Daily Archives: December 4, 2016

DROD to continue development of Naval Tejas even though being dumped by Navy

DRDO to salvage home-grown aircraft dumped by Indian Navy

In a setback to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Make in India programme in defence sector, Navy Chief Admiral Sunil Lanba had on Friday announced that naval LCA did not meet his force’s requirements and it would look for a foreign-made plane.The DRDO, however, would continue to work on it.

Ajit Kumar Dubey | Posted by Yashaswani Sehrawat

New Delhi, December 4, 2016 | UPDATED 05:33 IST

Despite the Navy junking the aircraft carrier version of the home-grown Light Combat Aircraft, the DRDO would continue working on the plane to develop it into a naval variant of the indigenous fifth-generation Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA).

In a setback to Prime Minister Narendra Modi‘s Make in India programme in defence sector, Navy Chief Admiral Sunil Lanba had on Friday announced that naval LCA did not meet his force’s requirements and it would look for a foreign-made plane.

“Despite the Navy junking our project, we would go ahead with developing the Naval LCA as a technology demonstrator. We will use the experience and learning for developing it into a fifthgeneration fighter plane,” DRDO officials told Mail Today.

 The DRDO is already working on the proposed Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft which will have the capabilities and strength of a fifth generation fighter and we would develop a naval variant of the plane using the experience of working on Naval LCA, they said.

NAVY TO SCOUT GLOBAL MARKETS

The Navy has been given permission by the Defence Ministry to scout global markets for an aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft for its future requirements. The Naval LCA made its maiden flight in April 2012 and two prototypes are currently undergoing flying as part of the development.

The DRDO and Navy have also created a ‘Shore-based Test Facility’ for the development of the Naval LCA at the INS Hansa naval air base in Goa and the aircraft had been recently tested there.

“We will seek aircraft elsewhere which can operate on the aircraft carrier,” Lanba had announced on Friday.

THE Navy currently operates Russian MiG-29K fighters from the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya and which will also fly from the first Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) Vikrant once it enters service.

The MiG-29Ks were procured by India with the INS Vikramaditya and it is the only country in the world to operate the aircraft. Its maker Russia also does not use it in its Navy. A second IAC weighing 65,000 tonnes is currently in the design phase and the Navy Chief said that they would soon approach the government for approval. The Navy has also, so far, promised to help DRDO in developing its fifth-generation AMCA aircraft.

The IAF was also earlier reluctant to buy the LCA but due to continuous pressure by Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar, the Air Force agreed to buy around 80 more planes from Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, making it into a success story.

Original post intoday.in

****-END-****

“”We will seek aircraft elsewhere which can operate on the aircraft carrier,” Lanba had announced on Friday.

THE Navy currently operates Russian MiG-29K fighters from the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya and which will also fly from the first Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) Vikrant once it enters service.”

Related post:

Set back for Tejas as Navy rejects Tejas, says ‘overweight’ and does not meet its requirements

French Safran help India revive its indigenous jet engine project – Kaveri

Swedish Company Offers India Collaboration to Manufacture Sea Fighter Jets

INS Vikrantmaxresdefault

MiG-29Kabout-mig-29k

Tejas

ZU-23-2 Pilica – rocket-artillery set anti-aircraft, Poland

Pilica is a system of very short-range anti-aircraft dedicated to the defense of important military and civilian, both fixed and mobile against attacks from the air from a distance of 5 km. It has integrated computer system to detect, identify and manage combat objectives, which provides Pilica high efficiency at high mobility and low operating costs. 

The Pilica was created in response to demand DIRECTOR OPL Air Force in the field of air defense system very short (close) range (ang .: V-SHORAD). In the design is meant to be an autonomous system (stand-alone battery), which will be able to protect a single object / area, eg. Air base and logistics, command post or sub-unit.

dsc04709-e1473702479143

The battery creates a standard configuration: six (anti Sets Rocket Artillery) PZRA ZUR-23-2SP iodide, computerized command post, mobile radar station trójwspółrzędna Sola, the point of observation and visual system wired communications and radio for communication between the individual components of the battery and command system OPL.

For basic configuration, you can add additional modules to allow all incorporated into a broader defense system and command (eg. REGA). Pilica is an integral part of an integrated, multi-layered defense.

Workhorse of the system – ZUR-23-2SP iodide

61ee5098a544eedf1baaab4c88d5dc2c.png

A key element of systems Pilica his arm, and so anti-Kit Rocket Artillery PZRA -ZUR-23-2SP iodide. It is a modification of the popular Polish Army 23mm towed artillery system ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft. Work on a set of modern artillery-rocket of this type, which forms a part of an integrated system of anti, it started already in 2006. In 2010-2013, they were co-financed by the National Centre for Research and Development and implemented by a consortium consisting of: the Military Technical Academy (leader), Mechanical Works Tarnów SAi Bumar Sp. Z oo (now Polish Defensive Holding Sp. Z oo) .

Arm set to double cannon caliber 23mm for the theoretical rate of 2000 strz./min and effective fire range up to 3 km and 2 anti-aircraft missiles GROM with a range of 5.5 km.With increased speed and precision tracking kit it is capable not only destroy aircraft and combat helicopters, but also means unmanned flying , and even missiles maneuvering. It is also possible to destroy lightly armored targets both land and surface ships.

Grom (missile) 

b1d782c9aa9d3c160340c988a1f6d32bFig. ZM Tarnów – Image: cyberdefence24.pl

Initially at least since the 1970s the MESKO metal works in Skarżysko-Kamienna mass-produced license-built Soviet Strela-2M (SA-7 Grail) surface-to-air missiles, designated in Poland as Strzała-2M. However, when these became outdated in the late 1980s the lead designers prepared the works to produce a more modern Soviet design, the 9K38 Igla (SA-18 Grouse). However, Poland left the Soviet bloc in 1990 and the license was declined, thus leaving Poland with no modern MANPADS at hand.

2b063979519f2aaebfba4decd0cc020e.pngFot. J. Sabak/Defence24.pl – Image: cyberdefence24.pl

Because of that, in late 1992 various Polish works and design bureaus (among them the Zielonka-based Military Institute of Armament Technology, the WAT Military University of Technology and the Skarżysko Rocket Design Bureau) started working on a new Igla-like design. These were allegedly helped by the Polish intelligence services able to buy the design plans of the original 9K38 Igla missile system in the LOMO works in Leningrad (modern St. Petersburg) during the turmoil following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. By 1995 the first batch (marked as GROM-1) entered service. It included a number of imported Russian components. By the late 1990s these were replaced with entirely Poland-designed elements.

Ćwiczenia_przeciwlotników_04wikiwand.com
Type Man-Portable SAM
Place of origin Poland
Service history
In service 1995 – present
Used by See Operators
Wars 2008 Russian-Georgian War
Production history
Designer Military Institute of Armament Technology, WAT Military University of Technology, Skarżysko Rocket Design Bureau
Manufacturer Mesko, Skarżysko-Kamienna
Produced 1995 – present
Specifications
Weight 16.5 kilograms (36 lb), and for missile only 10.5 kilograms (23 lb)
Diameter 72 millimetres (2.8 in)
Warhead weight 1.27 kilograms (2.8 lb)
Detonation
mechanism
contact
Engine solid fuel rocket
Operational
range
5.5 kilometres (3.4 mi)
Flight altitude 3.5 kilometres (11,000 ft)
Speed 650 metres per second (2,100 ft/s)
Guidance
system
infrared
Launch
platform
MANPADS

Source wikiwand.com

700x450-crop-90-blizej_pilicy3Image: tarnow.pl

The contract for the successor Grom missiles this year. Pilica domnknie lower floor shield (Kontrakt na następcę rakiet Grom w tym roku. Pilica domnknie dolne piętro tarczy): Here

2A14 23 mm autocannons

ad_aag_zu23_m1Image: weaponsystems.net

Kanon construction HM Afanasyev from the Tula arms factory, which is over 50 years in serial production. Is the most efficient model range of weapons (12.7 A, AM-23, 2A14) using the same design scheme – ie. Taking gas from the barrel wedge conclusion and leverage retractable charges. Weapons license produced in other countries.

2A14s.jpgImage: forum.valka.cz

Caliber – 23 x 152 mm
Index 2A14 (2A14M) in the ZU-23-2 – index 2A13 (2A13M)
Barrel length – 1880 mm / 2150 mm with silencer flame
slots – 10, width of 3.8 mm, a progressive climb – 50 caliber u chamber 30 caliber at the mouth
Lifetime mainly – 6-8000 rounds
overall weapon length – 2555 mm
weapon weight – 75 kg

2a14aImage: forum.valka.cz

supply rozpadávacím metal bands left and right execution weapons.
Stretching arms (hand), as well as removal of cartridges not included weapons, but the cradle, which is a weapon mounted.

ZSU-23-4 uses AZP-assembly 23 “Amur” 2A10 (2A10) which are mounted on two cradles 4 pcs guns 2A7 (2A7M), which differ thinner main liquid cooling and another silencer flame. Cocking the gun pneumatic with older versions, newer models use a pyrotechnic system with three pyro known from air cannons.

Use:
ZU-23 and derived versions of the
ZSU-23-4

Resources
Manual Manual, published in 1976, the
web site of the manufacturer (kbptula.ru)
own archive

Google translated Source forum.valka.cz

Poland Awards Anti-Aircraft Defense Contract: Here

psra-pilica-poligon-chrcynno-01-kopiowanieImage: zmt.tarnow.pl

Pilica is configured as a standalone plutonium has a computer fire control system with electro-devices. Grom missiles are able to engage targets at a distance of about 5 km, while the 23 mm cannon in a radius of 2 km. The optimal spacing battery is capable of protecting an area of up to 350 km. PCO SA is responsible for the target system configuration electro, with cameras daily and thermal imaging and laser rangefinder. 

1d729174a6ced9c842a92c475674a430Sola radar station during testing cooperation with the system Pilica – fot. ZM Tarnów – Image: defence24.pl

Pilica is able to work with “capable of metastasis Radar stations Sola”, the production of T-RADWAR SA, which was confirmed during testing polygon, which lasted from October 2015. During the tests verified a command post. According to the manufacturer the course of trial confirmed the correct design and functionality. Units firing system were built by ZM Tarnów, the Research and Development Centre developed, among others, safety controller or stand-alone electronic device responsible for controlling weapons. In Tarnow also developed propulsion systems, shuttlecock, and monitor on-board computer. Translated by google Source defence24.pl

MMSR SOLA Mobile Multibeam Search 3D Radar

z2awlozlImage: pitradwar.com

The dual band ZDPSR SOŁA radar is an up-to-day multifunction threedimensional (3D) radar which has been designed to detect and indicate the airborne targets as well as the mortar rounds  in the short (SHORAD) and very short range (VSHORAD) antiaircraft systems, with use of S-band channel. C-band channel is employed to detect hovering helicopters what can be applied to provide protection of  the military bases or troops in move.

With its small dimensions and light weight, the radar has exceptional capability of quick relocation with any kind of transport means including air. The design on the vehicle platform enables high manoeuvrability and short deployment time after arrival at the site. The time to reach the full combat readiness is shorter than 5 minutes by crew of 2.

The radar output the digital radar data with use of a radio or wire link to accomplish easy  integration with other components of the anti-aircraft system. Source pitradwar.com

The ZSPSR SOŁA can operate autonomously or as a sensor of an anti-aircraft defense systems of land forces, using built-in wire and wireless data transmission means.

The radar scans the searched space with severel beams which are steered electronically in elevation plane and with a rotating antenna in the azimuth plane. The radar applies numerous ECCM techniques. Due to the requirement of operation within automated anti-aircraft systems, the radar provides very short time of information refreshment (1 sec). The radar operation is controlled from a local console or remotely at the distance up to 400 m.

In its basic version, the radar is installed on the AMZ Żubr armoured vehicle. Any platform of 3,5MT payload can be applied.

Coverage

Range Accuracy (RMS) Resolution
Distance (at 30/60 rpm) 60/120km (instrumental) 30m 120m
Azimuth 360 deg 0.50 deg 3.5 deg
Height 8,000/4,000 m 350 m
Elevation 0 to +55 deg 1.8 deg

Detection range at various RCS targets Range Height
Fighter F-16/Mig-29 class 1.5km to 40km 50m to 8km
Target of RCS = 0.05m 1.5km to 16km 50m to 4km
Helicopters 1.5km to 8km 50m to 2km
98 mm mortar bomb 1.5km to 8km 50m to 5km
Functional characteristic
Operational frequency S band (main channel); C band (helicopter channel)
Antenna rotation rate 60/30 rpm
Scanning type Transmit beam: electronically steered in elevation plane
Maximum tracks traced 99
IFF MARK XII/ MARK XIIA, mode S

Source pitradwar.com

mmsr_2.jpg

The Zubr (European bison) mine resistant ambush protected vehicle was developed by Polish AMZ-Kutno as a private venture. This armored vehicle was publicly revealed in 2008.

The Zubr MRAP has a V-shaped hull for protection against landmines and IEDs. It is claimed that this armored vehicle can withstand 8 kg mine blast. All-round protection is against 7.62-mm armor piercing rounds. The Zubr is armed with remotely controlled weapon station.

This Polish MRAP can carry 10 fully equipped troops. Vehicle has a payload capacity of 2 000 – 5 000 kg. It can also tow a 1 500 kg capacity trailer.

The Zubr MRAP is based on Iveco EuroCargo 4×4 truck, which is license-produced in Poland. Vehicle is powered by Iveco Tector turbocharged diesel engine, developing 275 hp. This mine resistant ambush protected vehicle can be airlifted by the C-130 Hercules or larger military cargo aircraft. Source military-today.com

 MMSR Zubr

MMSR_090.jpg

ENGINE :

N60 ENT C Iveco Tector, max. power: 202 kW (275HP) at 2500 rpm, Max. torque: 930 Nm at 1250 rpm, 6 cylinders, diesel, direct injection, Common Rail system, capacity: 6 l, Euro 3/4 Gear box: Manual (Automatic), 6 gears + 1 rear. Source tanknutdave.com

n60ent-im00169Image: powertechengines.com
Country of origin Poland
Entered service ?
Crew 2 men
Personnel 10 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 14 t
Length 6.95 m
Width 2.45 m
Height 2.65 m
Mobility
Engine Iveco Tector diesel
Engine power 275 hp
Maximum road speed 100 km/h
Range 600 km
Maneuverability
Gradient 60%
Side slope 30%
Vertical step ~ 0.5 m
Trench 0.5 m
Fording 0.7 m

Zubr MRAP data military-today.com

dsc047091-e1473703300965

Arming control takes place automatically correctly using computerized guidance system with high accuracy. It works in a semi-automatic zeroing in on targets and destroying them after confirmation by the operator. Sighting system is integrated with the system tracking identifier and IFF, which is able to block weapons when namierzonym objective will be identified by the IFF own means of flying. PZRA- ZUR-23-2SP can be operated remotely, in case of power failure is also possible to effect effector fire mode completely manual.

699d96d55e6ddaf2d7662e1fa75c0a0b.pngImage: defence24.pl

The kit comes with a stabilized head Optoelectronic day-night, capable of working independently of armaments in terms of observation and detection and identification purposes. It not only element guidance system, but also a source of information for the entire system, because the data detected and observed objects is exchanged across the network command. Each set is also equipped with a warning system against laser radiation.

a4132ef48a3e8bd3d2eec3be42759586Fig. ZM Tarnów – Image: defence24.pl

The Pilica in action – Object protection

As far as equipment is essential for the destruction of the target, is the effectiveness of the defense consists of the operation of the entire system and its proper distribution. For symmetrical arrangement, the battery is able to protect against attack from the air conducted from any direction an area of 350 km 2 . Since the components provided with an effective fire fighting reaches 5.5 kilometers, a standard deployment assumes that the distance between the effectors firewalls does not exceed 8 km. Overlapping ranges of rockets and cannon allow impunity intrusion into an area guarded and increase the likelihood of destroying targets.

1508847f31114678337689c671993ab6Standard distribution system Pilica – protected object. Fig. ZM Tarnów – Image: defence24.pl

Because each of the groups has its own autonomous head-śledząco excellent grade, it is possible to isolate the 6 channels aiming. Their proper arrangement allows optimal allocation purposes between channels and combating many of them at the same time.

The system is able to determine on the basis of the data obtained, which effectors fire PZRA has the best chance to eliminate the threat and in what order should attack targets. It can also determine the status of each of the following purposes or attacked.This process takes place in manual or semi-automatic, the approval by the operator. It is also possible to combine any number of batteries in the larger structure of the defense.Complying with the standard data link-11oraz possibility of a Link-16 system is compatible with the systems of command and air defense of NATO. It can be easily integrated into multi-layered air defense systems.

Pilica – mobile solution, efficiently and cost

e52e81d1021a7d9439e6f32565fddd64Fig. ZM Tarnów – Image: defence24.pl

“The Pilica is the result of evolution, using a lot of experience in creating solutions earlier. The use of new technological achievements and technology have allowed significantly improve the efficiency of the fire and the compatibility of the proposed solution with NATO. Small size, light weight of the system. It is a response to the needs of the Air Force, which wished the system to guard air bases, the potential for metastasis by air using their own means of transport.These features fully correspond to the requirements for security units of the Land Forces capable of metastasis.

 Commercial Director ZM Tarnów, Col. Thomas Berezovsky

The system represents the modern solutions in the field of detection and tracking targets with reliable and popular weapon in the form of domestically produced missiles Grom and the 23 mm cannon. Polish self-sufficiency in this area is a huge advantage.

pilica-06

Some experts criticize the caliber of 23 mm as a little perspective although the most common (which shows the relationship of the areas of inflammatory and conflicts) and indicates the cannon caliber 35 mm with programmable ammunition and greater range.However, larger caliber also means a much greater mass, less mobility and a much higher cost of purchase and operation, especially when using expensive ammunition programmable. Instead of increasing weight and complexity, engineers Pilica put on increasing the precision guidance system and maximum service automation, and thus reducing the number of troops necessary to secure the functioning of the system.

In addition, the popularity of 23 mm weapons in the world gives great export opportunities. Both both this system, as well as derivatives solutions, using part of its features.

9pk4i1ah.png

While the system of anti very close range Pilica forms a whole in terms of weapon system, guidance and management, that is used in the solutions can be easily adapted to systems artillery-missile short-range, using weapons of any caliber (np.35mm, 57mm).This is not a revolution, but subject to constant evolution and thought out. Importantly, it still has significant growth opportunities.

Google translated Source defence24.pl

General characteristics

  • Overall dimensions in firing position
    • Length: 4.57 m (15 ft)
    • Width: 2.88 m (9.44 ft)
    • Height: 1.22 m (4 ft)
  • Weight: 0.95 tonnes (2,094 lbs)
  • Armament: two 2A14 Afanasyev-Yakushev 23x152mm (.90 in) autocannons
  • Barrel length: 2 m (6.5 ft)/ 87.3 calibers
  • Muzzle velocity: 970 m/s (3,182 ft/s)
  • Projectile weight: 186 g (6.27 oz)
  • Rate of fire
    • Cyclic: 2,000 rounds per minute
    • Practical: 400 rounds per minute
  • Effective range: 2-2.5 km (1.24-1.55 mi)
  • Effective altitude: 1,500-2,000 m (4,921-6,562 ft)
  • Crew: 6

pilica-1

Ammunition

The 23mm AA gun utilizes the same 23x152B case as the wartime VYa aircraft autocannon. Due to different loadings and primers the ammunition is not interchangeable, however: ammunition of the anti-aircraft cannon can be identified from its steel casings, ammunition for the aircraft cannon having brass cases instead. The following table lists the main characteristics of some of the available 23x152B ammunition used in 23mm AA guns: Source wikiwand.com

3x152B 23mm VYa, ZSU AAA and sub-caliber device

This cartridge was introduced in 1941 designed for the VYa Volkov and Yartsev aircraft cannon.
The rate of fire was 600rpm and it weighted 68,5kg. It was 2140mm long; the basic idea was to create a suitable cannon to deal with German tanks. This aircraft cannon was gas operated and belt fed, two cannons were fitted in the Il-2 Stormovik ground attack airctaft in WWII. The VYa was extremely powerful for its time, and the AP shell could penetrate 25mm of steel plate at 400m.
Cartridges for the obsolete VYa slightly differ in dimensions and the primer used, and cases are brass. 30 cartridges are packaged in an airtight Zinc can, and 3 of those were packed in a wooden box.

The following ammunition was used in the VYa:

USSR Designation US Abbreviation Bullet Weight [g] Muzzle Velocity [m/s] Description
OZ HEI 198 905 Conventional HEI shell filled with 15g RDX/Aluminium powder/wax , with K-20 or DV nose fuze
OZT HEI-T 190 905 Conventional HEI-T shell filled with 12g RDX/Aluminium powder/wax, with K-20 or DV nose fuze; shell has a green coloured band above driving band
BZ API 198 905 With hard steel core and incendiary in windshield cap, may have black/red colored tip. Two types with different caps (screwed on Aluminium and swaged steel) are encountered
PUT TP-T 198 905 Inert filled and dummy fuzed OZT shell

Inert drill rounds may have been used as well.

From left to right: OZT cartridge, OZT projectile, BZ cartridge with steel windshield cap crimped to the projectile.  The cut away drawing on the right shows a WWII produced BZ shell, m=195,5g, l=106,5mm, propellant: 64,2g of 4/1 FP powder in a silk bag. The aluminum nosepiece is screwed on the body and contains an incendiary mixture. The hard steel core weights 67,5g and is 59,7mm long.

Long after the war, the Soviet Union selected a version of the VYa aircraft cannon to act as anti aircraft gun.
Compared to western 20mm AA guns, the slightly modified 23mm cartridge was far more harder hitting and had a considerably greater range than for example the U.S. Vulcan AA system.
A single 23mm ZU gun weights 75kg and is 2550mm long with a 2000mm long barrel, the rate of fire of this gas operated cannon is 1000rpm.
The ZSU-23-2 AAA is a towed double barrel, ground mounted gun weighting 950kg introduced in the early 1960s. Its bigger brother, the  ZSU-23-4 Shilka, is a self propelled, radar guided, 4-barrel gun that is extremely effective on low flying aircraft. It fired 4x1000rpm and is fed by 50 round ammunition belts, stored in boxes. This round is the most widely used small AAA caliber of the Russian Federation and its associated states and was also often used against ground targtes.

The steel lacquered cases use the KV No.3 percussion primer and use about 70g of 5/7 UFL smokeless powder, and some have a piece of lead wire as a decoppering agent with the charge.
For Navy use, 63 cartridges are separated in three metal boxes and those are packed in a wooden box. This box has the caliber, type of bullet, Lot.-No., number of rounds and type of propellant painted on, which weighs 44kg.
Ammunition is manufactured by Egypt, Iran, Russia and Yugoslavia.
Finland, Netherland, South Africa and Switzerland have developed their own projectile designs, Oerlikon also offers APDS projectiles, Netherland offers their “Break-Up” practice cartridges.

The following ammunition is used in the ZSU AAA guns:

USSR Designation US Abbreviation Bullet Weight [g] Muzzle Velocity [m/s] Description
OFZ HEI 184 980 Conventional HEI with MG-25 or V19UK delay-self destruction fuze
OFZT HEI-T 188 980 Conventional HEIT with MG-25 or V19UK delay-self destruction fuze and tracer
BZT API-T 190 970 Blunt nose shot with incendiary in windshield cap, tracer in base cavity
PUT TP-T 183 980 Inert filled and dummy fuzed OFZT shell
PUT TP-T 187 970 As BZT but mild steel shot without incendiary (inert)
CHOLOSTOJ Blank / / Conventional blank, green cardboard cap

Drill rounds are used as well as blank rounds, the latter have a green painted cardboard cap, crimped in place and use VTX Powder.

p23zsu

From left to right: Two blank rounds, TP-T round, TP-T with decoppering lead-wire, HEI-T with MG-25 fuze, HEI-T with B-19-Y fuze, TP-T round, API-T round, API-T round with decoppering lead-wire

The VS subcaliber device also uses this caliber in the inserting barrel for the T54/55 tank gun. Only one projectile is used, it looks like a blackened BZT shell, but the projectile body has a blunt nose under the windshield cap. Cartridges for the VS subcaliber can easily be identified by their brass cases, omitted colored marks and their headstamp: 606 (manufacturer at 12 o´clock) BC-85 (VS – year of manufacture).
Ballistic performance in the subcaliber device is not known.

p23vs.jpg

Updated Dec 28, 2016

Source russianammo.org

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated