Daily Archives: April 11, 2017

HAL Caught fitting 18 brand new Sukhoi 30 MKI with already-used and secondhand engines

HAL Caught supplying used AL-31FP engines on brand New Sukhoi 30 MKI

Published April 10, 2017 SOURCE: DECCAN CHRONICLE.

In a startling saga of compromises made on the safety and capability of India’s frontline fighter aircraft besides posing danger to the life of pilots, it has come to light that at least 18 of brand new Sukhoi 30 MKI had been fitted with already-used and secondhand engines. “It was noticed while checking the records…that AL 31FP engines fitted in certain aircraft was in Cat B condition at the time of inspection / delivery to Indian Air Force (IAF),” said a report encapsulating the findings that have been accessed by this newspaper. The IAF’s frontline Sukhoi 30 MKI is a multipurpose twin-seater supersonic fighter aircraft which is powered by two AL-31FP aero engines. While this fitment of Cat 2 (category B) or secondhand engines into brand new Sukhoi 30 MKIs was done at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited’s (HAL) facility at Nashik “without the knowledge and approval of the defence ministry”, what is surprising is the acceptance of such aircraft by the IAF. “Certain aircraft with one new and one old engine were wrongly accepted by IAF and the Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance. As these arrangements were not in tune with contractual provisions, it should have been rejected by IAF and DGAQA…. In any case, IAF should have obtained approval from MoD for accepting aircraft with one second hand engine.”

Sukhoi 30 MKI has two AL 31FP engines

  • 18 Su 30 MKIs fitted with old engines
  • Poses reliability and safety risk
  • Fitment violates contractual conditions
  • India has about 230 operational fighters although just half is available for operational flights at any given point of time
  • 7 Sukhoi 30 MKIs have crashed to date, causing a loss of about Rs 2,350 crore

Original post idrw.org


Su-30MKI: Details

SIGMA 10514 PKR Guided-Missile Frigates, Indonesia

Two SIGMA 10514 Perusak Kawal Rudal (PKR) guided-missile frigates are being built by PT PAL Indonesia (Persero), in collaboration with Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding (DSNS) for the Indonesian Navy (TNI-AL).

Frigates are designed to perform various missions, including patrolling the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Indonesia, deterrence, maritime security, search-and-rescue, anti-surface, and electronic and anti-air warfare.

The frigates can also be used for humanitarian support tasks.

Original Sigma Frigate 10514 design

Orders and deliveries of SIGMA 10514 PKR frigates

The SIGMA 10514 PKR guided-missile frigate project was launched by the Indonesian Ministry of Defence in August 2010.

The ministry awarded a contract to DSNS for the construction of the first SIGMA 10514 PKR frigate in December 2012. First steel was cut in January 2014, and the keel was laid in April 2014 at lead integrator PT PAL’s shipyard in Surabaya, Indonesia.

Four of six core modules were built at Surabaya shipyard, while the remaining two were constructed and tested at Vlissingen shipyard in the Netherlands. The ship was launched in January 2016 and her sea trials were completed in September 2016. It was delivered in January 2017.


David’s World 2011 @flickr

TNI-AL / Sigma 10514 design

Name Pennant Laid down Launched Commissioned Notes
KRI Raden Eddy Martadinata 331 16 April 2014 18 January 2016 7 April 2017 Raden Eddy Martadinata, a National Hero From Bandung and One of the founders Of Indonesian Navy
KRI I Gusti Ngurah Rai 332 tba 29 September 2016 Planned for 2017 I Gusti Ngurah Rai, a National Hero From Bali Island and Leader on Puputan War against Dutch Colonialist

A contract for the construction of the second guided-missile frigate was signed in February 2013. The first steel was cut in September 2014 and the keel-laying ceremony was held in December 2014.

In November 2013, Thales was awarded a contract by DSNS to deliver a full mission systems suite for the first two frigates.

Indonesia commissions first Martadinata-class frigate: Here

Indonesian Navy receives second PKR frigate KRI I Gusti Ngurah Rai: Here


The Indonesian Navy received its second Perusak Kawal Rudal (PKR) guided-missile frigate KRI I Gusti Ngurah Rai during a ceremony in Surabaya, Indonesia, on October 30.

Named after the Indonesian War of Independence hero who fought against the Dutch between 1945 and 1949, KRI I Gusti Ngurah Rai is the second of two frigates built by Indonesian shipbuilder PT Pal and Dutch shipbuilder Damen through a transfer of technology agreement.

Design, features and accommodation of SIGMA 10514 PKR

Bridge – Image: lancercell.com

SIGMA 10514 PKR’s hull structure is made using grade A / AH36 shipbuilding steel. The ship is 105.11m-long, 14.2m-wide and has a displacement of approximately 2,365t.

The fully air-conditioned cabin accommodates 100 crew members and 20 additional officers. An integrated bridge console, which is equipped with an electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS), provides all-round visibility and safe operation.

The ship features a helicopter hangar and an aft flight deck with astern fuelling capabilities to hold and operate a 10t helicopter during day and night. It can carry two rigid hulled inflatable boats (RHIBs) for patrol and transport operations.


KRI Gusti Ngurah Rai (332) –  JIBI – BISNIS

Weaponry and countermeasures aboard the frigate

The guided-missile frigate is armed with a close-in weapon system, a 76mm medium-calibre gun, two SSM launchers, and a 12-cell vertical launch short-range air defence system (VL SHORADS).

76mm medium-calibre gun


Technical data:

Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition

HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development

Source seaforces.org

Exocet MM40 Block 3


The MM40 Block 3 missile, complete with a Microturbo TRI 40 turbojet engine, began development 2004 and was first tested from a ship in 2010. Improvements to the MM40 Block 3 include internal navigation and GPS upgrades. These updates, combined with a frequency modulated continuous wave radar altimeter, allows for control of the missile’s altitude over various types of terrain. This missile is armed with a 160 kg high explosive/semi-armour piercing warhead and an active radar terminal seeker 9 Additional upgrades include increased evasive capabilities such as the ability to make a 180 degree turn post-launch, allowing the MM40 to evade defense missile systems. These upgraded missiles will be both ship- and ground-launched and will be deployed first onto Forbin (Horizon)-class destroyers and then to La Fayette-class frigates.


Originated From: France
Possessed By: Numerous (see table below)
Class: Anti-ship Cruise Missile
Basing: Sea/Air/Ground/Submarine
Length: 4.69- 5.95 m
Diameter: 350 mm
Launch Weight: 655-870 kg
Payload: Single warhead
Warhead: 165 kg HE fragmentation or semi-armor piercing
Propulsion: Solid fueled (MM40 Block 3 uses a Microturbo TRI 40 turbojet)
Range: 40-180 km
Status: Operational
In Service: 1975

Variant MM40 MM40 Block 2 MM40 Block 3
Basing Ship-, Ground-launched Ship-, Ground-launched Ship-, Ground-launched
Range 70 km 70 km 180 km
Warhead 165 kg HE frag. 165 kg HE frag. 160 kg HE frag.
Status Operational Operational Operational
Users Argentina, Bahrain, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Colombia, Cyprus, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Germany, Iraq, Ivory Coast, South Korea, Kuwait, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uruguay Brazil, Greece,    Indonesia, Malaysia,  Morocco,   South Africa Greece, Indonesia,   Morocco, UAE, Vietnam

Source missilethreat.csis.org

12-cell vertical launch short-range air defence system

The VL MICA is a weapon system with an unmatched self-defence and local area defence capability for a wide range of surface combatant vessels VL MICA is available with two state-of-the-art seekers (IR or RF).

It can counter the most severe IRCM-ECM scenarios with a very high kill probability.

VL MICA offers a real multiple target capability (autonomous guidance, extremely short reaction time) and all target capability (aircraft, missiles, PGMs, smart bombs and helicopters) with low training costs and reduced manpower requirements.
MICA VL Launch cellsVL MICA is integrated to the ship combat system, which provides target designation data from existing air defence sensors. No dedicated fire control system is needed (neither illuminator nor radar tracker).

The missile is launched from an individual storage container (no additional VLS), providing 360° engagement coverage and maintaining ship stealth and stability. The system compactness and modularity enable installation on a wide range of warships for new built or refit.

The VL MICA has already been procured by several navies all over the world. Source mbda-systems.com

Two triple torpedo launchers are provided for anti-submarine warfare. The ship is also equipped with guided-missile systems and gun systems for anti-air warfare, as well as anti-surface warfare operations.

Its countermeasure capabilities include two decoys / chaff, electronic support measures (ESM), and electronic countermeasures (ECM).


Sensor suite

The SIGMA 10514 PKR incorporates STIR 1.2 Mk2 electro-optical (EO) fire control system, identification friend or foe (IFF), KINGKLIP hull-mounted sonar, SMART-S Mk2 3D multi-beam surveillance, and target indication radar.

STIR 1.2 EO Mk 2 is the main fire control. R-ESM capability rely on Vigile Mk 2. L3 Wescam MX-10MS optronic surveillance system and Terma SKWS C-Guard (Example May not be exact model)

STIR 1.2 Mk2 electro-optical (EO) fire control system


Main features
• High precision fire control for small to medium caliber guns and short range missile systems. Use of K band radar with its small beam width greatly reduces low elevation multipath errors.
• Optional Continuous Wave Illumination for guidance of semi-active homing missiles such as ESSM. With the STIR family of products, Thales has a long history of over 35 years with Standard Missile illumination.
• Optional stealth covers for reduced RCS. Extensive simulation techniques as well as an anechoic measurement room have been used to optimize the stealth characteristics.

screenshot-www.thalesgroup.com-2018.04.22-21-10-40• Small target detection in strong clutter. The extremely stable and low noise front end with large dynamic range in combination with advanced coherent Doppler processing enable the detection of small targets in rough sea, adverse weather and land clutter environments.
• Radar surveillance mode for improved situational awareness and early threat detection.
• Observation, classification and tracking with multiple optical sensors.
• High system reliability thanks to Solid State transmitters. These transmitters have a large number of power amplifiers in parallel which provides graceful degradation in case of failure.
• Easy maintenance through Built-In Tests and repair by replacement.
• The system is in full series production.

Functional aspects
• Target Tracking
• Optical Surveillance
• Optical Target acquisition
• Radar Surveillance
• Radar Target acquisition
• CW Illumination (optional)
During target tracking the following functions are available:
• Shell spotting
• Missile launch detection
• Multiple target detection
• Kill assessment support

Source thalesgroup.com

KINGKLIP hull-mounted sonar


KINGKLIP is particularly efficient to detect submarines in rough sea states and coastal/littoral waters, where difficult reverberation conditions prevail.
It complements a CAPTAS Variable Depth Sonar to provide good coverage above & below the thermal layer.


System features:

  • Designed for medium size Surface Combatant
  • Cylindrical array installed inside an acoustically transparent dome (keel mounted)
  • ASW all-round surveillance
  • Several transmit configurations allowing operation with two ships in the same area
  • Integrated On-Board-Training capability
  • Embedded bathythermograph & performance prediction function for sonar optimisation

• Comprehensive Built-in Test capability


  • Can be operated either from CMS consoles or stand-alone
  • Directional/sectorial transmission
  • Underwater telephone capability
  • Powerful ASW Sonar Suite when integrated with CAPTAS VDS and sonobuoys


Array (Weight/Height/Diameter): (1.4t / 0.7m / 1.2m)
Active frequency range: 5250 to 8000 Hz
Pulse types: Hyperbolic FM, CW and COMBO
Pulse length: 60 ms to 4 s
Range scale: 1 to 72 kYds
Active modes:
– ASW: all-round surveillance
– Obstacle Avoidance: ± 90° off the ship’s bow
FM bandwidth: Wide bandwidth (2 kHz) against reverberation effect
Passive frequency range: 1000 to 8000 Hz.
Passive functions: All around broadband surveillance, LOFAR, DEMON & audio channels

Frigates also feature a LINK-Y datalink, an integrated internal and external communication system and extensive air, surface and sub-surface surveillance capabilities. Source thalesgroup.com


Thales Link Y Mk.2

Network centric mission Thales Link Y Mk.2 – Image: thalesgroup.com

Naval version (“shipborne”)
Link Y Mk2 is built in a compact housing compliant to military standards that meet the requirements for equipment in a naval environment. The naval version is to be integrated into any Combat Management System, e.g. TACTICOS, for surface vessels or submarines. Alternatively, the naval version can be delivered with a local control station to act as a standalone system on board. Source thalesgroup.com

Thales Network centric  – Image: thalesgroup.com

SMART-S Mk2 3D multi-beam surveillance, and target indication radar


SMART-S Mk2, Thales’s 3D multibeam radar, operates in S-band and is optimised for medium-to-long-range surveillance and target designation in littoral environments.



SMART-S Mk2 is the naval 3D air and surface surveillance radar operating in E/F-band. The multi-beam concept creates a long time-on-target resulting in excellent performance over the whole coverage. Pulse-Doppler processing enables fast target track initiation and stealth target detection, even in a cluttered environment. The use of solid-state transmitters extends the system reliability and allows for graceful degradation.

The latter consisting of a mix of sea, land, islands, coastal rains and thunderstorms and a multiple of radar targets including small surface targets, helicopters and anti-ship missiles. Furthermore, SMART-S Mk2 is designed to match the full performance of surface to air missiles (SAM), such as the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM). SMART-S Mk2 is extremely suitable as the main air and surface surveillance radar in a one radar concept for light frigates, corvettes and ships such as Landing Platform Docks (LPD).

Main features

With its 2 main modes, 250-km range, special helicopter mode, surface fire channels, easy installation, high reliability and easy maintainability, SMART-S Mk2 is again a step forward in Thales’s radar development. SMART-S Mk2 is very successful. At present, over 50 systems were sold to navies all over the world. They will be installed on new ships as well as on older vessels that are being modernized.

  • Multi-beam with full Doppler processing within each beam
  • Dedicated Doppler channel for surface targets
  • Fully automatic detection and tracking of air and surface targets
  • Dedicated ECCM techniques
  • Multipath suppression using beams under the horizon
  • Graceful degradation due to multiple solid-state transmitters

Source thalesgroup.com

Tacticos combat management system

Image: lancercell.com

One CMS for Warfighting and Maritime Security Operations 

With its certified openness and scalability of the underlying architecture, Thales delivers a modular Combat Management System, matched to a variety of mission profiles and to a variety of vessel types.

Based on a recognized fire control capability worldwide, TACTICOS combines Combat Operations and Maritime Security Operations in one CMS. Open standards technology and a massive amount of subsystems interface implementations, make TACTICOS the core of the mission solution. With new looks and new features which are carefully designed for mission packages and are released according to the TACTICOS roadmap. This year’s release enables customers to:

– Set up networks in coalitions with secure internet access with ease
– Quickly recognize traffic trends and anomalous behaviour
– Discover relations between contacts of interest emitting AIS and ADS-B
– See compact and light-weight consoles fitting large and small naval vessels
– Apply 3D net-centric training integrated in TACTICOS.

In addition Thales offers dedicated mission packages such as Anti Air Warfare clusters, Fire Control clusters and Tactical datalink solutions.

Source thalesgroup.com


The frigate’s nautical equipment includes two radars, global maritime distress and safety system A3 (GMDSS-A3) and a reference gyro.

Typical GMDSS installations for ships in international voyages (Area A3)

Propulsion of the guided-missile frigate


The combined diesel or electric (CODOE) propulsion system consists of two 10,000kW maximum continuous rating (MCR) diesel engines, two 1,300kW electric motors, two double input / single output gearboxes, and two 3.55m controllable pitch propellers.

Auxiliary units include six 715kWe generator sets, an 180kWe emergency generator set, two redundant distribution chilled water systems, degaussing and fire-fighting system with four main and one service pump.

Performance of SIGMA 10514 PKR frigate

The SIGMA 10514 PKR guided-missile frigate has a speed of 28kt. It can sail up to a range of 5,000nm at a 14kt speed and can endure for 20 days at sea.


Main material source naval-technology.com

Updated Nov 09, 2018