. 17 at Ellsworth Air Force Base, S.D. The sniper pod provides a clearer picture for a targeting area. (U.S. Air Force photo/Staff Sgt. Desiree N. Palacios)

Sniper pods include a high definition mid-wave forward looking infrared (FLIR), dual-mode laser, HDTV, laser spot tracker, laser marker, video data link, and a digital data recorder. Advanced image processing algorithms, combined with rock steady stabilization techniques, provide cutting-edge performance. The pod features automatic tracking and laser designation of tactical size targets via real-time imagery presented on cockpit displays. The Sniper pod is fully compatible with the latest J-series munitions for precision weapons delivery against multiple moving and fixed targets.

Advanced Targeting Pod – Sensor Enhancement (ATP-SE) design upgrades include enhanced sensors, advanced processors, and automated NTISR modes.

The Sniper pod’s architecture and modular design permits true two-level maintenance, eliminating costly intermediate-level support. Automated built-in test permits flightline maintainers to isolate and replace an LRU in under 20 minutes. Spares are ordered through a user-friendly website offering in-transit visibility to parts shipment.

The Sniper pod’s modular design also offers an affordable road map for modernizing and enhancing precision targeting capabilities for U.S. Air Force and coalition partner aircraft.

General characteristics
Primary function: positive identification, automatic tracking and laser designation, NTISR
Prime contractor: Lockheed Martin
Length: 98.2 inches (252 centimeters)
Diameter: 11.9 inches (30 centimeters)
Weight: 446 pounds (202 kilograms)
Aircraft: F-15E, F-16 Block 30/40/50, A-10, B-1
Sensors: high resolution FLIR and HDTV, dual mode laser designator, laser spot tracker and laser marker
Date deployed: January 2005


Suzuka @ Kaze 鈴鹿@風さん


The communications systems fitted in the F-2 are the AN/ARC-164 transceiver, operating at UHF band and supplied by Raytheon, a V/UHF transceiver supplied by NEC, a Hazeltine information friend or foe interrogator, and an HF radio, developed and supplied by Kokusai Electric.

AN/ARC-164 transceiver

The AN/ARC-164 HAVE QUICK II radios are used for air-to-air, air-to-ground and ground-to-air communications deployed on all Army rotary wing aircraft. These radios provide anti-jam, secure communications links for joint task forces and Army aviation missions. The Army operational forces utilizing these radios are Aviation Units, Air Traffic Services and Ranger Units. It also provides the Army the ability to communicate with USAF, USN and NATO units in the UHF-AM mode which is the communications band for tactical air operations. This system has been transitioned to Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM).

The AN/ARC-164 HAVE QUICK II radio is an UHF-AM radio. There are three major aircraft configurations of AN/ARC-164 radio and one ground configuration, AN/VRC-83. The AN/ARC-164 receiver/transmitter (RT) configurations include a panel mount (RT-1518C), remote control (RT-1504) and a remote mounted, data bus compatible (RT-1614). Common components of the radio are the RT, control head and antenna. This UHF-AM radio operates as a single channel or a frequency hopping radio. Its frequency range is from 225 – 399.975 MHz, and it has the capacity for 7,000 channels. The aircraft radio transmits with a power output of 10 watts and can receive voice or data modulated signals with the VINSON or VANDAL communications security devices. It has an embedded “ECCM” anti-jam capability. The guard channel of 243.000 MHz can be monitored. The unit weights of the Panel Mount R/T, the Remote R/T, the Data Bus R/T and the Control Unit are 9.3, 8.5, 8.5 and 4.3 pounds respectively. Source


The AN/APX-113(V) is a versatile system used not only on the USAF F-16 fighter, but also on ASW/Surveillance helicopters, aerostats, MIG-29, Japan’s F-2 fighter, and other international platforms. Source

F-2 turbofan engine


The aircraft is equipped with a General Electric F110-GE-129 afterburning turbofan engine. The engine develops 131.7kN and the speed of the aircraft is Mach 2. The F-2 produces 17,000lb of thrust, with 29,000lb generated when the burners are switched on.

General Electric F110-GE-129 turbofan engine

The F110 engine powers the F-16 Fighting Falcon where it competes with Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-200/220/229 turbofan engines. As much as 86% of all U.S. Air Force F-16C/D aircraft are powered by the GE F110. More than 75% of U.S. Air Force single-engine F-16C/D Block 50/52 aircraft are equipped with F110-GE-129 engines.



Overseas, the Air Force of South Korea selected the F110-GE-129 engine to power its twin-engine F-15K Slam Eagle fighter jets. The F110-GE-129 engine is also used on Saudi Arabia’s F-15SA and Singapore’s F-15SG. The F110-GE-129 also powers Japan’s Mitsubishi F-2 as well as the F-16 fleets of the Turkish, Greek, and Japanese air forces. Growth versions of the F110 that provide up to 36,000 pound of thrust have been conceptualized. Source

Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image by Atsugi R4さん

Revised Apr 23, 2021

PLAN Upgrading its Project 956E Destroyers with VLS & YJ-12A Anti-Ship Missiles

Friday, 15 April 2016 08:19

Recent images from China are showing two People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Project 956E Sovremennyy destroyers undergoing major refit and upgrade. It appears that the PLAN is upgrading its class of four destroyers (two 956E followed by two improved 956EM) acquired from Russia with domestic systems.

Recent images from China are showing two People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Project 956E Sovremennyy destroyers undergoing major refit and upgrade. It appears that the PLAN is upgrading its class of four destroyers (two 956E followed by two improved 956EM) acquired from Russia with domestic systems.Hangzhou (136) and Fuzhou (137) moored at the PLAN naval shipyard 4806 in Zhoushan. Hangzhou has many of its systems removed including the main gun, sensor and masts, missile launchers (both SAM and ASM).

The pictures show first ship of the class Hangzhou (136) and Fuzhou (137) moored at the PLAN naval shipyard 4806 in Zhoushan (a prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang province of Eastern China) at different stage in the upgrade. Hangzhou has many of its systems removed including the main gun, sensors and masts, missile launchers (both SAM and ASM).

According to Navy Recognition sources, the upgrade program for all four ships of the class should see:
– All original electronic systems and sensors replaced by modern Chinese ones.
– The two 3S90 (Uragan) unitary launchers for 9M38 surface to air missiles are getting replaced by a couple of Vertical Launch Systems (2×4 or possibly 2×8 cells) forward and aft. The missiles will likely be the HQ-16C, the latest variant of the HQ-16 naval SAM missile.
– The two KT-190 quadruple launchers for 3M80E (P-270 Moskit or NATO designation SS-N-22 Sunburn) are likely being replaced by YJ-12A missiles.

The YJ-12A is a next generation Chinese supersonic anti-ship missile. It was unveiled for the first time last year during the victory day parade.

Last but not least, the Project 956E should retain their AK-130 main guns forward and aft.

Recent images from China are showing two People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Project 956E Sovremennyy destroyers undergoing major refit and upgrade. It appears that the PLAN is upgrading its class of four destroyers (two 956E followed by two improved 956EM) acquired from Russia with domestic systems.Satellite view of Hangzhou (136) and Fuzhou (137). VLS systems are being installed on Hangzhou.Recent images from China are showing two People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Project 956E Sovremennyy destroyers undergoing major refit and upgrade. It appears that the PLAN is upgrading its class of four destroyers (two 956E followed by two improved 956EM) acquired from Russia with domestic systems.Blue print of Sovremennyy showing space availability below the original SAM launchers for installation of vertical launch systems.Recent images from China are showing two People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Project 956E Sovremennyy destroyers undergoing major refit and upgrade. It appears that the PLAN is upgrading its class of four destroyers (two 956E followed by two improved 956EM) acquired from Russia with domestic systems.The YJ-12A is a next generation Chinese supersonic anti-ship missile. It was unveiled for the first time last year during the victory day parade.

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FL-3000N / HHQ-10 Missile CIWS Air Defense System


The FL-3000N is the export designation of the HHQ-10 short-range Close-In Weapon System (CIWS) Air Defense System and developed by China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC).

The FL-3000N is designed to protect ships against saturation attacks and is very similar to Raytheon’s RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM). Both subsonic and supersonic threats can be engaged as well as multiple, highly maneuverable or sea-skimming targets simultaneously.

The fire-and-forget missiles contain a dual Passive Radio Frequency and Imaging Infra-Red seeker for guidance. Missiles can be launched at intervals of three seconds and lock on after launch. The HHQ-10 system has been installed on the Liaoning aircraft carrier and Type 056 class corvettes.

FL-3000N specifications
Maximum range: 9 km
Maximum speed: Mach 2.5
Length: 2 m
Diameter: 0.12 m


HQ-16C missiles


The HongQi-16 (HQ-16) is a third generation Chinese land-based mid-range surface-to-air missile defense system. It is similar to Russia’s SA-11 Gadfly or SA-17 Grizzly, and seems to be an evolved, Chinese version of those system.  Not much else is known about this new system, but there are reports stating that it can intercept very low-flying targets at maximum distance of 40km.  The HQ-16 is said to be more accurate than previous mid-range defense systems and fills in the performance gaps of the HQ-7 and HQ-9.

Chinese news websites report that the HQ-16’s performance data is roughly:

  • Effective range of 1.5-30 km
  • Effective Altitude of 10-6000 meters
  • Single hit probability of 0.7-0.98
  • Reaction time 5-8 seconds
  • 9 m long missile
  • Projectile diameter 0.232 m
  • Weighs 165 kg
  • Warhead weight of 17 kg
  • Maximum flight speed of Mach 2.8.


YJ-12 supersonic missile: Details


Sovremennyy-class destroyer: Full details Here

India, Vietnam step up talks on arms sales, defense collaboration

Source: Xinhua   2016-07-02 21:05:48

NEW DELHI, July 2 (Xinhua) — India and Vietnam are stepping up talks on Hanoi’s procurement of Indian missiles, gunboats and torpedoes in near future, said local media Saturday.

The Economic Times said India is “firming up” several military contracts with Vietnam, including selling the Brahmos short-range missiles, modernizing two Russia-made Vietnamese frigates for anti-submarine roles, and building 10 new patrol boats for Vietnamese Coast Guard, besides discussing the provision of a high speed heavyweight torpedo “Varunastra”, which was inducted to Indian Navy this week.

Both India and Vietnam have been traditionally the receivers of Russia-made arms, sharing similar defense equipment systems.

The Times of India said India and Vietnam are also engaged in joint training of Kilo-class submarine sailors and pilots of Sukhoi 30 MKI combat aircraft.

Indian Defense Minister Manohar Parrikar discussed with Vietnamese officials expanding cooperation in defense affairs during his visit to Vietnam last month, especially arms purchase by Hanoi from New Delhi.

India also intends to sell its arms to some other Southeast Asian nations like Indonesia and the Philippines, according to the newspaper.

Editor: Zhang Dongmiao


Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia will be at an advantage as they can apply it to both sea and air platform.  

Vietnam already posses the Russian supersonic cruise missile Club-S 3M-54E that can be fired from their Kilo Class according to


Length [m] 8.22
Diameter [m] 0.533
Launch Weight [kg] 2,300
Maximum Range [km] 220
Speed [Mach] Depends on flight mode
Subsonic Mode: Mach 0.6 – 0.8, Supersonic Mode: Mach 2.9
Warhead Weight [kg] 200
Control System Inertial + Active Radar Homing
Flight Path Low-Flying


Brahmos being fired from test platform underwater


Related post:

Vietnam, Indonesia, South Africa, Chile, Brazil, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand & United Arab Emirates interested in Brahmos

India aims to supply BrahMos cruise missiles to Vietnam

Malaysia to be a potential customer for BrahMos missiles

Four Countries Negotiating Purchase of Russian-Indian BrahMos Missiles

Brahmos on Su-30MKI 


Japan Considers MASSIVE $40 Billion Buy Of US Fighter Jets




5:27 PM 07/01/2016

Japan is getting ready to buy 100 new fighter jets, and may tap U.S. companies to make the new planes. The project could cost $40 billion, making it one of the country’s biggest defense contracts ever.

Lockheed Martin and Boeing, two of the largest defense contractors in the U.S., have been asked to compete for the contract, Reuters reports. The new fighter jets, which Japan is calling the F-3, would replace an aging fleet of McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs.

China’s recent expansion of military power could be part of Japan’s interest in bolstering their air force. For the past several years, China has been beefing up defense capabilities in the South China Sea– territory that is also claimed by the Philippines. As treaty allies, Japan would take the Philippines’ side in the event of a conflict. (RELATED: China Sends Fighter Jets To The South China Sea)

Japan’s prime minister Shinzo Abe has called for a strengthened alliance with the U.S., despite a popular movement in his country to close American military bases. He has also caused to rearm the Japanese military, something that has been sharply restrained by their post-WWII constitution.

Japanese company Mitsubishi Heavy will likely be involved in the production of the aircraft shell, according to Defense Industry Daily. Since Japan wants their new fleet of stealth aircraft to be able to operate seamlessly beside U.S. military, they will need to buy or license American technology, according to Reuters.

“We are certainly interested in another potential opportunity to bolster our longstanding partnership with Japan,” Lockheed Martin told Reuters. “We look forward to learning more about Japan’s F-3 plans as discussions progress.” Lockheed’s fifth generation fighters, the F-35, are increasingly popular with U.S. allies.

The F-3 jets will take years to develop. In the mean time, As Japan will receive 42 of Lockheed Martin’s F-35 fighter jets, the first of which will be delivered later this year.

Boeing is looking forward to competing for the contract. “We are constantly looking for ways to … increase our presence in Japan, and are open to discussions with the customer to see how we can help meet their security needs,” the company told Reuters.

The Eurofighter Consortium, a group European aerospace corporations, has also been invited to compete for the contracts. Japan’s defense ministry expects to begin the competitive selection process in mid-July.

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Japan’s Mitsubishi X-2 maiden Flight – Updated more Video

Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin: Details


NORINCO rolls out SM4 120 mm mortar vehicle

01 July 2016

The latest Chinese SM4 120 mm self-propelled mortar is based on a 6×6 WMZ-551 amphibious armoured personnel carrier, which is seen here in its ready to fire configuration with roof hatches open and mortar traversed to the front. Source: NORINCO

China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO) is exporting a new 120 mm mortar version of the widely deployed 6×6 WMZ-551 amphibious armoured personnel carrier (APC) designated the SM4 120 mm self-propelled mortar (SPM).

The crew and diesel engine compartment is located at the front and for its new mission the roof line of the WMZ-551 has been raised towards the vehicle’s rear to provide greater internal volume for the 120 mm muzzle-loaded mortar and its ammunition.

The driver is seated front left with the commander to the right and above the latter position is an unprotected pintle-mounted 12.7 mm machine gun (MG).

NORINCO is now marketing a number of remote weapon stations (RWSs) and one of these could potentially be fitted in place of the 12.7 mm MG to enable the weapon to be fired from under armour and environmental protection.

For use in high ambient temperatures an air-conditioning system is fitted as standard and the fully amphibious capability of the standard 6×6 WMZ-551 APC is retained.

With little preparation the WMZ-551 SM4 120 mm SPM is fully amphibious and propelled in the water by a shrouded propeller fitted one either side at the rear that enables the vehicle to reach maximum swimming speed of up to 8.5 km/h.

The system has a crew of five, including the commander and driver and NORINCO is quoting a gross vehicle weight of 17 tonnes including ammunition, and a maximum road speed of up to 100 km/h.

The 120 mm mortar is fitted with a specially designed recoil system to reduce the stress on the platform so that no stabilisers are required to be deployed before the weapon is fired.

The weapon is coupled to a computerised fire-control system (FCS) that enables the system to come into action, carry out a fire mission and then redeploy before the arrival of counter battery fire. Source


WMZ 551 6×6 wheeled armoured vehicle


During the early 1980s a whole array of Western multi-wheeled APCs started to appear, possibly influenced by older designs like the Soviet BTR series and the Swiss Mowag Piranha among other influences. There was a general tendency towards 4×4 – 6×6 rather than huge 8x8s with some extra versatility and agility but still potent weaponry (toward the APC/IFV category) and the French Renault\’s VAB in 1979 and the SANDF Ratel are good examples. So far that it inspired the Chinese Type 92 and the Indonesia Anoa (Pindad) Panser (and both are often compared). Norinco\’s WZ 551 however was not a faithful copy of the VAB, being significantly larger but apparently not heavier. Development started in 1985 and ended with the Type 90 followed by the Type 92 of which the first entered service in 1995. While around 2000 (according to the Chinese wikipedia) had been cranked up for the PLA alone, around 200 had been exported throughout 15-18 countries until today.


WZ551 6×6

Prototypes includes the pre-production vehicles, the WZ551-1 (73 mm sb gun), WZ554 SPAAG with twin 23 mm autocannons, WZ551D PL-9 surface-to-air missile system and Yitian SAM and the 4×4 WZ91 HJ-8 ATGM tank hunter. Apparently a 120mm self propelled mortar (similar to the BTR-80 based 2S23 NONA-SVK) and a 122 mm self propelled howitzer versions were also produced, the latter being the sole 8×8 version. Both will be treated as separate subjects since they only have the chassis in common.

Sri Lanka Army WZ551B APC as of 2012

Sri Lanka Army WZ551B APC as of 2012

Chinese WZ551/Type92 APC specs.

Dimensions 6.63 x 2.80 x 2,80 m
(21.7 x 9.1 x 9.1 fts)
Total weight, battle ready : 12.5 to 14.9 tonnes fully loaded
Crew 3+9 (Commander, Gunner, Driver, 9 troops)
Armament 25 mm AC QF, 400 rounds (IFV) + 7.62 mm coax
or 12,7 mm HMG 1500 rds (APC) + 7.62 mm coax. See notes.
Armour Overall 12.7 mm ballistic protection (0.5 in).
Propulsion Deutz TD 8 cyl. 320 hp
Top speed 85 km/h (53 mph)
Range 600 to 800 km (500 miles)
Suspension Independent 4×4 or 6×6 WD
Total production Unknown – 1,000 to 2,200 range

WZ551-Type92 APC


U.S. Air Force orders decoy jammers from Raytheon for $118 million


Raytheon contracted for Lot 9 Miniature Air Launched Decoy Jammers.
By Geoff Ziezulewicz   |   June 30, 2016 at 9:26 AM
Raytheon has received a $118 million U.S. Air Force order for Lot 9 MALD-J jammers. Photo courtesy Raytheon

WASHINGTON, June 30 (UPI) — Raytheon has received a $118 million firm-fixed-price U.S. Air Force contract for Lot 9 Miniature Air Launched Decoy Jammer, or MALD-J, vehicles and support equipment.

MALD is a modular, air-launched and programmable flight vehicle that protects aircraft and their crews by duplicating the combat flight profiles and signatures of aircraft.

MALD-J adds a radar-jamming capability to the platform.

Raytheon began MALD-J delivery in 2012.

Work for the latest contract will be performed in Arizona and is expected to be completed by June 2020.

The Air Force Life Cycle Management Center is the contracting activity.

Original post


Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD) Flight Vehicle


Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD) is a small unmanned air-launched flight vehicle designed and manufactured by Raytheon Missile Systems. The vehicle is currently used by the US Air Force (USAF) and the US Navy.

The MALD air vehicle offers superior protection for the aviators and aircraft against air defence systems in combat operations. It also increases airborne electronic attack missions of the US and allied pilots in the battlespace.

Raytheon delivered 1,000th MALD-J jammer variant, which uses jamming and radar signature technology, to the USAF under the Lot 5 production contract in May 2014.

MALD-J jammer variant

MALD-J on F-16

The ADM-160C MALD-J is a radar jammer variant of the basic MALD aerial decoy and it can operate in both decoy and jammer configurations based on the warfighters’ mission requirements. It adds radar-jamming capabilities to the MALD platform and can perform missions either as a stand-alone system or as part of the constellation.

The unmanned MALD-J stand-in jammer is capable of navigating and operating closer to hostile radars compared to conventional electronic warfare systems, to help aviators and aircraft stay away from enemy’s path. Sourrce



Original decoy version developed by Teledyne Ryan (acquired by Northrop Grumman) and funded by DARPA. It uses GPS-aided navigation system, and can fly missions with up to 256 predefined waypoints. The mission profile is preprogrammed, but can be redefined by the pilot of the launching aircraft until immediately before launch.

Decoy version developed by Raytheon with longer endurance. In use by the USAF.
ADM-160C “MALD-J” 

Radar jammer variant of ADM-160B by Raytheon. This variant of the MALD decoy will be able to operate in both decoy and jammer modes. The decoy and jammer configurations are key enablers supporting the Air Force Global Strike, Global Response, Space and C4ISR, and the Air and Space Expeditionary Force Concepts of Operations. MALD-J will provide stand-in jamming capability for the Airborne Electronic Attack Systems of Systems. It will be launched against a preplanned target and jam specific radars in a stand-in role to degrade or deny the IADS detection of friendly aircraft or munitions. Delivery to the US Armed Forces is to begin in 2012. That year, the Air Force ended procurement of the ADM-160B and will only procure MALD-J versions.

Launch platforms

Specifications (Northrop Grumman ADM-160A)

  • Length : 2.38 m (7 ft 10 in)
  • Wingspan : 0.65 m (2 ft 2 in)
  • Diameter : 15 cm (6 in)
  • Weight : 45 kg (100 lb)
  • Speed : Mach 0.8
  • Ceiling : Over 9,000 m (30,000 ft)
  • Range : Over 460 km (285 mi)
  • Endurance : Over 20 min
  • Propulsion : Hamilton Sundstrand TJ-50 turbojet; 220 N (50 lbf) thrust
  • Unit cost : US$30,000

Specifications (Raytheon ADM-160B)

  • Length : 2.84 m (9 ft 7 in)
  • Wingspan : 1.71 m (5 ft 7 in) fully extended
  • Weight : 115 kg (250 lb)
  • Speed : Mach 0.91
  • Ceiling : Over 12,200 m (40,000 ft)
  • Range : Approximately 920 km (575 mi) with ability to loiter over target
  • Endurance : Over 45 min at altitude
  • Propulsion : Hamilton Sundstrand TJ-150 turbojet
  • Unit cost : US$120,000 (initial), US$322,000 (as of 2015)

Hamilton Sundstrand TJ-150 turbojet