China’s military tech challenging West’s dominance: Study
PUBLISHEDFEB 16, 2017, 5:00 AM SGT
IISS cites advances in air power, Chinese-made weapon exports
LONDON • China is beginning to export its own weapon designs, including armed drones, worldwide and is reaching “near-parity” with the West in terms of military technology, according to a new report by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS).
It said China’s official defence budget of US$145 billion (S$206 billion) last year was 1.8 times higher than those of South Korea and Japan combined. It also accounted for more than a third of Asia’s total military spending in 2016.
The IISS’ annual Military Balance report said that spending in Asia grew by 5 to 6 percentage points a year between 2012 and 2016. Total global military spending instead fell by 0.4 per cent in real terms last year compared with 2015, largely due to reductions in the Middle East.
“China’s military progress highlights that Western dominance in the field of advanced weapons systems can no longer be taken for granted,” IISS director John Chipman said at a presentation in London.
“An emerging threat for deployed Western forces is that with China looking to sell more abroad, they may confront more advanced military systems, in more places, and operated by a broader range of adversaries,” he added.
The report found that “China appears to be reaching near-parity with the West” in terms of air power.
Some key points on China in the latest Military Balance report from the Institute of Strategic Studies:
- Western dominance in advanced weapons systems is no longer assured.
- As China exports more weapons, Western forces face the threat of more advanced military systems, in more places, and operated by diverse adversaries.
- China appears to be reaching near-parity with the West in air power.
- One Chinese air-to-air missile had no Western equivalent.
- It had introduced a type of short-range missile that only a few top aerospace nations are able to develop.
- It is also developing “what could be the world’s longest- range air-to-air missile”.
- Its military exports to Africa last year “were moving from the sale of Soviet-era designs to the export of systems designed in China”.
- Chinese-made armed drones had been seen in Nigeria and Saudi Arabia.
It said one of China’s air-to-air missiles had no Western equivalent and that China had introduced a type of short-range missile that “only a handful of leading aerospace nations are able to develop”.
It said China was also developing “what could be the world’s longest-range air-to-air missile”.
The report noted that Chinese military exports to Africa last year “were moving from the sale of Soviet-era designs to the export of systems designed in China”.
It said that Chinese-made armed drones had been seen in Nigeria and Saudi Arabia.
The report also noted that European states are “only gradually” increasing their defence spending.
“While Europe was one of the three regions in the world where defence spending rose in 2015 to 2016, European defence spending remains modest as a proportion of the continent’s gross domestic product (GDP),” the study said.
In 2016, IISS found that only two European Nato states – Greece and Estonia – met the aim of spending 2 per cent of their GDP on defence.
This was down from four European states that met the target in 2015 – Britain, Greece, Estonia and Poland. Britain’s spending dipped to 1.98 per cent of GDP, according to IISS calculations, although that figure was immediately disputed by Britain’s Defence Ministry.
But the IISS said it was more important that countries focus on upgrading their military equipment. “This is made more urgent because of the degree to which Western states have reduced their equipment and personnel numbers since the Cold War,” it said.
Original post straitstimes.com
Ten Largest Weapon Exporting Countries in the World
Posted by Amir
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is the organization that keeps record of total manufacturing of weapons worldwide and their total export and import figures. The data from worldwide is kept there from where the rankings in arms exporting countries are concluded annually. As per report, the volume of transfers of major weapons in 2011–15 was 14 per cent higher than in 2006–10. Moscow and Washington continue to lead the way in exporting the largest amount of weapons to the world. Russia and the U.S. remained the largest exporter of major weapons with highest share of global arms exports of 33 percent and 25 percent respectively.
USA is undoubtedly a dominant country in arms industry which surpassed all the others in its total exports worldwide. It is being reported that around 1.5 trillion US$ are spent every year on its manufacturing around the world with USA been on top in total manufacturing. The country outraced all other arms supplier by a significant margin and delivered major weapons to at least 96 states in the past five years while its largest recipients were Saudi Arabia, accounting for 9.7 percent of U.S. arms exports, and the UAE with 9.1 percent. Furthermore, this country has got significantly higher number of clients than any other supplier and its arms industry has large outstanding export orders, including for a total of 611 F-35 combat aircraft to 9 states. Its major weapons exports increased by 27 percent between 2006–10 and 2011–15.
With global export share of 25 percent, Russia remained the second largest arms exporting country and got major client India received 39 percent while China and Vietnam each received 11 percent. It delivers weapons to 50 states and major weapons exports increased by 28 percent between 2006–10 and 2011–15.
Chinese exports of major arms were just above those of France in 2011–15, growing by 88 per cent compared to 2006–10. French exports decreased by 9.8 per cent and German exports halved over the same period.
From the recent rankings issued by SIPRI in feb 2016, the countries with top arms exports in the world are listed below along with their statistics. The ten largest exporters of major weapons with their main clients, 2011–15.
China’s military forces neighbours into Asia-Pacific arms race
ROBERT WALL, DOUG CAMERON
The Wall Street Journal
12:00AM February 23, 2016
The rapid rise in China’s military spending and a greater assertiveness in its territorial claims is fuelling an arms race in the Asia-Pacific even though many countries involved have been hit by an economic slowdown, research reports suggest.
Of the 10 biggest importers of defence equipment in the past five years, six countries were in the Asia-Pacific, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute says in an annual report on arms transfers.
India was the largest buyer of foreign equipment, with China in third position after Saudi Arabia.
Although a country’s spending power is often tied to its economic strength, buyers in the Asia-Pacific have not slashed military budgets despite their economies coming under strain from falling commodity prices and lower growth in China.
“The slight moderation in economic activity had little effect on regional military spending in 2015,” the International Institute for Strategic Studies says in a new report.
Last year, China, Japan, South Korea and Indonesia announced plans for higher military spending, the IISS report says.
Lower economic output has driven up Asian military spending as a percentage of GDP to 1.48 per cent, the London-based research organisation says, its highest level since at least 2010.
China leads the way, accounting for 41 per cent of the region’s military spending, well ahead of India at 13.5 per cent and Japan with 11.5 per cent.
Western arms manufacturers last week flocked to the Singapore air show to promote their wares to the region’s government buyers.
Swedish defence equipment- maker Saab AB used the event to unveil two maritime surveillance aircraft based on a Bombardier business jet and a turboprop plane, amid growing demand for monitoring of sea lanes in the region.
The Asia-Pacific was an area “where we see significant interest at the moment”, said Joakim Mevius, who heads Saab’s airborne spyplane business. A first buyer could be on contract in the next two years, he said.
IHS Jane’s forecasts annual military spending in the Asia-Pacific will reach $US533 billion by 2020 from $US435bn last year.
A big driver of regional concern has been China’s moves to build islands in the South China Sea to boost territorial claims. It has also deployed anti-aircraft missiles on a disputed island in the South China Sea. The missiles were detected on Woody Island, part of the Paracels, claimed also by Vietnam and Taiwan.
“For several of the countries, like Vietnam and The Philippines, that obviously shows that China means it when it says ‘this is ours’,” said Siemon Wezeman, a senior researcher at SIPRI.
There is no sign China’s military spending splurge is about to end. The country’s defence budget was expected to reach $US225bn in 2020 from $US191bn in 2015, having risen 43 per cent in real terms since 2010, said IHS Jane’s analyst Craig Caffrey.
Original post: The Wall Street Journal