Daily Archives: December 22, 2016

Japan wants to win Thai air defense radar contract

Japan seeks to win Thai air defense radar contract – sources

Thu Dec 22, 2016 | 3:06pm IST

By Tim Kelly and Nobuhiro Kubo | TOKYO

Japan is seeking to win a contract to supply Thailand with an air defense radar system built by Mitsubishi Electric Corp, as it looks to counter growing Chinese influence in the Southeast Asian nation, according to four Japanese government officials and one industry source.

The effort is part of a wider push by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration to bolster its position in the region along with its U.S. ally. The Chief of Staff of Japan’s Air Self Defense Force, Yoshiyuki Sugiyama, traveled to Bangkok last month to discuss areas of possible cooperation.

Japan expects the Thai military government to begin accepting competitive bids as early as next year as it upgrades and adds to its existing U.S. and European radar systems, the sources said. It is unclear who else may be bidding.

The value of such a contract is unclear as the specifications for the system have not yet been released. Radar systems built by Mitsubishi and other companies for Japan can stretch to hundreds of millions of dollars depending on the complexity and coverage. The sources said Japan would look to offer a lower price system because of Thailand’s limited defense budget.

Japan’s push for stronger ties with Thailand, will benefit the U.S. given the growing tensions over China’s claims in the South China Sea, according to the sources. Japan, which until 2014 had a ban on arms exports, has not previously sold military equipment to Thailand.

Since the 2014 coup brought the current Thai government to power, the U.S. has had strained relations with its old ally, which served as a staging ground for American forces during the Vietnam War, offering access to strategic airfields and ports.

In July, Thailand agreed to buy three Chinese-built submarines worth around $1 billion in a deal that illustrated Beijing’s willingness to fill the vacuum left by Washington. And last month, Thai and Chinese military planes performed acrobatic demonstrations together at the Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base, around 260 km (161 miles) northeast of Bangkok, as a prelude to the first joint military drill between the nations’ air forces.

A company spokeswoman said Mitsubishi Electric does not discuss individual deals.

“While we are aware that Thailand is moving ahead with the deployment of air defense radar, we can’t comment on the activities of individual corporations,” a spokesman for Japan’s defense ministry said.

A Thailand Defense Ministry spokesman, Kongcheep Tantravanich, said that “many countries want to sell it to us but we have to see if the system fits.” Spokesmen for the Royal Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Air Force said they had no knowledge of a plan for a new system.

Washington has a statutory obligation to withhold aid to militaries involved in coups against democratically elected governments. That includes restricting its arms makers from selling military kit to the country. Japan does not face such restrictions in engaging with the Thai government.

Tokyo is worried that China’s wooing of Thailand could further split members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and blunt criticism of China’s island building in the South China Sea. Beijing has claimed most of the resource-rich waterway as its own, sparking protests from other claimants, including Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan and Brunei.

The radar Japan proposes for the deal is a variant on Mitsubishi Electric’s fixed-position FSP-3 radar, an older generation system that has been used by Japan’s Self Defense Forces to detect air threats, the sources said.

(Reporting by Tim Kelly and Nobuhiro Kubo; additional reporting by Amy Sawitta Lefevre and Panarat Thepgumpanat in BANGKOK; Editing by Martin Howell in Singapore)

Original post reuters.com

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Thailand recently receives KS-1C air defense system from China

Mitsubishi Electric’s fixed-position FPS-3 radar

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J / FPS-3 is, the Defense Agency (now the Ministry of Defense ) technology Research Division to develop and Air Self-Defense Force of the radar site fixed warning and control has been operating in the radar unit ( 3-dimensional radar ) . Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.

Two types of antenna equipment (for long-distance and short-distance antenna rotary active consisting) phased array . Such as a signal processing device has been installed underground, thereby improving the endurable. Japan developed, is the first of the active phased array radar was put into practical use. Long distance for a two-dimensional ( azimuth , elevation ), at close range for the one-dimensional electronic scanning system, for each element antenna more than 1,000 semiconductor microwave with a transceiver module.

2008 from the degree, missile defense in order to respond to ballistic missile capacity building in order to track the is carried out, in 2009 all until the degree of J / FPS-3 breaks have been fixed in.

Pseudo radio wave generator ( decoy ) to generate a decoy radio waves than, radio homing missiles ( versus radar missiles to interfere with) electronic warfare also corresponds to. In addition, fiber-optic long-distance, high-speed, large-capacity using the cable data transmission for the first time to adopt the technology in the warning and control radar, by isolating the radar antenna and the operation room, etc., made it possible to ensure safety of personnel, equipment. Source wikiwand.com

Related post:

Thailand & China in talks to develop military production facilities

Ukraine’s Tough T-84 Oplot-M Tank Won’t Fight Russia (And Is Being Sold to Thailand?)

Royal Thai Navy Submits Funding Plan For Submarine Purchase

Thailand to procure MBT-3000/VT-4 tanks from China

Japan, Thailand eyeing arms deal

KS-1 (missile): Details

S-70i Black Hawk Helicopter

S-70i Black Hawk helicopter is the latest in the family of Black Hawk multimission aircraft. The helicopter is being built by Poland-based PZL Mielec, a subsidiary of Sikorsky Aircraft. The S-70i is being offered for international military customers and government agencies.

Armed S-70i breaks cover in Poland: Here

Asset ImageKrzysztof Trzaski/PZL Mielec

The S-70i helicopter can be configured according to customer specific missions, including troop transport and air assault, command and control, border patrol, search and rescue, cargo lift and VIP transport. The first S-70i Black Hawk helicopter successfully made its first flight in July 2010.

S-70i international orders, deliveries and design

ba89da940d7007f23944782354aced96.jpgImage: defence24.pl

PZL Mielec delivered the first three S-70i Black Hawk helicopters to an undisclosed launch customer in August 2011.

Sikorsky Aircraft signed a contract with the Brunei Ministry of Defence in December 2011, to supply 12 S-70i helicopters for the Royal Brunei Air Force (RBAF). The contractual scope also includes the supply of spare parts, training and ground support equipment, plus an option for ten additional helicopters.

brunei_helo_-_mainRoyal Brunei Air Force S-70i – Image: janes.com

Sikorsky delivered five S-70i Black Hawks to the Special Forces unit of the Colombian Army’s Air Assault Division in March 2013.

Colombian Army inducts S-70i Black Hawk: Here

s-70i_colombia2Image: Helicopter History Site

The Colombian Army placed an order with Sikorsky Aircraft for two additional S-70i Black Hawk helicopters in April 2013. The deliveries are scheduled to conclude by October 2013.

The S-70i Black Hawk helicopter has a maximum gross weight of 9,979kg. It can carry two crew members and up to 13 troops.

Chilean Air Force selects Black Hawk for medium-lift helicopter: Here

The Turkish government plans to build a fleet of multi-role T70 utility helicopters: Here

1467830663723.jpgTurkish Utility Helicopter Program to build a fleet of multi-role T70 utility helicopters based on the S-70i™ BLACK HAWK aircraft – Image: lockheedmartin.com

Airbus fury as Poland scraps helicopters deal and gives Lockheed $3.5bn order instead: Here

The reliable crash-worthy airframe design of the S-70i integrates a machined cabin structure and a single-piece cockpit assembly. The structure can resist small-arms fire and high-explosive projectiles. Entry and exit of the crew and troops are provided by two jettisonable cockpit doors and two sliding cargo doors respectively.

S-70i Black Hawk construction no. data base: Here

“HH-60M and S-70i export version of the UH-60M”

UH-60M: Details

10557154_740126609358569_2360427067261229311_nRoyal Thai Army UH-60M – Image: thaidefense-news.blogspot.com

The helicopter can be fitted with ballistic protection, an active vibration control system, medical equipment, wire strike protection, Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system, auxiliary fuel tanks, an external rescue hoist, rappelling equipment and cargo hook.

Cockpit and avionics of the S-70i Black Hawk

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gdziewojsko.files.wordpress.com

The glass cockpit of the S-70i features crash-worthy seats for pilot and co-pilot. The fully integrated digital cockpit is equipped with an advanced avionics suite incorporating four ten-inch colour multifunctional displays (MFDs), a dual digital automatic flight control system and coupled flight director and flight management system (FMS).

CMA-2082MC flight management system (FMS)

CMA-2082MC-resized-768x1010.jpg

The CMA-2082M is an intelligent, self-contained multifunction control and display unit that integrates and provides centralized control of navigation sensors, communications radios, displays, mission avionics and aircraft systems. It features a large, user friendly three-inch by five-inch display area, a full alpha-numeric key panel and supports a number of interfaces.

For added flexibility, the unit offers multiprocessor support for the development of independent or customer designed software applications. These features, in combination with the unit’s modular, open architecture, provide numerous benefits, including enhanced obsolescence management as well as exceptional growth and upgrade capabilities.

The CMA-2082MC is currently installed and flying on the U.S. Army UH-60M, the HH-60M and S-70i export version of the UH-60M. Source verticalmag.com

sikorsky09-660x440.jpgS-70 – Image: wired.com

The navigation and communication systems include a dual embedded GPS/INS system with digital map, two UHF/VHF AM/FM radios, automatic direction finder, VOR/ILS and three-station crew digital inter-communication system (ICS).

AN/ARC-220 HF Airborne Communications System

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Features & Benefits

  • The standard high-frequency radio of U.S. Army aviation platforms
  • Offers embedded ALE, ECCM and data modem
  • Includes Automatic Quick Call ALE (AQC-ALE) for faster connections
  • ALE Region ID for reduced ALE overhead; less sounding required
  • Features automatic position reporting for situational awareness
  • Includes binary messaging with ARQ protocol
  • Able to rapidly and efficiently tune a variety of antennas
  • Includes form/fit/function retrofit of existing AN/ARC-199 installations
  • Provides email messaging using Rockwell Collins HF Messenger™ software

Performance

Frequency 2.0000 – 29.9999 MHz in 100-Hz steps
Channels 20 user programmable simplex or half-duplex
20 programmable simplex or half-duplex
20 programmable automatic link establishment (ALE) scan lists
12 programmable ECCM hop sets (RT-1749 only)
Frequency Stability 3.3 x 10-7 over operating temperature range
Emission Modes USB & LSB-voice and data, CW, and AME
ALE IAW MIL-STD-188-141B Appendix A and MIL-STD-188-141B Appendix A AQC-ALE JITC certified 26 July 2002
ALE Linking Protection ALE Linking Protection AL1, AL2, & AL3 (MIL-STD-188-141B Appendix B)
ECCM IAW MIL-STD-188-148A – JITC certified 18 July 2002
Modem IAW MIL-STD-188-110B and STANAG 4285 – JITC certified 18 July 2002

Main Components

Type Part Number Description Shipset number
RT-1749A 822-0788-003 Receiver/Transmitter 1
AM-7531 822-0787-001 Power Amplifier-Coupler 1
C-12436 (if needed) 822-0786-001 Control Display Unit 1
MT-7106 822-0789-00 Mount, PAC, non-isolated 1
MT-7108 822-0791-001 Mount, RT, non-isolated 1

Source rockwellcollins.com

img_20160314_090856Columbian S-70i – Image: aviacionejercito.mil.co

DF-500 SAR Direction Finder

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The highly capable DF-500 system pinpoints distress signals with unmatched accuracy and reliability. It enables aircraft to receive and immediately locate activated 406 MHz Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) signals, allowing crews to go directly to people in distress.

Software defined radio technology developed for the DF-500 enables higher sensitivity, immunity to interferences, and stability of bearing indications. New features include multi-channel scanning and real-time monitoring, as well as fast scanning and interoperability with maritime digital selective calling (DSC) and automatic identification system (AIS) distress protocols. Its unique multi-channel architecture enables key frequencies to be monitored simultaneously allowing rapid detection of emergency beacons and distress or safety calls over V/UHF radios. Source rockwellcollins.com

2478446_s70-black-hawkS-70 with weather radar dome – Image: fotograficzka.flog.pl

Integrated Primus 701A Weather Radar

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Honeywell’s Primus® 700A/701A search and rescue weather radars are the finest systems available with surveillance and search modes integrated with color weather radar. Primus 701A has all of the features of the Primus 700A, but has the additional beacon detection.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1521079029521

The radars incorporate ARINC 429 and ARINC 708 interfaces allowing compatibility with a wide range of display products. These radar offer ruggedized chassis, reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI) emissions and susceptibility and improved blanking outputs.

The Primus 701A operates with either a weather radar indicator or with an electronic flight information system (EFIS) system using controllers. Source aerospace.honeywell.com

S-70i helicopter cabin and armament

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The cabin of the S-70i is equipped with multifunctional 300psi cabin flooring and internal sound-proofing panels. The flexible design of the cabin allows for quick modifications to meet the mission requirements. The seating can be removed to accommodate cargo and supplies. The spacious cabin offers an area of 8.1m².

Cabin

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.09-19-18-04Shephard Media
Cabin Length 12.6 ft 3.8 m
Cabin Width 7.7 ft 2.3 m
Cabin Height 4.5 ft 1.3 m
Cabin Area 88 ft2 8.1 m2
Cabin Volume 396 ft3 11.2 m3
Baggage Volume 20 ft3 0.5 m3

Cabin data pzlmielec.pl

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.09-19-21-20Shephard Media

The baseline S-70i helicopter comes with no standard armament fit out. The new-build S-70i helicopters or existing platforms can be integrated with Battlehawk system. The system encompasses machine guns, 70mm rocket launchers, air-to-ground laser missile system, helmet-mounted sight, external gun mounting system and external stores weapon system.

Battlehawk system

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LockMart explores Adaptable Weapons Kit for S70i Black Hawks: Here

DAGR™ air-to-ground missile

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The 2.75-inch/70mm DAGR missile is a precision-strike, multi-role, multi-platform munition that effectively neutralizes lightly-armored and high-value targets close to civilian assets or friendly forces. DAGR offers strike capability with the reliability of a HELLFIRE II missile while further limiting collateral damage.

The DAGR system puts HELLFIRE II missile and Joint Air-to-Ground Missile technology in a 2.75-inch guidance section that integrates seamlessly with legacy Hydra-70 rockets. Like HELLFIRE, DAGR offers lock-on-after-launch (LOAL) and lock-on-before-launch (LOBL) capability, target handoff, enhanced built-in testing on the rail, and laser coding from the cockpit. The result is a laser-guided missile that offers capabilities beyond those of a simple guided rocket.

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.09-19-20-56Shephard Media

DAGR has proven itself in over 30 successful guided flights, launched from such rotary-wing platforms as the AH-64D Apache, AH-6 Little Bird and OH-58 Kiowa Warrior. And every DAGR target strike has hit within 1 meter of the laser-designated aimpoint. The seeker’s ±8 degree field of view provides a large engagement envelope, enabling DAGR to acquire and launch at targets off-axis, maintain contact with a laser spot in high winds while in flight, and zero in on pop-up or moving targets.DAGR is compatible with digital smart launchers—ready to integrate with HELLFIRE systems today and modernized rocket launchers tomorrow. DAGR missiles can also be launched from legacy or modified M260/M261 launchers.

dagr-lockheed-martin-rocket

The DAGR rail-mounted canister (RMC) mounts to HELLFIRE-compatible digital and analog launchers (e.g., M299/M310 and M272). The RMC readily integrates with all HELLFIRE platforms, including unmanned aerial vehicles and Apache, Kiowa, Little Bird, Cobra, and Tiger helicopters.

Plug-and-play HELLFIRE II compatibility allows aircrews to mix loadouts between HELLFIRE and DAGR missiles on the same launcher, providing the flexibility to meet any challenge on an ever-changing battlefield. When increased loadout or reduced weight is a must, DAGR delivers. Source lockheedmartin.com

19-shot Hydra-70 rocket pod & HELLFIRE II

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.09-19-20-33Shephard Media

FN HERSTAL Belgium manufactured machine gun pod

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Defence24

  • Specially-Designed Machine GunThe .50 cal FN® M3P machine gun has been especifically designed by FN Herstal for airborne applications.
  • High Hit Probability

    A high rate of fire guarantees short time on target (1,025 +/- 75 RPM, per pod, adjustable)
  • Improved Accuracy and SafetyThe FN® M3P machine gun features a Flash Hider and is installed on a soft mount that absorbs most recoil forces for increased accuracy.
  • Accurate suppressive and defensive fire against troops up to 3,000m
  • Suppressive fire against light armored vehicles up to 1,000m (.50 cal APEI round)
  • Ignition of fuel tanks and containers up to 2,500m (.50 cal APEI round)
  • Aerial threat suppression (.50 cal APEI round)

Data fnherstal.com 

FN HERSTAL 50-caliber (12.7mm) machine gun mounted to the cabin floor

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Defence24

The M3M is a .50 caliber (12.7mm) machine gun suitable for rotary-wing aircraft applications manufactured by FN Herstal of Belgium. This .50 caliber machine gun provides suppressive fire to counter light armored vehicles, support fire in landing zones, ground and aerial threat suppression, and training. Its short time maximum firing rate is 1,100 rounds per minute or 600 rounds in a single burst against targets at ranges of over 2,000 meters. The weapon’s design with the hands on the pintle and an elastic craddle (recoil forces absorbed) allow for high accuracy. The weapon system is provided with ammunition boxes with the capacity ranging from 100 rounds (14.4 kg) to 600 rounds (96.4 kg).

In January 2004 the US Navy awarded FN Herstal a contract for the procurement of 136 M3M .50 caliber machine guns and 24 spare M3Ms. The new weapon system was designed the GAU-21 and was slated for use by the US Navy and the US Marine Corps rotary-wing aircraft assault groups. In September 2006, the US Navy awarded a $22 million contract to FN Herstal for 519 GAU-21 weapon systems with related equipment and services.

The GAU-21 specifications are as follows: firing rates of 1,000 rounds per minute, barrel life of 10,000 rounds, the ability to use 100, 300 and 600 round ammunition cans, compatibility with all NATO .50 caliber ammunition, and the capability of dismounting the machine gun by a person within 2 minutes. The US Navy and the US Marine Corps plans call for integration of the GAU-21 machine gun on the following platforms: CH-53 (rear ramp), CH-46, H-60, UH-1 and MV-22 aircraft. Source deagel.com

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.09-19-14-19Lapua Magnum

7.62 caliber machine guns

BG11Z012h.jpgphoto – (Photo André BOUR) – Image: helicopassion.com

7.62-mm mini-gun

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.09-19-15-21Lapua Magnum
Designation
(see Note 2)
Army – M134D
Air Force – GAU-2B/A
Navy – GAU-17/A
Ship Class Used On Many
Date Of Design about 1963
Date In Service 1965
Gun Weight 35 lbs. (16 kg)
Gun Length oa 29.5 in (75 cm) including suppressor
Barrels are 22 in (55.9 cm) long
Bore Length N/A
Rifling Length 20 in (50.8 cm)
Grooves 4
Lands N/A
Twist Uniform RH 1 in 33.333
Chamber Volume N/A
Rate Of Fire
(see Note 3)
2,000 to 4,000 rounds per minute

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.09-19-19-41

  1. Barrel cluster rotates counterclockwise as viewed from the breech end.
  2. M134D is the minigun itself. Other designations are usually for the “gun assemblies” that include the mounting. The GAUSE designation appears only on text released with U.S. Navy photographs. It may represent a “sailor-alt” rather than an official U.S. Navy designation, although I have been unable to confirm that one way or the other. I have been told by USN personnel that the “SE” in GAUSE probably stands for “Shipboard Equipment” and refers to the entire gun and mounting assembly rather than to just the minigun itself.
  3. The original design of the 1960s had a fixed rate of about 6,000 rounds per minute. This was unsustainable over any period of time and the weapon was redesigned to add a transmission housing at the motor, giving the weapon a variable speed of 2,000 or 4,000 rounds per minute. On the newer Dillon Aero Inc. version, the rate of fire is determined by the gun drive unit used, with drive units giving either 3,000 or 4,000 rounds per minute available. There is no speed selection on this version other than by assembling a different gun drive motor to the the gun system assembly. The 3,000 ROF drive motor takes 0.5 seconds to spin up to speed and 0.25 seconds to spin down to stop. When the trigger is released, there is a delay until all six barrels have been cleared by fire. This ensures that no live ammunition is left in the firing chambers, thus eliminating cook-off problems. Source navweaps.com

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Engines and landing gear of Black Hawk helicopters

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The S-70i Black Hawk is powered by two T700-GE701D turboshaft engines equipped with C controls.

Each engine develops a maximum power of 1,447kW. The twin-engine power plant drives the main rotor comprising of four composite-titanium blades.

s-70i_38350bSikorsky S-70i  –  s/n n/a  –  c/n n/a   –  Paris LeBourget, France  –  22 June 2011  Main rotor hub detail.  Note lead-lag damper w/ ball joint bearings, spring-loaded droop stop (brass colored), internal spherical elastomeric bearing (around white part with red stripe) and bi-filar vibration absorber (top left) – Image: b-domke.de

General Electric T700-GE-701D engine

motor

Number of Engines 2
Engine Type T700 GE 701D
Take-off Shaft horsepower (5 min) 3,988 shp 2,974 kw
OEI Shaft horsepower (30 sec) 1,972 shp 1,447 kw

Performance

Maximum Taekoff Gross Weight 22,000 lbs 9,979 kg
Maximum Gross Weight with External Load 23,500 lbs 10,659 kg
Maximum Cruise Speed

(Standard day, sea level)

160 kts 297 km/h
Maximum Range – No Reserve, no additional tanks 268 kts 496 km
HIGE Ceiling

(Ceiling for 18,000 lbs GW)

15,000 ft 4,572 m
HOGE Ceiling

(Ceiling for 18,000 lbs GW)

11,000 ft 3,353 m
OEI Service Ceiling 3,700 ft 1,127 m
AEO Service Ceiling

(Ceiling for 18,000 lbs GW)

20,000 ft 6,097 m

Technical data pzlmielec.pl

sikorsky_s-70i_black_hawk_sp-yvc_ila_2012_05_rotor_detail

The fuel system is composed of two crash-worthy and self-sealing fuel tanks. The single-point service connection allows close circuit and pressure refuelling.

The S-70i Black Hawk features a three-point dual OLEO landing gear with energy absorbing features.

The rugged landing gear allows the landing and take-off from virtually any unprepared terrain.

Performance of the S-70i multimission helicopter

The S-70i can fly at a maximum cruise speed of 277km/h. The AEO (All Engines Operating) service ceiling of the helicopter is 13,200ft. The helicopter has a maximum range of 459km with no reserve.

Variants

S-70

The company name for the H-60/S-70 family is the S-70 Black Hawk.

  • S-70A Black Hawk (UH-60 Black Hawk): Military model for the export market.
  • S-70A Firehawk Firefighting variant of the UH-60L. Tank system designed and built by Aero Union in Chico, California.
  • S-70A (N) Naval Hawk Maritime variant that blends the S-70A Black Hawk and S-70B Seahawk designs.
  • S-70B/C Seahawk: Maritime military model for the export market.
  • S-70A-9: Australian derivative Black Hawk
  • S-70C Firehawk: Commercial variant
  • S-70i Black Hawk: International military version assembled by Sikorsky subsidiary, PZL Mielec in Poland.

Derivatives

  • Sikorsky S-71 – a proposed attack helicopter using dynamic components from the S-70.
  • Sikorsky S-92 – Civilian medium-lift derivative of the Black Hawk.
    • H-92 Superhawk – Military version of the S-92. The Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone is the H-92 version for the Canadian Forces.
  • Turkish Aerospace Industries T-70: A Turkish variant of the S-70i, built under license by Turkish Aerospace Industries with indigenous Turkish mission-computer, avionics, landing gear and transmission. Turkey was to initially to produce about 150 T-70s under license. US Ambassador to Turkey Frank Ricciardone stated that Turkey now intends to produce some 600 T-70s.

Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone: Details

ch148_8441rcs

Operators: Here

Specifications (S-70i)

s-70i_black_hawk_multirole_combat_helicopter_sikorsky_united_states_american_aviation_defence_industry_line_drawing_blueprint_001Image: pzlmielec.pl

Data from Sikorsky

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Armament

  • Guns: M240, MAG-58, M3M, Gau-19
  • Rockets: Hydra
  • Missiles: Hellfire (x16)

Source wikiwand.com

Main material source army-technology.com

Updated Sep 09, 2018