Daily Archives: December 1, 2016

French Safran help India revive its indigenous jet engine project – Kaveri

India will start developing its own fighter jet engine now, thanks to France

Non-availability of raw materials, critical components, lack of infrastructure and test facilities within the country and non-availability of skilled / technical manpower in the field of aero-engine technology are some of the major reasons for non-completion of project within the time schedule,” says Manohar Parrikar, India’s Minister for Defense in the Upper House of Parliament. Source sputniknews.com

GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri


The GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri (Sanskrit: कावेरी) is an afterburning turbofan project developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), a lab under the DRDO in Bangalore, India. An Indian design, the Kaveri was originally intended to power production models of the HAL Tejas fighter, also known as the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) being built by the Aeronautical Development Agency. However, the Kaveri programme failed to satisfy the necessary technical requirements or keep up with its envisaged timelines and was officially delinked from the Tejas programme in September 2008.

Snecma, on a tie up with DRDO, is slated to revive and certify the engine as part of the offsets deal for 36 Dassault Rafale jets purchased by India.

In Lok Sabha on 10 December. 2012 Defence Minister A K Antony gave an update on the progress made by the Kaveri Engine Development Project as follows:

  1. So far, 9 prototypes of Kaveri Engine and 4 prototypes of Kabani (Core) Engine have been developed.
  2. 2200 hours of test (ground and altitude conditions) has been conducted.
  3. The following two major milestones have been achieved:
    1. Successful completion of Official Altitude Testing (OAT) ; and
    2. Demonstration of First Block of flight of Kaveri Engine in Flying Test Bed (FTB).

Kaveri Engine was integrated with IL-76 Aircraft at Gromov Flight Research Institute (GFRI), Russia and flight test was successfully carried out up to 12 km maximum altitude and maximum forward speed of 0.7 Mach No. Twenty Seven flights for 57 hours duration have been completed.

DRDO demonstrated its technological capability in aero-engine technology. This has been a great achievement in the aerospace community of the country, when the first ever indegeniously developed fighter aircraft engine was subjected to flight testing. Tacit knowledge acquired by the DRDO scientists during this project will also be applied for further aerospace technology. Kaveri spin-off engine can be used as propulsion system for Indian Unmanned Strike Air Vehicle (USAV).

In January 2013, the GTRE director said that they are abandoning the plan for co-development with Snecma, but they still need an overseas partner, which will be selected through competitive bidding.

In November 2014, The Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) decided to abandon the Kaveri engine (GTX-35VS ) programme due to its shortcomings.


Foreign help

On 4 July 2016, according to Indian media report, France offered to invest EUR 1 billion to revive India’s combat jet engine project, proposing a joint development plan that could see the stalled Kaveri gas turbine powering indigenous Tejas fighters by 2020.

On 20 November 2016, DRDO Director General for Aeronautics Cluster C P Ramanarayanan confirmed that DRDO and French Snecma have tied up to revive Kaveri Engine as part of the offsets deal for 36 Rafale jet. It is expected that the engine would be integrated and tested in LCA Tejas by 2018.


Plans are also already under way for derivatives of the Kaveri, including a non-afterburning version for an advanced jet trainer and a high-bypass-ratio turbofan based on the Kaveri core, named as Kabini.

  • GTX-35VS Kaveri:
    • HAL Tejas (planned for production models)
    • HAL Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft
  • Derivatives:
    • Kaveri Marine Gas Turbine (KMGT), a recently developed derivative of the GTX-35VS Kaveri engine for ships.
    • Ghatak,a Kaveri derivative to be developed to power India’s Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle DRDO AURA.

Specification (GTX-35VS Kaveri)

General characteristics

  • Type: afterburning turbofan
  • Length: 137.4 in (3490 mm)
  • Diameter: 35.8 in (910 mm)
  • Dry weight: 2,724 lb (1,235 kg) [Goal: 2,100-2450 lb (950-1100 kg)]


  • Compressor: two-spool, with low-pressure (LP) and high-pressure (HP) axial compressors:
    • LP compressor with 3 fan stages and transonic blading
    • HP compressor with 6 stages, including variable inlet guide vanes and first two stators
  • Combustors: annular, with dump diffuser and air-blast fuel atomisers
  • Turbine: 1 LP stage and 1 HP stage


  • Maximum thrust:
  • Military thrust (throttled): 11,687 lbf (52.0 kN)
  • Full afterburner: 18,210 lbf (81.0 kN)(planned to be refined to >95 kN)
  • Specific fuel consumption:
  • Military thrust (throttled): 0.78 lb/(lbf•h) (79.52 kg/(kN·h))
  • Full afterburner: 2.03 lb/(lbf•h) (207.00 kg/(kN·h))
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 7.8:1 (76.0 N/kg)

Engine cycle

  • Airflow: 172 lb/s (78.0 kg/s)
  • Bypass ratio: 0.16:1 (it should be increased to 0.5:1)
  • Overall pressure ratio: 21.5:1 [Goal: 27:1]
  • LP compressor pressure ratio: 3.4:1 [Goal: 4:1]
  • HP compressor pressure ratio: 6.4:1
  • Turbine entry temperature: 2,218-2,601 °F (1,214-1,427 °C; 1,487-1,700 K) [Goal: 3,357 °F (1,847 °C; 2,120 K)]

Source wikivisually.com


Iraq about to order HQ-9 SAM

Iraq reportedly finalising HQ-9 air defence order

30 November 2016

Iraq is close to finalising a USD2.5 billion order for Chinese military equipment that includes HQ-9 long-range air defence systems, Iraq’s Mawazin news agency cited well-informed sources as saying on 28 November.

The HQ-9 is derived from the Russian S-300PMU system. The exports version is designated the FD-2000 and another version is offered called the FT-2000 that has missiles with passive radar seekers.

The deal may also include Type 99 tanks and other Chinese military equipment, Mawazin reported.

Original post janes.com


HQ-9/FD2000 long-range air defence systems


The Hong Qi 9 or HQ-9 is a Chinese air defense missile system. It is broadly equivalent to the Russian S-300. Some sources report that the HQ-9 was developed with Russian assistance and benefits from Russian technology transfers. It has been report that it was adopted by the Chinese armed forces in 1997. Its export version, the FD-2000, has been exported to Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Pakistan and Turkey are negotiating with China to purchase this air defense system.

   The HQ-9 can intercept various aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, cruise missiles, air-to-ground missiles, guided bombs and theater ballistic missiles at medium- to long ranges.

   The HQ-9 surface-to-air missile system was developed much later than the Russian S-300 and incorporates advancements in the electronics. Notably it employs newer computing technology.


   The HQ-9 uses two-stage missiles with thrust vector control. Missiles have a range of 125 km against aircraft and 15-25 km against cruise and ballistic missiles. Missiles can reach aircraft at an altitude of 27 km and cruise and ballistic missiles at an altitude of 15-25 km. The missile has inertial guidance with mid-course update and terminal active radar homing. This air defense system can perform air defense engagement in a massive air raid under intense electronic jamming.


   The HQ-9 launcher is based on Taian TA5380 8×8 high mobility chassis. Each launcher has 4 missiles in individual containers. Missiles are launcher vertically.

   A battery of HQ-9 consists of 8 TEL vehicles with missiles, mobile engagement radar based on Taian TA5570 10×10 chassis, engagement radar based on a North-Benz ND1260 series truck chassis, command and control vehicle, reloading vehicles and various support vehicles. The basic formation can be expanded into a larger formation. The HQ-9 battery can employ a wide range of radars, both search, surveillance, acquisition, tracking and fire control.

720a5c9djw1eiwyk1v5q4j21kw1du1kx.jpgImage: airforceworld.com


HQ-9A is an improved version. It was first tested in 1999 and was adopted in 2001.

   HQ-9B improved version with longer range and extra seeker. It was reportedly tested in 2006. The missile has a dual seeker with semi-active radar homing and infrared homing modes;

   HQ-9C improved version that is currently under development. The missile incorporates active radar homing mode;

   HQ-19 a much upgraded version of the HQ-9. It is Chinese equivalent to the US THAAD. It was specially developed to engage ballistic missiles and satellites on lower Earth orbit. The missile is armed with kinetic kill vehicle;

   FT-2000 export version of the HQ-9. It is an anti-radiation missile system, intended to intercept jamming planes and air radiation sources. Missiles have passive homing. This system can engage targets at a range of up to 100 km and can reach targets at altitude of up to 20 km. The FT-2000 operates in conjunction with passive surveillance system;

   FD-2000 (Fang Dun 2000) export version of HQ-9. It is a long-range air defense missile system. It was first publicly revealed in 2012. This system has an extra anti-stealth capability. The FD-2000 has been exported to Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan;

   HHQ-9, naval version of the HQ-9. It appears to be identical to the land-based variant. It is used on modern Chinese guided-missiles destroyers. These missiles are launched from vertical tubes;

   HHQ-9A naval version of the HQ-9A.

Entered service 1997 (?)
Missile length 6.8 m
Missile diameter 0.7 m
Missile weight 1 300 kg
Warhead weight 180 kg
Warhead type HE-FRAG
Maximum range 125 km
Maximum altitude 27 km
Number of targets engaged simultaneously ?

Source military-today.com

Poland orders 70 JASSM-ER missiles

Poland requests to buy 70 JASSM-ER missiles

30 November 2016

Poland has requested to buy 70 Lockheed Martin AGM-158B Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile-Extended Range (JASSM-ER) with related support, equipment, and training, the US Defense Security Co-operation Agency (DSCA) announced on 28 November.

The JASSM-ER is fitted with a more efficient Williams International F107-WR-105 turbofan engine and more fuel volume than the standard missile. This gives it a range of over 930 km, compared with 370 km for the original JASSM, although the external airframe dimensions of both missiles are the same. The JASSM family is intended for use against high-value, well-fortified, fixed, and relocatable targets, have stealth characteristics and are armed with a 423-kg penetrating blast-fragmentation warhead.

The possible contract has an estimated cost of USD200 million and includes an operational flight plan upgrade for Poland’s F-16C/D, integration of the JASSM-ER, missile containers, spare and repair parts, support and test equipment, technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, and other related elements of logistical and programme support. Delivery of two AGM-158B Flight Test Vehicles, two AGM-158B Mass Simulant Vehicles, one AGM-158B Flight Test Vehicle, three AGM-158B Separation Test Vehicles, and two AGM-158B Weapon System Simulators is also included.

The JASSM-ER missiles received full-rate production approval in 2014 and are manufactured in Lockheed Martin’s facility in Troy, Alabama.

By the end of 2016 is also expected to finalise the purchase of an unspecific number of AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-120 AMRAAM missile for Polish Air Forces, IHS Jane’shas been told by the Polish Aramament Inspectorate. In 2014 Poland has set a total requirement of approximately 200 JASSM/JASSM-ER missiles.

Original post janes.com




The JASSM (Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile) is a conventional, stealthy, air-launched ground attack cruise missile designed for the U.S. Air Force and international partners. An extended range version, AGM-158B JASSM-ER, was developed alongside the standard variant, and went into service in 2014.


JASSM At A Glance

Originated From: United States
Possessed By: United States, Australia, Finland, Poland
Class: Cruise Missile
Basing: Air-launched
Length: 4.27 m
Wingspan: 2.4 m

Launch Weight: 1,021 kg
Warhead: 450 kg WDU-42/B penetrator
Propulsion: Turbojet (AGM-158A), Turbofan (AGM-158B)
Range: 370 km (AGM-158A), 1,000 km (AGM-158B)
Status: Operational
In Service: 2009-Present


JASSM utilizes a low-observable airframe designed to defeat various targets, to include enemy air defenses. The missile’s low-profile airframe is particularly important given the proliferation of sophisticated air defenses such as the S-300 (and newer variants). The JASSM-ER will eventually incorporate a weapons data link (WDL) into the missile allowing for course corrections after launch.2 This is a critical upgrade for road-mobile and maritime targets.

The missile is fitted to the B-1B Lancer, B-2 Spirit, B-52H Stratofortress, F-15E Strike Eagle, F-16C/D, F/A-18C/D, and possibly the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The B-1B is considered the starting point platform, and can carry 24 missiles, and is currently the only one equipped with JASSM-ER. The B-2 can carry up to 16 missiles and the B-52H can carry 12 internally on rotary launchers. Fighter aircraft can carry one or two missiles under each wing. The F-35, if certified to carry the JASSM, would have to carry the weapon externally, because the missile would not fit in the main internal weapon bays the aircraft boasts.

The standard variant has a range of 370 km, whereas the JASSM-ER has a range of approximately 1,000 km. Their airframes are identical, so the weapons cannot be distinguished merely by appearance. The primary differences lie in a larger internal fuel tank, and a more efficient turbofan engine. The airframe itself can be described as angular, similar to the Taurus KEPD 350, although more rounded and fluid. When the missile is carried by aircraft, the fins and wings are folded, and then unfolded by small explosive charges after released.

Source missilethreat.csis.org

F-16 Fighting FalconMAIN_p1646397.jpg