Six Formidable Class multi-mission frigates have been built for the Singapore Navy. The first of class, RSS Formidable, was launched on 7 January 2004 at the Lorient dockyard in Brittany, France.
The Republic of Singapore Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) awarded the contract in March 2002 to DCN (now DCNS) in France for the design and construction of the frigates. The contract included a technology transfer programme under which the construction of the first frigate was carried out in France and then five further frigates were built in Singapore by Singapore Technology Marine (STM) at the Benoi shipyard. The frigate programme is named Project Delta and is being managed by Singapore’s state-owned Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA).
Following the launch of the RSS Formidable in January 2004, work started on fitting the combat and platform systems. The frigate arrived at Changi Naval Base, Singapore, in August 2005 and was commissioned in May 2007. The six Formidable Class frigates were declared fully operational in January 2009.
|RSS Formidable||68||7 January 2004||5 May 2007|
|RSS Intrepid||69||3 July 2004||5 February 2008|
|RSS Steadfast||70||28 January 2005||5 February 2008|
|RSS Tenacious||71||15 July 2005||5 February 2008|
|RSS Stalwart||72||9 December 2005||16 January 2009|
|RSS Supreme||73||9 May 2006||16 January 2009|
Formidable Class frigates
Click to enlarge: modified photo of a Formidable class frigate prior the improvements. High resolution image here. – Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
As well as RSS Formidable (68), the class consists of: RSS Intrepid (69) launched in July 2004, RSS Steadfast (70) launched in January 2005 and RSS Tenacious (71) launched in July 2005 – all commissioned in February 2008; RSS Stalwart (72), launched in December 2005 and delivered in October 2007; and RSS Supreme (73), launched in May 2006 and delivered in August 2008. Stalwart and Supreme were commissioned in January 2009.
The frigates replace the six Sea Wolf Class missile gunboats that entered service in 1972 and are approaching the end of operational life.
Sea Wolf Class missile gunboats
The Sea Wolf class missile gunboats were acquired in 1968, based on the TNC 45 design from Fredrich Lürssen Werft. The first two gunboats were constructed in Germany, while the remaining four were constructed locally by ST Marine (then known as Singapore Shipbuilding and Engineering).
As new technology became available, these gunboats underwent a number of upgrading programmes in the 1980s and 1990s to increase their strike capability and sophistication. These gunboats became the first missile-armed naval vessels in Southeast Asia when they were upgraded to launch Boeing Harpoon (SSM) surface-to-surface missiles. On 13 May 2008, all six gunboats were retired at a sunset decommissioning ceremony held at Changi Naval Base following 33 years of service.
|Speed||30 knots (56 km/h)|
La Fayette Class based frigate design
The Project Delta design is a smaller derivative of the French La Fayette Class stealth frigate with low radar, acoustic, infrared and electromagnetic signatures.
La Fayette Class Frigate: Details
(F-710) La Fayette
A high level of automation and closely integrated combat and ship management systems have been selected to allow the frigate to be operated with a crew of just 70. The overall length is 114.8m with a beam of 16.3m and draught of 6.0m. The full load displacement is 3,200t.
Command and control
The combat management system was developed by the state-owned DSTA with ST Electronics to meet the operational requirements of the Republic of Singapore Navy. DSTA also has responsibility for the combat systems integration. The standard operating common consoles, with 20in LCD displays, are supplied by Singapore Technologies Electronics, a subsidiary of ST Engineering.
Combat management system
The Integrated Communications System is also supplied by Singapore Technologies Electronics.
The frigate is armed with the Boeing Harpoon surface-to-surface anti-ship missile. The Harpoon missile has a range of 130km and uses active radar guidance. The missile is armed with a 227kg warhead.
Harpoon anti-ship missile
The Harpoon is an all weather, subsonic, over the horizon, anti-ship missile which can be launch from surface ships, submarines and aircraft. Its guidance system consists of a 3-axis integrated digital computer/ radar altimeter for midcourse guidance, and an active radar seeker for the terminal phase of the flight.
The Harpoon flies at subsonic speeds, with a sea-skimming flight trajectory for improved survivability through reduced probability of detection by enemy defenses. It was designed to strike enemy ships in an open ocean environment.
The ship launched RGM-84 Harpoon was introduced in 1977, as well as the encapsulated submarine launched UGM-84.
Diameter: 340 millimeter
Length: 4.63 meter (15.2 foot)
Wingspan: 910 millimeter
Max Range: 124 kilometer (67 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 237 mps (853 kph)
Thrust: 660 pound
Warhead: 224 kilogram (494 pound)
Weight: 691 kilogram
The frigate is fitted with the DCNS Sylver vertical launch system with MBDA Aster 15 surface-to-air missiles. There are four eight-cell SYLVER A43 launch modules with 32 missiles. The two-stage Aster missile is a high-agility and high-manoeuvrability defence missile for deployment against incoming sea skimming anti-ship missiles which use evasive terminal manoeuvres and re-attack modes. In anti-missile mode the Aster 15 has a range of 15km. Aster also provides protection against manned and unmanned aircraft to a range of 30km.
DCNS Sylver vertical launch system
The two-stage ASTER missiles are provided with two different solid propellant boosters resulting in the ASTER 15 and the ASTER 30 models. The ‘Pif-Paf’ control system enables the ASTER missile to counter high maneuverable missiles achieving a direct impact (hit-to-kill). The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion combines conventional aerodynamic control with control by gas jets acting through the centre of gravity of the missile. Until mid-course the guidance of an ASTER missile is based on the Inertial Navigation System (INS) updated through an uplink, in the terminal phase the guidance is provided by an active Radiofrequency seeker. The final stage of the ASTER missile is a ‘dart’ equipped with the seeker, a sustainer motor, a proximity fuze and a blast fragmentation warhead.
The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion – Image: wikiwand.com
The ASTER 15 is a short range missile intended for self-defense (point defense) purposes against highly maneuverable threats. The ASTER 15 is integrated on the SAAM and beginning in 2006 in the PAAMS system. The SAAM is installed on French-built frigates and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier. The PAAMS will be provided to the Horizon frigates (France and Italy) and the Type 45 destroyers (United Kingdom).
The basic structure of -ASTER 15/30 – Image: et97.com
ASTER 15 version
Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 4.20 meter (165 inch)
Max Range: 30,000 meter (16.2 nautical mile)
Min Range: 1,700 meter (0.92 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 13,000 meter (8.08 mile)
Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)
Weight: 310 kilogram (683 pound)
ASTER 15 data Source deagel.com
Launch of Aster 15 missile. Photo: Republic of Singapore Navy
The main gun is the Oto Melara 76mm / 62 Super Rapid gun which fires 6kg shells to a range of 16km at a firing rate up to 120 rounds a minute.
Oto Melara 76mm / 62 Super Rapid gun
Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition
– HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
– MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
– PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
– SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
– SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
– DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
– VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development
2 x Rafael Typhoon Mk25 naval stabilized gun
Image: David Boey
Typhoon is a family of lightweight, stabilized, remote controlled weapon systems for a full range of weapons, including:
- Battle proven
- Highly accurate in day and night operations
- No deck penetration is required
- Simple operation with high reliability
- Cost effective
- Modular design enable future upgrades
Toplite, highly stabilized, multi-role, multi-sensor optronic payload, is a day/night observation and targeting, configured for naval, air and ground surveillance and targeting systems.
Toplite provides the services required for precision guidance for guided weapons, day or night and under adverse weather conditions. Toplite enables observation, target detection, recognition and identification by the use of various sensors including FLIR, CCD and laser rangefinder. Toplite features both manual and automatic target tracking. The system includes the following sub-systems:
- FLIR: 3rd GEN (3-5micron) or 8-12micron TDi
- CCD camera B/W or color
- Eye safe laser rangefinder
- Laser designator (optional)
- Advanced correlation tracker
Close-In Weapon System
|Rate of Fire||
200 rounds per minute
12.7mm/50 MG Burst
Image: Republic of Singapore Navy
|Targets: Surface Vessel, Land Structure – Soft, Mobile Target – Soft|
|12.7mm/50 MG Burst [10 rnds] – (Facility/Ship, No Anti-Air Capability) Gun
Surface Max: 1.9 km. Land Max: 1.9 km.
The EDO Model 980 ALOFTS active low-frequency towed sonar provides long-range detection and classification capability against submarines. ALOFTS comprises a variable depth sonar (VDS) towed body with a towed array. The frigate has two triple-barrelled lightweight torpedo launchers and is armed with the Eurotorp A244S torpedo.
EDO Model 980 ALOFTS active low-frequency towed sonar
|Type: VDS, Active/Passive Sonar||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 74.1 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Early 2000s|
|Sensors / EW:|
|EDO 980 ALOFTS – VDS, Active/Passive Sonar
Role: VDS, Active/Passive Variable Depth Sonar
Max Range: 74.1 km
2 x triple-barrelled lightweight torpedo launchers
RSS Tenacious. Image: apancakeprincess.com
Eurotorp A244S torpedo
|Type: Torpedo||Weight: 254 kg|
|Length: 2.75 m||Span: 0.324 m|
|Diameter: 0.324||Generation: None|
|Properties: Search Pattern, Bearing-Only Launch (BOL)|
|Sensors / EW:|
|Torpedo Seeker – (A.244S [CIACIO-S]) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Torpedo Seeker, Active/Passive Shallow Water
Max Range: 0.5 km
Frigate aircraft capacities
The frigate has the capacity to operate a single medium-size helicopter in the 10t class. The helicopter deck at the stern, approximately 22m×16m (360m²), has a single landing spot. The hangar is fully equipped with helicopter support and maintenance systems. The frigate carries an additional 15 aircrew for helicopter flight operations.
The Republic of Singapore Air Force will fly the shipborne helicopter and helicopter mission crew will be from the Republic of Singapore Navy. In January 2005, MINDEF placed an order for six Sikorsky S-70B Seahawk helicopters to operate from the frigates.
Sikorsky S-70B Seahawk
Engine – 2 X General Electric T700-GE401C
Power – 1,911.00 Horsepower
Avionics – Rockwell Collins glass cockpit
Maximum Cruising Speed – 270.00 km per hr 167.78 mph
Service Ceiling – 3,616.15 metres 11,864.00 feets
Rate of Climb – 363.32 mpm 1,192.00 fpm
Numbers Ordered/Sold – 0
Cabin Height – 1.30 metres 4.27 feets
Cabin Width – 1.80 metres 5.91 feets
Cabin Length – 3.20 metres 10.50 feets
Exterior Length – 19.76 metres 64.83 feets
Wingspan / Rotor Diameter – 16.36 metres 53.67 feets
Fuselage Diameter – N/A N/A
Baggage Volume – N/A N/A
Maximum Take Off Weight – 9,927.00 kgs 21,885.06 lbs
Maximum Payload – 3,628.80 kgs 8,000.00 lbs
Fuel Tank Capacity – 594.45 gallon 2,250.00 litres
Fuel Economy – 0.29 km per litre 0.68 NM per gallon
The Herakles multi-function radar, supplied by Thales, is the frigate’s primary surveillance radar. The phased array radar is a passive, three-dimensional, search and fire control radar operating over E and F bands. The radar, installed in a radome on top of the main mast, carries out long-range air and surface surveillance and weapon control. The Herakles radar is integrated with the Aster air defence missile system.
The frigates surface search and navigation radar is the Terma Scanter 2001, operating at I-band.
Herakles 3D S-band radar
Thales’ Herakles S-band multifunction radar. Illustration: Thales
Thales Herakles is installed in a radome on top of the main mast which is a rotating 3D passive electronically scanned array multi-function radar in the E/F-band (S-band) combining air and surface surveillance and fire control radar and thus performing all functions involved in the establishment of air and surface pictures. Herakles performs target detection and tracking, environment mapping, target classification, weapon assignment and deployment and missile uplink guidance. Herakles is optimized to detect and track multiple SSM, ARM, diving missiles, fighters and helicopters in littoral environments. Herakles provides 3D surveillance for up to 250 km (200 km on aircrafts, 60 km on missiles and 20+ km for sea skimming missiles). and it has a track capacity of more than 500 air and surface targets. Each ship is equipped with two Terma SCANTER 2001 navigation radars. One of the radar systems is utilized primarily for navigation and surveillance, whereas the other guides helicopters when landing on the frigates. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 30480 m|
|Range Max: 203.7 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Late 2000s|
|Properties: Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)|
|Sensors / EW:|
|Herakles 3D – Radar
Role: Radar, Air & Surface Search, 3D Medium-Range
Max Range: 203.7 km
2 x Terma SCANTER 2001 navigation radar
The SCANTER 2000 series is an X-band, 2D, fully coherent pulse compression radar, based on Solid State transmitter technology with digital software-defined functionality. It is especially suited for Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), river, and inner port surveillance. The outdoor transceiver unit is very small, weighs only 26 kg, and can be placed up-mast close to the antenna to minimize installation requirements and costs as well as waveguide loss between antenna and transceiver to acheive a high effecient solution. This SCANTER 2000 series provides a fully integrated solution with automated processing and low lifetime cost. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
BASED ON THE SCANTER RADAR TECHNOLOGY
Terma has more than 60 years of experience in developing and manufacturing radars, and more than 2,200 radar systems are installed worldwide. Terma provides radar sensors to Vessel Traffic Services
(VTS), Coastal Surveillance Radar (CS), and Surface Movement Radar (SMR) segments. More than 85 of all major airports around the world and 65% of all coastal shores rely on Terma’s sensor technology.
- Based on Terma’s high-quality and state-of-the-art radar technology
- Weight only 26 kg
- Easy integration – standard IP network
- Low installation life-time cost
|Hxwxd||466 mm x 422 mm x 422 mm|
|Type||Solid State power amplifier|
|Sector Transmission||Blank/reduced tx-power|
|Sampling||12 bit @ 200 MHz|
|Dynamic range||> 100 db (incl. processing)|
|Noise figure||2.5 dB typical|
|Emitter||>80W peak (equivalent to 25 kw magnetron)|
|Min. detection range||30 m|
Stir 1.2 Mk2 (Upgraded)
Some of the vessels such as RSS Tenacious, RSS Stalwart and RSS Steadfast have received recently various improvements, including the Stir 1.2 Mk2 of Thales on bridge roof, a highly capable medium-to-long range tracking and illumination dual-band (I/K) radar system. A full set of electro-optic equipment (TV/IR/laser) complements the system for optimal performance in demanding environments, The system has been designed primarily to control point and area defence missile systems such as NATO Sea Sparrow, ESSM, Aster and Standard Missiles. A secondary application is the direct control of various caliber guns. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
STING-EO Mk2, Thales’s lightweight dual band (I and K) weapon control system, supports gun fire control, performs kill assessment and makes a valuable contribution to classification and identification of threats. In addition, the system can be used as a surveillance sensor, even under radar silence conditions.
The three data sources (I, K, EO) provide high redundancy, performance and ECCM resistance. STING EO Mk2 incorporates the latest solid-state I-band and K-band radars transmitters (low life cycle cost and high operational availability) and a new generation of electro-optical components (especially a third generation focal plane array infrared camera).
For operation in the littoral environment, STING EO Mk2 offers a list of benefits, such as: superior stealth target detection in strong (land) clutter, higher resistance against more stressing jamming scenarios and an extended EO capability for target identification and observation.
– I-band : 120 km
– K-band : 36 km
*Note – seems it has no bow sonar
The vessel’s electronic support measures (ESM) system is the Rafael C-PEARL-M radar intercept. C-PEARL-M is a lightweight ESM system consisting of two line replaceable units (LRU) – an antenna unit and a receiver-processor unit – which provide automatic detection, data measurement and identification of threats.
Rafael C-PEARL-M radar intercept
C-Pearl-M on main mast – Image: kementah.blogspot.com
The C-Pearl-M is a ship-mounted, miniature, lightweight, cost-effective electronic support measures system that enables automatic detection, data measurement and identification of threats. It consists of two line replaceable units: an antenna unit and a receiver-processor unit. C-PEARL-M is currently in service with the Navy of Israel and was selected by Australia for integration in Perry-class frigates. The C-Pearl-M has been designed to easily interface with the ship’s combat management system and fit with many types of vessels. It features modularity, high reliability and low maintainability. A single crew member can operate the C-PEARL-M system. Source deagel.com
|Corresponding frequency||2 – 18 GHz
(option: 0.5 – 18 GHz)
|2 – 18 GHz
(Option: 0.5 – 40 GHz)
|0.5 – 40 GHz|
|sensitivity||-60 dBm||-65 dBm|
|Frequency accuracy||1.5 MHz||3 MHz||2 MHz|
|Direction accuracy||1 degree||3 degrees||2 times|
Three Sagem Défense Sécurité (formerly EADS Defence & Electronics) new-generation Dagaie systems (NGDS) are fitted. Each system consists of a pair of two-axis launchers with 12 infrared, radar or acoustic decoys.
Dagaie systems (NGDS)
Each of the vessels is equipped with three eight (8) barrel 130mm Sagem NGDS (New-Generation Dagaie System) multiple decoy launchers to counter a variety of threats such as anti-ship missiles and torpedoes. Two decoy launchers are in front of the bridge and behind the VLS while the third one is located at the top of the helicopter hangar (it seems that the third launcher has been removed from the vessels). NGDS is integrated in the ship’s combat system’s detection and warning system and can react automatically to current or emerging threats, in extremely short times. Each system is equipped with a single dual launcher including decoys (infrared, radar or acoustic) adapted to the threat to be neutralized. The NGDS system adapts to all types of munitions: electromagnetic or IR decoys, Active Offboard Decoy (AOD), Anti-Torpedo Decoy and/or laser jammer, deployed at short, medium or long range. The launchers are linked to a computer that selects the decoying best-suited technique. The Electronic Warfare Coordination Center provides the commanding officer with the ship’s tactical situation and coordinates the various Electronic Warfare (EW) tactics: threat evaluation, tactics optimization, coordination of decoys, radar jammer and more generally, electronic countermeasures Electronic Support Measures (ESM).
SAGEM NGDS II (Upgraded)
SAGEM NGDS II – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Some of the ships which were mentioned earlier, have been spotted with different decoy launchers, the SAGEM NGDS II, which are a newer version of the EADS NGDS as it is advertised on company’s website and it looks very similar with the only one photo that the system is uncovered (see photos and information here). The new configuration is two forward launching systems replacing the two previous NGDS and two WASS countermeasure launching systems atop the hangar. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Leonardo-Finmeccanica WASS anti-torpedo defence countermeasure launching system
The C310 represent Defence Systems Division’ high-performance anti-torpedo countermeasure system. It’s designed to resist the attacks of the most technologically advanced torpedoes, wire-guided or not (launch-and-forget)
They are realized with electronic items that generate disturbance noise for the acoustic head of the enemy torpedo.
This kind of countermeasure can both represent dummy mobile targets (MTE) and generate disturbance noise for the acoustic head of the enemy torpedo (Jammers). The combination of mobile Decoys and Jammers has the purpose of cheating the torpedo, which directs its attacks towards the dummy targets, thus allowing the ship to perform an evasive countermeasure.
The definition of optimal reaction results using a elaboration software (ORACOM) that, based on multiple parameters, elaborates the more suitable operation to maximize surviving probabilities, even against last generation torpedoes with high potentials against contermeasures. Source leonardocompany.com
Compact, lightweight and designed for applications ranging from fixed security installations to mid-sized vehicles and vessels, the LRAD 500X-RE easily mounts and transports to provide law enforcement, homeland security, and defense personnel unparalleled long-range communication and scalable non-lethal, non-kinetic Escalation of Force.
The U.S. Navy and U.S. Army’s acoustic hailing device (AHD) of choice for small vessels and vehicles, the extended frequency range of the LRAD 500X-RE ensures broadcasts are clearly heard and understood on the ground, from the air or at sea in all environments.
LRAD 500X device on RSS Intrepid – Image: cks2k22
- Rugged, military tested construction
- Low power requirements
- All-weather use
- Simple to operate
- Increased coverage with single operator
- Safer alternative to non-lethal and kinetic measures
- HD Camera (optional)
DIRECTIONALITY, POWER EFFICIENCY & RANGE
- Highly intelligible communication up to 2,000 meters
- Safely communicates beyond stand-off distances to determine intent
- Variable beam width
- Extended coverage
- Clear, long-range, directional communication
- Creates instant acoustic standoff perimeter
The frigate is powered by four MTU 20V 8000 diesel engines in a combined diesel and diesel (CODAD) configuration. Each engine is rated at 8,200kW. The engines drive two shafts with constant pitch propellers.
The cruise and maximum speeds are 18kt and 27kt and the range is 7,200km (4,000nm).
4 x MTU 20V 8000 M90 diesel engine
|Engine model||20V 8000 M91|
|Rated power to DIN ISO 3046||ICFN|
|Rated power max.||kW ( bhp )||9100 (12203)|
|Dimensions and masses without gearbox|
|Length (L)||mm (in)||6645 (261,6)|
|Width||mm (in)||2040 (80,3)|
|Height (H)||mm (in)||3375 (132,9)|
|Mass (dry)||kg (lbs)||49600.00 (109348.00)|
Engine data source mtu-online.com
4 x Isotta-Fraschini ISM V1708 diesel generators
Engine with 4-stroke diesel cycle, direct fuel injection, supercharger by one exhaust gas turbocharger type KKK with charge air cooling by see water in tube type heat exchanger; engine cooling system complete with fresh water / sea-water tube type heat exchanger incorporating make-up tank, thermostatic temperature control, exhaust gas manifold cooled by engine water.
Number of revolutions (RPM):
Builder: DCNS France (68) / ST Engineering Singapore (69-73)
Length: 114,8 meters (376 feet 8 inches)
Beam: 16,3 meters (53 ft 6 in)
Draft: 6 meters (19 ft 8 in)
Displacement: 3200 tons
Speed: 27 knots (50 km/h)
Range: 4200 NM (7780 km)
Complement: 71 ship / 19 aircrew
CODAD (combined diesel and diesel)
4 x MTU 20V 8000 M90 diesel engine (4 x 9100 KW / 12200 shp = total output 48800 shp)
2 shafts, 2 propellers
1 x DCNS Sylver A-50 Vertical Launching System (VLS) (32 cells)
for MBDA Aster 15 and/or Aster 30 SAM missiles
1 x Oto-Melara/OtoBreda 76/62 Super Rapid DP gun (3″/76mm)
2 x Mk-141 quad missile laucher for up to 8 RGM-84 Harpoon SSM
2 x Rafael ADS 25mm Typhoon machine gun systems
2 x B515 12.75″ (324mm) triple torpedo tubes for EuroTorp A244/S torpedoes
Aviation: flight deck and hangar for up to 2 helicopters (Sikorsky S-70 Seahawk)
Electronic warfare & decoys:
ESM: Rafael C-PEARL-M
Decoys: Sagem Defense Securite New Generation Dagaie System (2 forward / 1 aft)
Anti-Torpedo Decoys: Leonardo Finmeccanica Morpheus anti torpedo suite with WASS C310 launchers (2 aft)
Search Radar: Thales Herakles multi-function Passive electronically scanned array radar
Fire Control Radar: Thales STING EO Mk2
Navigation Radar: Terma Electronic Scanter 2001
Sonar: EDO Model 980 active low frequency towed sonar
Electric power: 4x Isotta-Fraschini ISM V1708 diesel generators (860 KW / 1150 shp each)
Main material source naval-technology.com
Updated Aug 16, 2018