Monthly Archives: July 2016

AMPV – Light protected vehicle

The AMPV, or Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle, was jointly developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) and Rheinmetall. It was developed as a private venture to compete for the German Army GFF/GTF requirement. The AMVP was designed taking into account the operational experience of the German Army in Afghanistan. This light multipurpose armored vehicle was revealed in 2010. It is being proposed both for military operators and law enforcement forces.



The AMPV is intended to be used for roles, where non armored HMMWVs, Land Rovers andb G Wagons are typically used. It is broadly similar to US JLTVs, but heavier and better protected. It is well suited for light utility, patrol, light recon, surveillance, command and communications duties. This vehicle is also suitable for police and security forces where armor protection is required. It can be considered as a lightweight MRAP. However it is not a replacement for dedicated armored or mine protected vehicles.

There are two versions of the AMPV. The Type 1 is a smaller vehicle. It has a payload capacity of 2.6 t. This protected vehicle accommodates four soldiers. The Type 2 is larger, better protected and carries more payload. Most of the components are interchangeable between both versions.

AMPV 1 or Type 1



The AMPV 1 should have the dimensions of a VW van with 4.90 meters long, 2.20 meters wide and 2.10 meters high, approximately. The AMPV 2 should be slightly larger. The AMPV 1 is designed primarily as a patrol vehicles and should therefore provide the soldiers maximum protection against projectiles, mines or IEDs. A full-scale model was presented in June 2008 at the Eurosatory in Paris. The first prototype ran in 2009. Series production could start from 2011, if there are principal. Translated by google – Source



  The AMPV offers a protected transport capacity. Its safety cell is made from steel armor with composite armor inserts. Interior is lined with a spall liner. Floor of the vehicle is reinforced for protection against mines and IEDs. Protection can be enhanced by adding passive armor modules. NBC protection system is proposed as an option.



  The AMPV can be fitted with remotely controlled 7.62-mm or 12.7-mm machine gun, or a 40-mm automatic grenade launcher. These weapons are used for self-defense. Other weapon options are available.

7.62-mm Rheinmetall MG3


The MG3 essentially is a conversion of the MG42 to 7.62x51mm NATO. Early versions were simply conversions but later versions feature a multitude of minor upgrades in various areas. The MG3 retains the short recoil operation and roller locking mechanism. It is belt fed only and feeds from left to right. The square slotted forearm is open on the right to allow the quick change barrel to be removed. The MG3 can be used from the attached bipod, from a tripod and as a pintle mounted or coaxial machine gun.



The MG3 fires the 7.62x51mm NATO round from 50 round DM1 continuous belts or M13 or DM6 linked belts, mostly of 120 round length. The cyclic rate of fire is about 1.200 rpm. This results in a high ammunition consumption and rapid overheating. The barrel should be changed every 150 rounds fired in rapid succession. The MG1A2 and MG42/59 versions have a lower rate of fire of 900 rpm. The maximum effective range is 600 m from the bipod and 1 km when used from a tripod. The slant range is much longer.


Type Machine gun
Caliber 7.62x51mm NATO
Magazine Belt fed
Operation Short recoil, roller locking
Fire selector 0-F
Rate of fire 1.000 – 1.300 rpm
Barrel length 565 mm
Rifling 4 grooves, 305 mm right hand twist
Muzzle velocity 820 m/s
Stock Fixed
Length 1.225 mm
Width ?
Height ?
Weight 11.05 kg
Sights Iron sights, barleycorn front and notch rear, 200 to 1.200 m gradations, 430 mm sight radius
Remarks Bipod

MG3 data

12.7-mm machine gun M2A1


General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems developed the M2A1 .50 caliber weapon after more than 30 years of experience manufacturing the M2 heavy barrel (HB) machine gun for the U.S. Department of Defense.

The M2 machine gun is one of the world’s most reliable, highly accurate and effective weapons. The M2A1 offers the proven performance and in-place logistics
support of the existing M2HB machine gun, along with the new features and design improvements of the quick change barrel (QCB) system and flash hider. These upgrades increase the performance of the battle-proven M2 and are adaptable to existing M2HB weapons.




  • Fixed headspace and timing
  • Reduces safety concerns associated with barrel
  • Simplifies warfighter training
  • Eliminates operator requirement to adjust the headspace and timing.
  • Positive barrel engagement
  • Ensures the barrel is securely locked and aligned with the patented J-slot barrel retention system.
  • Improved flash hider
  • Decreases muzzle flash, making the M2 night-vision friendly.
  • Robust, removable barrel handle
  • Streamlines hot-barrel changing.


Caliber .50 caliber / 12.7mm (NATO)
Weight 84 pounds (38.2 kg)
Length 67.75 inches (1,721mm)
Width 9 inches (230mm)
Cyclic rate of fire 450-600 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity 2,910 feet per second
(890 meters per second)
Max Effective Range 2,000 yards (1,830m)
Maximum range 7,440 yards (6,800m)

M2A1 data

40-mm automatic grenade launcher


MK-19 40mm grenade launcher

MK19 40mm Machine Gun, MOD 3

The MK19 Mod3 40mm Grenade Machine Gun was first developed by the Navy in the early 1960’s. TACOM-ARDEC has since suggested modifications to this system which has enabled the Army to deploy the MK19 in the harsh environments encountered during world-wide operations and has therefore enhanced its performance. The MK19 firing rate is over 350 grenades per minute and it is effective to ranges of over 2200 meters. The system was deployed in Southwest Asia during Operation Desert Storm and devastated enemy infantry.



Manufacturer: Saco Defense Industries
Length: 43.1 inches (109.47 centimeters)
Gun: 72.5 pounds (32.92 kilograms)
Cradle (MK64 Mod 5): 21.0 pounds (9.53 kilograms)
Tripod: 44.0 pounds (19.98 kilograms)
Total: 137.5 pounds (62.43 kilograms)
Muzzle velocity: 790 feet (240.69 meters) per second
Bore diameter: 40mm
Maximum range: 2200 meters
Maximum effective range: 1600 meters
Rates of fire:
Cyclic: 325-375 rounds per minute
Rapid: 60 rounds per minute
Sustained: 40 rounds per minute

MK-19 data

Remotely controlled WS



Modular and efficient
The remote controlled Light Weapon Station FLW 100 is constructed in a completely modular design. Via a standardized interface weapons of calibers 5,56 and 7,62 can be integrated quickly and safely. The interface and operating software permit the weapon system to be changed within minutes.

Adequately encountering any threat
Thanks to the simple adaptation without roof opening and their low weight, the FLW 100 can be employed across almost all vehicle types and also autonomously. – such as for camp protection. The same weapon station, for example, can be moved from a MBT to a low-protection patrol vehicle. Automatic vehicle detection, weapons, optoelectronic module, standardized operating and display concept, as well as cross-system standardized operating and display concept as well as an efficient safety and test system guarantee simple integration and operability.  The safety system of the weapon station takes into account the vehicle contours as well as the vehicle specific array of hatches, doors and sectors – the possibility of accidentally firing at the own vehicle is thereby eliminated.

Everything in sight
Modular optoelectronic sensor systems also guarantee optimized field surveillance, target acquisition and combat by day, night or under poor visibility. The system comprises a high-resolution CCD color camera with zoom, a powerful thermal imaging device (cooled or non-cooled), a unique image fusion function and a laser rangefinder for the modular surveillance, operating and display concept of the weapon stations.

Best response possibilities
The high elevation aiming angle from -15° to +70° offers distinct advantages, also in urban mission scenarios. The efficient combination of weapon options, high grade optoelectronics and stabilization guarantee a fast and precise reaction to threats, even when driving.

 The FLW 100 additionally allows: 

  • Adaption of protection systems (fog, NLW, etc.)
  • Adaption of further weapons of similar caliber
  • Adaption of ballistic protection elements
  • Integration sensors, such as  „sniper detection“
  • Scan mode
  • Adaption to command and simulation systems, recording software, etc.




Modular and efficientThe remote controlled Light Weapon Station FLW 200 is constructed in a completely modular design. Via a standardized interface weapons of calibers 7,62/12,7 mm up to a 40 mm grenade launcher can be integrated quickly and safely. The interface and operating software permit the weapon system to be changed within minutes. The respective armaments – from the machine gun to the grenade launcher – are automatically detected and the weapon station adapts its ballistics accordingly. Source

Rheinmetall’s Rapid Obscurant System (ROSY) system


The ROSY_L smoke protection system helps to protect the crew and passengers of military and civilian vehicles from surprise attacks and ambushes e.g. during reconnaissance patrols or while travelling in convoy. Unlike conventional smoke and obscurant systems, ROSY_L produces within one second an instantaneous, large-area, multispectral interruption of the line of sight that shields even moving vehicles with a dynamic, long-lasting smoke screen.

Its multi-mission capability assures 360° protection from multiple attackers (stream and wave attacks). Moreover, thanks to effective screening in the visual and infrared spectrums, including integrated IR jamming and decoying effects, ROSY_L effectively thwarts attacks with all types of TV-, EO-, IR-, IIR-, laser- und SACLOS-guided weapons.

thumbnail_586432_495x300ROSY_L encompasses a basic system with a manual control unit and from one to four ROSY launchers per vehicle. A “one-click” adapter makes mounting the system on vehicles quick and easy, with no need for tools, particularly suitable for “fitted-for” installations.

Furthermore, the system features extreme modularity and can be directly linked to the sensor suite of the carrier vehicle’s computer systems. The ammunition variants can be individually selected and triggered, enabling optimum positioning of smoke screens. Source

At MSPO 2015

A interesting new offer presented in MSPO 2015 is the one made jointly with Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles (RMMV), Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW), and Poland’s ROSOMAK S.A. They showed the AMPV multirole wheeled vehicle which they offer for the PEGAZ (PEGASUS) modernization programme. This programme aims to procure up to 500 vehicles in two versions (combat and control) for the Land Forces (300) and Special Forces (200).


The AMPV is offered to Poland via RMMV, KMW, and Rosomak SA.

A version presented during MSPO 2015 has a more optimised interior design in order to accommodate required communication systems, weapons and additional equipment which might be necessary during long-range operations by Polish special forces. The transport section has been enlarged by 30 cm, which was necessary in order to meet PEGAZ’s requirements. This vehicle might be equipped with ROSY (Rapid Obscuring System for Land Vehicles) of Rheinmetall, which provides 360 degree protection. As presented, the AMPV was equipped with FONET internal communication system made by Poland’s WB Electronics and the ZSMU-1276 remotely controlled weapon system made by Poland’s ZM Tarnów (with thermal camera, daylight video camera, laser rangefinder and either 7,62 mm or 12,7 mm gun). In a standard configuration, the AMPV provides ballistic protection at Level 3 and mine protection at Level 4a/3b (ultimately 4b) according to STANAG 4569. Its declared range is 700km, maximum speed 110km/h. It can be transported by CH-47 and CH-53 helicopters or by transport aircrafts.


The AMPV features ZM Tarnow’s RCWS, and Rheinmetall’s ROSY.


Remote-controlled modules weapons OBR SM Tarnów

To remotely control modules (position), weapons fulfilled the requirements for the weapons of the modern battlefield, must possess a number of important characteristics. These positions should be a lightweight and efficient armament of tanks, military vehicles (eg .: wheeled armored personnel carriers, light commercial vehicles personality-field), vessels and stationary objects. They should ensure that customs and efficient fire without exposing the crew to the impact of the opponent. The design of them shall be able to configure weapons (eg .: heavy machine gun, machine gun, automatic grenade launchers and guided missiles) and the selection of appropriate modules observation and aiming for the weapons used. Posts should enable the implementation of the necessary range of angles the location of weapons and the correct speed and precision guidance, aimed to allow the operators of those positions on combating moving at different speeds ground targets and air targets such as .: helicopters.


Family ZSMU “Kobuz” used modules also have to provide an appropriate range of observation, the scope aiming in any weather conditions and at any time of the day or night. Remote control stations using weapons desktop with monitor and joystick placed in the vehicle to ensure maximum operator safety, because it is protected against fire from armored vehicle on which is mounted position. The use of remote-controlled weapon stations should not require significant changes in vehicle construction and reconstruction of systems of protection. Construction they should be characterized by easy assembly and disassembly of various types of weapons and ease of use. The base remotely controllable unit armed HM-ZSMU – A Basis for the remote-controlled unit armed HM-ZSMU-A is a set of enabling mounting: cradle for rifle 7.62 PKT (UKM 2000C ) cradle for gun 12.7 WKM-B universal cradle for gun PKT 7.62 (UKM 2000C) and 12.7 WKM-B or cradle for other types of equipment, eg. 40 mm grenade launchers. It is equipped with an adapter (beams) for fixing it on all types of passenger and cargo vehicles.


Basis of remotely controlled weapon module HM-ZSMU-A, its basic units and parts:
1. The beam (adapter)
2. The base rotational bearing
3. Chop the left (with the base drive raised)
4. Chop the right foundation for the measuring system to raise
5. Bolts marching (elevation and rotation)
6. System for measuring the angle of rotation
7. The base of the kickers smoke grenades
8. Reducer drive on the market
9. Reducer drive in raising
10. The control system
11. Swivel connector. Depending on the weapon, the basis of remotely controlled weapon module HM-ZSMU-A equipped with a cradle unit to be mounted gun 12.7 WKM-B, or 7.62 PKT (UKM-2000C). Remotely controlled weapon module ZSMU -762 A1


The ZSMU -762 A1 consists of the following elements:
1. Basis of remotely controlled weapon module HM-ZSMU
2. The team cradle for 7.62mm rifle UKM-2000C
3. The power supply system in the ammunition box with ammunition 250 pcs.
4. 7.62 mm rifle UKM-2000C with elektrospustem and components for assembly
viewfinder mechanical
5. The team aiming the camera day-night. Remotely controlled weapon module ZSMU-1276 A1


The ZSMU-1276 includes the following elements:
1. Basis of remotely controlled weapon module HM-ZSMU-A,
2. Team universal cradle for mounting gun 12.7 WKM-B or
rifle 7.62 UKM 2000C,
3. The power supply system in the ammunition box with ammunition for 150 or 200 pcs.,
4. Rifle 12.7 WKM-B elektrospustem and muzzle brake,
5. The team aiming the camera day-night. Remotely controlled weapon module has been installed and tested at the testing polygon on the car HMMWV 1043.Remotely controlled weapon module ZSMU-1276 A2


Completing the module intended for mounting on Rosomak
In consists of the following components:
I. Cradle complete
I.1. 12.7 mm rifle WKM-B system with adaptive
I.1.1. 12.7 mm rifle WKM-B
I.1.2. Elektrospust
I.1.3. Damper
I.2. Trigger mechanism
I.3. 7.62 mm rifle UKM-2000C system with adaptive
I.3.1. 7.62 mm UKM-2000C (equipped with rifle sights UKM-
I.3.2. Trigger mechanism rifle 7.62
I.4. The mechanism of electrical overload
II. Bed complete lower HM-ZSMU (without beam)
II.1. Team bed
II.2. Bolt marching
II.3. The base pin
II.4. The base drive
II.5. System for measuring the angle of rotation
III. Fixing the ammo box
III.1. Box ammunition 12.7 (200 pcs.)
IV. Handle box
IV.1. Ammunition box 7.62 (250 pcs.)
V. Team grenade launchers
V.1. Ejector
VI. Team sensors
VI.1. TV camera CCD
VI.2. An infrared camera
VI.3. Laser rangefinder
VII. ARM-08 / RM electromechanical equipment
VII.1. The control
VII.3. The band servo azimuth
VII.4. The encoder position in azimuth
VII.5. The band servo elevation
VII.6. Position encoder elevation
VII.7. Rotary joint
VII.9. Cable harnesses
VII.10. Desktop
VII.11. The keypad and module GYRO.
VIII. SSP-1 WHO “OBRA-3KTO” System samoosłony vehicle.


Module ZSMU-1276 A2 with a gun 12.7 WKM-B


Module ZSMU 1276-A2 rifle 7.62 UKM-2000C Intended basic assemblies ZSMU-1276 A1 mount a complete module armament and base swivel module weaponry , integrates all the basic mechanical systems remotely controlled weapon module and provides guidance weapon in azimuth in the range of angles x 360 degrees.


Bed complete (left) and turntable cradle is designed for installation and weapon control and for mounting the optoelectronics. It allows you to give an appropriate angle to raise weapons in the area -5o to more than 50 ° and allows you to change options of weapons and use 7.62 mm machine gun UKM-2000C. In the cradle is mounted electric system overload


Cradle complete 12.7 mm heavy machine gun WKM-B The team consists of: – WKM-B – muzzle brake, – elektrospust, – recoil dampers, – the rear clamp


12.7 mm heavy machine gun WKM-B system with adaptive 7.62 mm machine gun UKM-2000C , on which is mounted targeting systems rifle UKM-2000P


7.62 mm machine gun UKM-2000C system with adaptive system Adapter allows you to mount and operate gun UKM-2000C on ZSMU-1276 A2

Servo geared elevation and azimuth control in speed or positional weapons; in the servo motors include permanent magnet synchronous converters with rezolwerowymi shaft position, cycloidal gear (elevation) with high mechanical characteristics – high efficiency, high overload, lack of backlash and the planetary gear (azimuth) of high efficiency, very small clearances. In addition, propulsion systems have sufficient torque reserve allowing the correct operation of the three-axis stabilization.


Servo elevation system supply ammunition , comprising a removable ammunition box placed in the rack, which zataśmowana ammunition through the feed is fed to the gun WKM-B or UKM-2000C.Uzupełnianie ammunition ready for use is realized by exchanging boxes for ammunition suspended cradle module weapons. Boxes are located inside the vehicle. Reload the gun operator performs the desktop placed in the cradle controlling system overload, and in case of emergency operation, by overloading performed manually through the hatch on the outside of the vehicle. In safe mode, the operator can disengage the electric drive motor, which allows manual control of weapons and firing using a manual trigger. Guidance weapons at the target is carried out with the help of full-time iron sights weapons.


The power supply system to the gun 7.62 mm UKM-2000C (left) and 12.7 mm WKM-B option can be powered rifle 12.7mm ammunition from the box through a flexible sleeve. Flexible connection used to carry zataśmowanej 12.7 mm ammunition between the chest and throat ammunition karabinu.Rękaw flexible is a series of interconnected movable together narrow clamps the cartridge called cells. This makes for the possibility of movement of the belt ammunition in 3-ch directions. Flexible connection is connected to the ammunition box and the support sleeve on the cradle releasably, which allows for quick installation and removal of the tape ammunition.

rkaw elastyczny

a flexible sleeve


Link in the chain – in the middle of zataśmowany cartridge system grenade launcher containing 6 pcs. Smoke grenade launchers mounted on a swivel turret or elsewhere on nosicielu WHO ROSOMAK 1.Granaty smoke launcher can be fired from the operator panel or the desktop ZSMU OBRA-3. the hood can be inserted in the ejector, which is mounted on the front wall ZSMU 1276-A2. In this case, it is possible to use only grenades type GAK-81 and GM-81. When using other than / in – guns should be mounted outside the module such weapons. On adaptive system for mounting ZSMU-1276 A2 WHO or on the body of WHO ROSOMAK- 1.

hm zsmu-1276 a2 wyrzutnik granatw

Team grenade launchers mounted on the module ZSMU-1276 A2


Remote controlled weapon ZSMU-1276 A2 with a mounted band ejectors


A sample set of ejectors installed on the system Adaptive next ZSMU-1276 A2 Control systems devices ZSMU-1276 A2 Control panel and desktop wynośny consist of a 10 “LCD display with high contrast and keypad to speed-electric drives. On the desktop are placed switches and buttons to control the teams accessories, as well as lights indicating the current states of the devices. The display addition to the signal from the camera were placed additional information about the current position of the turret and armed state – the angles of elevation and lifting, ammunition and other.


Control panel – wynośny Controls nap Edam in elevation and azimuth, containing programmable module setting the zones prohibited and control of security against the possibility of control, eg. At the opening of the hatch. Control module supports input and output signals turrets and containing ballistic calculator.This module converts signals from the encoder absolute position in azimuth and elevation and provides support and control grenade launcher and elektrospustu. It also includes a system of counting missiles and programming the duration of the series. Three-axis stabilization unit compensates for the effect of the acceleration (found for example. During the movement of the vehicle) impinged on the rifle. Stabilization keeps a rifle axis directed in point.Stabilization unit is mounted on the fixed elements of WHO in the area of building ZSMU 1276-A2. The module optoelectronic laser distance meter allows you to measure the distance to the target. This measurement is used for calculator ballistic. You can work tools without a laser rangefinder, the information about the distance to the goal inflicted. Laser rangefinder, which is equipped optoelectronic module is a Class III and niskomocowym, secure to the unaided eye of a scale in the range of 100 to 2500 min I accuracy not worse than ± 5 m.

schemat pocze

Block Diagram Connection ZSMU-1276 at KTO TV camera in this version there is a daily TV camera with zoom lens enabling a smooth change of the field of view range from 30º to 1º This range is provided mainly for observing the area around the car, to search, track and engage targets moving quickly within destruction of weapons and for the detection of distant objects, as well as to improve the precision targeting objects within range weapons destruction. An infrared camera enables the identification of targets with dimensions of 4.6 2.3x distant at least 800 m in night conditions.


Team sensors – TV camera and thermal imager and laser rangefinder warning system for radiation SSP-1 OBRA-3 is mounted at the desired location, and WHO is connected to a control ZSMU-1276 A2. Information about radiation are transferred from OBRA-3 to the control ZSMU-1276 A2. Launchers are controlled from the operator panel. Operator fires grenades in the selected mode (automatic or semiautomatic) .If installation launcher system adaptive enter limitations resulting from the collision of weapons ZSMU flight paths and smoke grenades. Parameters tactical and technical ZSMU-1276 A2 and its component teams Tactical data: With wielkokalibrowym 12,7x99mm machine gun WKM-B – the mass of the module in full bundling 200 kg (full module configuration) – scatter 2x5strz. 100m distance R80 ≤ 65 cm – accuracy 2x5strz. distance 100m max. Pc – SPT≤27 cm With 7,62x51mm machine gun UKM-2000C – mass module full bundling 180 kg scatter 2x5strz. 100m distance R80 ≤ 24 cm – accuracy 2x5strz. distance 100m max. Pc – SPT≤10 cm Operation 1 person Range of elevation angle (to raise) from -5 ° min. + 50 ° angle range azimuth (rotation) x 360 ° control of the speed drives positional or angular velocities homing weapons horizontally and vertically: minimal – 1 mrad / s maximum – 2.5 rad / s (level) of 1.5 rad / s ( vertical) the maximum acceleration of 2.5 rad / s2precision guidance and stabilization of weapons ≤ 2.5 mrad system parameters aim: camera day: – CCD sensor resolution of 798 x 548 pixels – field of view of 1 ° to 30 ° (horizontal) – power supply 18 ÷ 32 VDC – standard output 1Vpp; 75V; pal – control interface RS 422 infrared camera -detektor does not require cooling, -Pol view -Wide 20ox15o -wąskie 5o x 3,75o -length wave of 8 to 12 microns -Power supply 12 VDC -interfejs control RS-422 laser distance meter class. III A safe for the human eye – the range of 100 m min. 2500 m – measuring accuracy of ± 5 m Number of ammunition 12.7 x 99 mm ready to use 200 units. The amount of ammunition 7.62 x 51 mm ready for use 250 pcs. Quantity of ammunition 12.7 x 99 mm carried in the vehicle (unit fire ) (6 boxes) 1 200 pcs. Quantity of ammunition 7.62 x 51 mm carried in the vehicle (fire unit) (8 cases) 2000 pieces. Launchers smoke grenades: 6 pcs. the warning system for radiation SSP-1 “OBRA-3” power source (with on-board network carrier) DC 24 V ± 4V remotely controlled weapon module ZSMU-127 B1 in the last two years in Research and Development Mechanical Equipment developed remote controlled weapon ZSMU-127B1. The main feature which distinguishes it from the family A1 is the fact that the ammunition box is not suspended to the cradle, but is attached to the turntable, and power rifle ammunition takes place through the flexible duct. Translated by google – Source



The AMPV is powered by a 3.2-liter turbocharged diesel engine, developing 272 hp. Engine is coupled with an automatic transmission. Vehicle has a full-time all-wheel drive. The AMPV is fitted with a central tyre inflation system as standard. It is claimed that this vehicle has good cross-country mobility over rough terrain.

AMPV (15)


ECS: AMPV AWD Drivetrain



ECS’s 4WD-drivetrain is well-suited for AWD special vehicles and commercial vehicles in class N2 up to 10t for optimised off-road mobility.

Features and specifications

  • Optimized performance on- and off-road
  • Automatic gearbox (six-speed)
  • Synchronised two-speed transfer case with permanent AWD
  • Identical design of front and rear axle differential
  • Modular design of the planetary wheel hubs with CTIS capability
  • Electronically controlled differential locks for optimum traction
  • Designed for high mobility due to independent suspension system on all wheels
  • Weight optimised design
  • Proven strength and durability
  • Climate area C1 to A1 according to STANAG 2895
  • Used in high-mobility multi-purpose vehicles


Steyr M16SCI, 3.2-litre

Motive power is provided by a Steyr Motors M16 SCI diesel engine that has the ability to operate for extended periods on high sulphur, low quality and military-specific fuels such as F34/JP-8. Twin 150A alternators provide electrical power for engine and associated systems, radios/communications equipment, and ancillaries such a remote weapon station. Source


Engine Type M16 SCI
Cylinders 6
Displacement (cm³) 3,2
Bore (mm)/Stroke (mm) 85/94
Combustion system direct injection diesel engine
Injection control electronic
Charge system sequential charged with intermediate cooler
Rated power [kW] 200
Rated speed [rpm] 4000
Max. torque [Nm] at 610/2000
Specific fuel cons. [g/kwh]] 205
Exhaust emission EURO III/IV/V
Weight (kg) 290
Generator 14V or 28V/65-100A
Vacuum pump standard
Starter motor 12V or 24V/2.0-4.0 kW
Fuel feed pump electrical
A/C compressor option
Power steering pump option
Air compressor option
Auxilary poly-V-drive standard

Engine data

  This protected vehicle can be airlifted by the C-130 Hercules tactical cargo aircraft. A special patrol version of the AMPV Type 1 can be carried by a CH-53 helicopter.

Entered service ?
Configuration 4×4
Cab seating 4 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight (empty) 7.3 t
Payload capacity 2.6 t
Length 5.43 m
Width 2.24 m
Height 2.18 m
Machine guns 7.62-mm or 12.7-mm
Engine diesel
Engine power 272 hp
Maximum road speed 110 km/h
Range 700 km
Gradient over 70%
Side slope 40%
Vertical step ~ 0.5 m
Trench ~ 0.5 m
Fording ~ 1.2 m

Main material source



Thailand Bids For a Place on the Aerospace World Stage



by Jennifer Meszaros  – July 11, 2016, 5:00 AM


Thailand’s relatively low wages make it a logical choice for MRO.

In an attempt to duplicate the success of its automotive industry—the 12th largest in the world—Thailand is ramping up its push to become a full-service aerospace hub, and a major player in the region’s multi-billion-dollar aircraft maintenance and manufacturing industries. The country’s presence here at the Farnborough International Airshow falls under the remit of its Board of Investment (Hall 4 Stand A110).

Thailand may seem overly ambitious to some, but Peter Gille, director of operations and engineering at Triumph Aviation Services—Asia (TASA) remains bullish on the country’s growth prospects. TASA’s capabilities include repairing and overhauling auxiliary power units (APU), thrust reversers, composite structures, and engine and airframe accessories.

I am personally convinced that Thailand can become a full-service aerospace hub,” Gille told AIN. “This is, in fact, what I am personally trying to contribute to.”

Dozens of industry leaders agree. Over the past two decades, Thailand has attracted significant investment from several U.S. companies such as Triumph, Honeywell, General Electric and Chromalloy, along with French tire manufacturer Michelin and German manufacturer Leistritz. According to Thailand’s Board of Investment (BOI), 24 companies are actively involved in aircraft part manufacturing while 12 companies perform maintenance and repair on aircraft and parts.

Thailand’s not-so-secret weapon lies in its strategic location, low labor costs, expanding network of free trade agreements and generous incentive packages. Situated in the heart of Southeast Asia, the country offers convenient trade with China, India and so-called Asean countries (Those in the Association of South East Asian Nations). Moreover, Thailand’s two international deep-sea ports on the eastern seaboard enable suppliers to tap into global markets.

Thailand is centrally located and very pro-business,” said Ronald Vuz, president of Triumph Structures Thailand—a manufacturer of aerospace composite structures. “We are in a free trade zone. This is a big part of the reason why we bought this facility. The country also has strong regulations and policies along with great logistics. It is very easy to get product in and out.”

Speaking to AIN last month, Segsarn Trai-Ukos, country director for Michelin, said the country’s geographical advantage prompted the company to switch its base of operations. “We recently moved our headquarters from Singapore to Thailand. We wanted to be closer to our customers and closer to our factories,” he said. “For us, this was a strategic decision.”

Despite uncertainties over Thai politics, the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business 2016 report places Thailand as the second-ranked emerging economy in Southeast Asia in which to do business and the 49th in the world. Aerospace companies say they have no complaints when it comes to serving overseas customers.

Gerton van den Oetelaar, engineering director of Chromalloy Thailand, said, “95 percent of our work is engine component maintenance. On average, we have 82 to 100 customers worldwide. Having agreements with BOImakes us very competitive.”

The agreements that van den Oetelaar allude to are laid out in well-defined investment policies that include a string of fiscal and non-fiscal incentives that range from corporate tax exemptions to assistance with customs, work permits and product sourcing. Available incentives include an exemption of import duties on machinery, no export requirements, an eight-year corporate income tax exemption and permission to own land.

Airlines often want their parts in a very short time,” van den Oetelaar told AIN. “We ship anywhere in the world in two, three days, max. This is because we have priority clearance from BOI to import and export.”

Thailand’s generous investment packages do not end there. Recognizing the importance of infrastructure and the need for greater integration between core industries, Ajarin Pattanapanchai, deputy security general of BOI, told AIN that a policy launched early last year aims to ramp up further investment in aerospace activities.

Super Cluster

Dubbed the Super-Cluster initiative, the program allows future companies to be eligible for eight-year corporate tax exemptions and an additional five-year reduction of 50 percent, provided they are in the designated cluster areas.

For industries with significant importance, Pattanapanchai said that the Ministry of Finance will consider granting 10 to 15 years’ corporate income tax exemption, personal income tax exemption for renowned specialists and matching grants to support investors in high-value-added activities such as training and research and development (R&D).

In order to be eligible, companies must collaborate with academic or research institutes to improve the level of human resources and technology. “In order to accelerate investment, projects need to apply this year and generate revenue in 2017. But for big projects, the BOI may consider a time frame on a case by case basis,” Pattanapanchai said.

Having a broad-based game plan that includes cooperation between institutions, the government and the private sector have long been a part of Thailand’s DNA in building up competitive manufacturing industries. Today, aerospace companies benefit from the country’s advanced auto manufacturing and electronics industries.

Many of our Thai employees came from the automotive industry,” said Vuz. “While we provide training, the automotive industry has paved the way for people to enter aerospace.”

Arnd Balzereit-Kelter, managing director of Leistritz, agrees. “Thailand has experienced a slowdown in the automotive industry. So we are leveraging off this and hiring people from the sector.” Leistritz’s Thai division is a global supplier of components for the forging of compressor blades for aero engines such as the International Aero Engines V2500, Pratt & Whitney PW1000G (with P&W partner MTU), and Rolls-Royce Trent 700, 900 and 1000.

Compared to neighboring countries like Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, Thailand has more skilled labor that companies can tap into. According to Gille, the country has civil engineering schools and two main universities that offer aerospace programs

I am very impressed with the level of education,” Gille told AIN, “Fifty percent of our staff have bachelor or master degrees, and two employees have PhDs. They know what they are doing.”

Saying this, TASA and other aerospace companies recognize the need to invest in new capabilities, as manufacturers deliver next generation aircraft and engines with new technology. To remain competitive, companies across the sector offer employees in-house and overseas training.

We have Thai people training Thais, and English-speakers training Thais to train other Thai people,” Vuz said. “Thais can do the work. They just need more experience and a chance to broaden their capabilities.”

Making sure there is a sufficient knowledge-based workforce to accommodate MRO growth, van den Oetelaar said Chromalloy offers roughly 200 training courses per year in areas such as machining and welding. The company currently employs more than 500 people and serves all the major airlines in the world.

Quality is not an argument, it’s a standard,” he said. “You have to comply with regulatory requirements in this field.”

Aerospace companies are not only leveraging Thailand’s burgeoning talent base, they are also taking advantage of low labor costs. With aerospace work becoming more intensive and more costly, van den Oetelaar said it makes sense to be based in a country with relatively low wages.

Asia is a growth region. There is going to be more maintenance required,” he said. “We focus on doing everything in house, which makes us very efficient and low-cost.”

While Thai employees may earn a lower salary compared to their Western peers, the cost of living and doing business in Thailand is substantially less.

People go to India because the market is growing but it’s expensive with poor infrastructure. The cost of borrowing capital is very high compared to Thailand,” said Ketan Pole, chief executive officer of C.C.S. Advance Tech—a manufacturer of piece parts for Tier 1 and Tier 2 customers of Boeing, Airbus, Rolls-Royce and UTAS.

Pole told AIN that another benefit to Thailand is a competitive corporate income tax rate at 20 percent.

In Southeast Asia, Thailand has advantages, “he said. “It makes sense to be here.”


Scroll down for more details on Thai Aerospace Industry



Rooivalk Attack Helicopter, South Africa

The Rooivalk is a latest-generation attack helicopter from Denel Aviation of South Africa. The South African Air Force ordered 12 Rooivalk AH-2As, the first of which entered service in July 1999. The helicopters form part of No. 16 Squadron at Bloemspruit Air Force Base (near Bloemfontein).

The helicopters have been delivered and were to be fitted with the Mokopa ZT-6 anti-tank missile. A production order for the Mokopa was placed in March 2004. Delays with the development of the missile meant significant delays in integrating with the Rooivalk.

³²¾Æ°ø °ø±º-CSH-2 Rooivalk-31

In May 2007 Denel Group announced they would cease development for the Rooivalk, however in November 2007 the South African government announced they would invest R962m ($137m) in the Rooivalk to bring it up to operational status by 2011.

In April 2011 the South African Air Force received five Block 1F upgraded Rooivalks which enabled the Mokopa integration.

Airbus, Denel sign MoU for Rooivalk upgrade: Here


Airbus Helicopters has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Denel Aviation to cooperate on modernising the current fleet of 11 Rooivalk Mk1 attack helicopter in service with the South African Air Force.

Announced on September 15 at the Africa Aerospace and Defence (AAD) exhibition being held at Air Force Base Waterkloof, South Africa, the Rooivalk Mk1.1 modernisation program will focus on improving reliability and updating ageing sighting and weapon systems, improving payload and survivability.

Rooivalk attack helicopter cockpit


Africa Travel Channel

The cockpits are in stepped tandem configuration. The weapon systems officer (WSO) is seated in the front cockpit and the pilot is seated in the cockpit above and behind the WSO. The cockpits, which are fitted with crashworthy seats and are armour-protected, are equipped with hands-on collective And stick (HOCAS) controls.

A Thales Avionics TopOwl helmet-mounted sight display (HMSD) provides the crew with a head-up display of information for nap-of-the-earth flight (NOE). TopOwl incorporates an integrated measurement system for directing an articulated weapon such as the cannon, or air-to-air missile seeker heads. It has an integrated Gen IV image intensifier and FLIR capability and provides transition from day to night use at the push of a button.



The Rooivalk has a crash-resistant structure and is designed for stealth with low radar, visual, infrared and acoustic signatures.


The Rooivalk carries a comprehensive range of weaponry selected for the mission requirement, ranging from anti-armour and anti-helicopter missions to ground suppression and ferry missions. The aircraft can engage multiple targets at short and long range, utilising the nose-mounted cannon and a range of underwing-mounted munitions.

The 20mm, F2 dual-feed, gas-operated cannon fires high-speed (1,100m/s) ammunition at a firing rate of 740 rounds a minute. Two ammunition bins hold up to 700 rounds of ready-to-fire ammunition. The slew rate of the cannon is 90° a second. The cannon is chin-mounted on the helicopter.

Giat Industries 20 mm M693 (F2)


The Giat Industries 20 mm M693 (F2) is a dual feed cannon which fires standard 20 x 139 mm ammunition.

It is gas operated and the firing mode can be selected for single shots, bursts or safe. The gas system operates via two vents, one on each side of the barrel, through which the propellant gases can push against two pistons. The gun is locked by two swinging locking devices which act as struts between the gun body and the gun block. On firing, the two gas pistons are driven to the rear, moving the struts backwards and so allowing the breech block to move to the rear. In this way all the firing forces are developed along the barrel centreline to keep accuracy constant.


The M693 has three main assemblies: the basic gun or recoil mass; the cradle; and the fire-control unit. The basic gun includes a 7° rifled barrel made of a special nitrided steel and fitted with a muzzle brake. The feed operates on a ratchet and pawl mechanism rotating two side sprockets which can feed ammunition into the gun from both sides, ejecting the spent cases from the same side as the feed in use. This system allows two types of ammunition to be fed into the gun. A further control switch can select the ammunition feed to be used. The linked rounds are fed into the gun from flexible chutes.

The M693 can be fitted with an electric recocking device including a system to indicate the end of its operation, or a hydraulic recocking device.

Property Value
Main weapon caliber (mm)
Length (mm)
Barrel length (calibres)
Recoil stroke (mm)
Height (mm)
Weight (kg)
Rate of fire (rds/min)

Giat Industries 20 mm M693 (F2) data

The Rooivalk was to be armed with the Mokopa long-range anti-armour missile developed by the Kentron Division of Denel. Mokopa has a semi-active laser seeker head and is equipped with a tandem warhead. Range is over 8.5km. Rooivalk can also fire Hellfire or HOT 3 missiles.

Mokopa anti-armour missile


Mokopa is a state-of-the-art, long-range, precision-guided, anti-armour missile. It may, however, be used effectively against other high-value ground, air or naval targets from a variety of launch platforms such as land vehicles, shore battery installations, naval vessels and fixed-wing aircraft.


The modular design of the missile allows for different warheads (e.g. penetration, fragmentation or anti-armour), optimized for the type of target. Furthermore, the modularity of the missile system facilitates pre-planned upgrades, such as mmW and IIRseekers, ensuring a continued presence in the market.


System Operation (SAL Version)

Prior to launch, target information must be supplied via the on-board sighting system or from an external source. After launch, the missile flies towards the target area, using the selected trajectory and fly-out method. During the terminal phase, the target must be illuminated by the on-board sighting system or a remote designator.

System Description

The Mokopa system consists of the following major components:

178 mm missile
Launcher (two or four missiles)
Support equipment

Technical Data

  • Missile mass : 49,8 kg
  • Missile diameter : 178 mm
  • Missile length : 1 995 mm
  • Seeker : Semi-active laser homing
  • Warhead : Tandem HEAT
  • Penetration : > 1 350 mm RHA
  • Range : 10 000 m


Rooivalk can carry four air-to-air missiles such as the Denel Aerospace Systems V3C Darter or MBDA (formerly Matra BAe Dynamics) Mistral.

V3C Darter AAM


A greatly improved version of the short-range V3B AAM, it was cleared for use with the Mirage III, Mirage F1 and Cheetah aircraft. The missile is linked to the helmet-mounted acquisition system which allows the pilot to lock the missiles seeker head onto the target well outside his aircraft’s axis. It is comparable to the AIM-9L Sidewinder. Using both contact and laser proximity fuses, launch velocity is the aircraft’s speed plus 600m/s. It can be fired against targets within 15 degrees of the sun, and in look-down mode.


Produced from 1986, the Darter has a larger-diameter fuselage when compared to the V3B, gimble limits were increased to 55 degrees and incorporated shorter reaction times and a laser fuse. Lead bias was optimised from 20 to 160 degrees by using a colour guidance system to distinguish between aircraft and decoy flares. The Bush War ended before it entered service in 1990, but was still used by the Impala Mk II. Further development of the Kenron V3C ceased in favour of the larger U-Darter.

Weapon Stats:

Speed: Mach 2
Range: 0.3-10 km, 0.2-6.2 miles
Length: 2.75 m, 9.02 ft
Diameter: 15.7 cm, 6.18 ft
Weight: 89 kg, 196 lb
Explosives: 16 kg (35.3 lb) Torpex 2A Fragmentation (Tungsten cube)
Propulsion: Double-base solid-propellant rocket

MBDA mistral air-to-air missiles


The MBDA Mistral is a very short-range air defence missile system capable of intercepting close to the ground-flying helicopters and fighter aircraft.

The Atam system is comprised of two launching ramps with two missiles each, i.e. four ready-to-fire missiles. It is capable of intercepting helicopters as well as fighter aircraft and can be fired from altitudes of up to 15,000 ft and at speeds of up to 200 knots.

Very simple to use (Fire and Forget missile) and easy to maintain, the system can be operated in the whole flight envelope of the carrier helicopter.

The warheads are equipped with a contact fuse, a laser proximity fuse and a time delay self destruct device. Guidance is by passive infra-red homing using an indium arsenide detector array operating in the 3 to 5 micron waveband. The guidance system is capable of trajectory-shaping and has a self-spinning airframe for improved accuracy. The warhead can be detonated either by impact or by an active laser proximity fuse.

Weapon Stats:

Speed: Mach 2.5
Range: 0.5-6 km, 0.3-3.7 miles
Length: 1.86 m, 6.1 ft
Diameter: 90 cm, 35.4 ft
Weight: 18.7 kg, 41.2 lb
Propulsion: Solid rocket booster
Denel AH-2 Rooivalk Attack Helicopters 2

Hellfire missile


The US-made AGM-114 Hellfire Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) is one of the most common and important heliborne weapons of the Western Bloc. Designed to serve as an equalizer against superior numbers of Warsaw Pact tanks at the height of the Cold War, this missile continues to find a place in new missions and battles that were largely discounted in its infancy.

Development of this weapon began in 1974, as a US Army program. In its conceptual phase, the AGM-114 was known as the “HELFIRE”, a portmanteau of “HELicopter launched FIRE and forget”. The HELFIRE by 1978 had become a joint program US Marine Corp as well; the Marines had a requirement for essentially the same type of weapon, and Congress directed that they co-develop the HELFIRE. Test firings began later that same year, with operational testing was reportedly completed in 1981, and the AGM-114 achieved initial operational capability with the US Army in 1985.


At some point before it was approved for production in 1982 the AGM-114 HELFIRE was inevitably renamed the “Hellfire”, and like most modern US weapons, its origins are a tangled web of ties between legions of contractors and subcontractors. It was initially a proprietary Rockwell product, but a Martin Marietta seeker head was integrated into the design by the time its live-fire testing began. The motors were all manufactured by Thikliol, but are now ATK products. The primary contractor today for all models except the AGM-114L is Hellfire Systems LLC, a joint venture of Lockheed Martin and Boeing. The AGM-114L is currently produced by Longbow LLC, a joint venture of Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman. Thus, for all intents and purposes, the Hellfire is essentially a Lockheed product.

All variants to date, with the exception of the AGM-114L, employ semi-active laser guidance. The missile homes-in on a laser spot produced by a laser designator. The aircraft employing the Hellfire usually have their own laser designator, but the target can be “lased” by another aircraft, a fighting vehicle, personnel with a man-portable designator, and so on.

The Hellfire is most famously associated with the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, but since its introduction has been integrated into a multitude of different launch platforms, including fixed-wing aircraft. It has also been successfully integrated into ground-based and naval launch platforms, though to date none of these have entered production. The problem with the Hellfire in a ground-based application is likely its significant mass and unit cost; a BGM-71C TOW IIA, for example, is half the weight and cost of the AGM-114L Hellfire. A new generation of more compact ATGMs, such as the 9M133 Kornet and FGM-148 Javelin, have further eroded the viability of ground-launched Hellfires. The limitations of the Hellfire for marine use are much simpler, in that it is extremely lacking in range and power compared to missiles such as the AGM-119 Penguin or RGM-84 Harpoon.


It is also possible for the Hellfire to engage helicopters and slow fixed-wing aircraft, though its guidance, warhead, and flight profile obviously make it less than ideal for this purpose (hence, why combat helicopters are often seen carrying missiles like the AIM-92 Stinger and AIM-9 Sidewinder). The only documented case of the Hellfire shooting-down an aircraft was on May 24th 2001, when an IDF AH-64 Apache shot-down a civilian Cessna 152 intruding into restricted airspace (which unfortunately stemmed from the inexperience of the civilian pilot, rather than hostile intent).

Entered service 1985
Armor penetration ~ 800 mm
Range of fire 7 000 – 9 000 m
Missile weight 45.4 – 49 kg
Missile length 1.63 – 1.8 m
Missile diameter 0.18 m
Fin span 0.33 m
Warhead type HEAT, various (see below)
Warhead weight 8 or 9 kg
Guidance Semi active laser of active radar


HOT 3 missiles


The HOT is an anti-tank missile of French/German origin. It was developed in the early and mid 1970’s to replace the SS.11 missile. The name HOT stands for Haut subsonique, Optiquement téléguidé, Tiré d’un tube, this translates to high subsonic, optically guided, tube launched. The performance is comparable to the American TOW missile and Soviet Konkurs (AT-5) missile

The HOT is a powerful anti-tank missile with good penetration characteristics. The HOT-1 HEAT warhead penetrates 800 mm RHA, the HOT-2 does 900 mm and the tandem HEAT warhead on the HOT-3 penetrates 1.250 mm behind ERA. It is also effective against bunkers and light vehicles, but of limited use against infantry in the open. The maximum range is 4 km and the flight speed is about 850 km/h. The SACLOS guidance results in good accuracy, even against moving targets.


HOT-1: Original HOT missile produced since 1978. Fitted with 136mm diameter shaped charge HEAT warhead.
HOT-2: Improved HOT-1 introduced in 1985. Has a 150mm diameter warhead for increased penetration. The missile body is lighter to compensate for the increased weight.
HOT-2MP: Multi Purpose version of HOT-2 introduced in 1986. Fitted with penetrating blast fragmentation warhead for use against buildings, fortified positions and all vehicles except tanks.
HOT-3: Final version introduced in 1993 and previously called HOT-2T. Has a tandem shaped charge HEAT warhead for much increased penetration and longer guidance wire. Data

The V3C Darter has an infrared seeker and a helmet-mounted sight for target designation. The Mistral, which has been selected by the South African Air Force, has an infrared seeker and range of up to 6km.

Rooivalk is equipped to fire 70mm folding-fin aerial rockets (FFAR), from the company Forges de Zeebrugge of Belgium, with a range of warheads, selectable according to the type of targets being engaged.

FZ 90 70mm FFAR


Developed by Forges de Zeebrugge of Belgium from a licence-built US-designed Folding Fin Aircraft Rocket (FFAR). In mid-1990s announced development of Wraparound Fin Air Rocket (WAFAR) FZ 90, designed primarily for helicopters. Denel says these were found superior to the old 68mm SNEB’s.

In 1997, TDA announced that the TDA/FZ 70 mm rocket system consisting of the FZ 90 rocket motor, warheads and M159 rocket launcher had been selected for integration on the South African Rooivalk helicopter.


Pilot’s Post PTY Ltd

M159 rocket launcher


Metallic rocket launcher

M159 is an aluminum high-drag, straight cylindrical 19-tube reusable launcher designed for helicopter use. The rocket launcher M159 is equipped with removable universal dual purpose FZ125 detent mechanisms enabling to fire FFAR and WA rockets. Source

Warheads are selectable according to the type of targets being engaged.


Explosive types:

HEAT; HE general purpose; MPSM/HE anti-armour/anti-personnel submunition; AMV multidart; target marking; smoke; chaff; illumination

Used on:

Rooivalk (x 19 per pod)


Rooivalk electronic warfare suite

Denel AH-2 Rooivalk Attack Helicopter2

The Rooivalk’s electronic warfare suite is the fully integrated helicopter electronic warfare self-protection suite (HEWSPS), incorporating radar warning, laser warning and countermeasures dispensing system. The system is flight-line programmable and in-flight adaptable to match the threat library with the mission’s area of operation.

The radar warner features low-effective radiated power (ERP) / pulse Doppler radar detection beyond radar detection range, ultra broadband frequency coverage, high pulse density handling and internal instantaneous frequency measurement.

The laser warner provides broadband laser frequency coverage to detect and display rangefinding, designating and missile guidance laser threats.

The countermeasures dispensing system, which is operated in manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic mode, is charged with chaff and flare cartridges.

Fire control and observation


Target detection, acquisition and tracking are carried out using the nose-mounted stabilised sight, TDATS. The TDATS sight is equipped with a low-level television sensor, Forward-looking infrared (FLIR), autotracker, laser rangefinder and laser designator.

Navigation and communications

The Rooivalk is equipped with an advanced navigation suite including Doppler radar velocity sensor, Thales Avionics eight-channel global positioning system, heading sensor unit and an air data unit.

The communications suite consists of two VHF/UHF transceivers with FM, AM and digital speech processing, one HF radio with frequency hopping and secure voice and data channels, and an IFF transponder



Entered service 1999
Crew 2 men
Dimensions and weight
Length 18.73 m
Main rotor diameter 15.58 m
Height 5.19 m
Weight (empty) 5.9 t
Weight (maximum take off) 8.7 t
Engines and performance
Engines 2 x Atlas Topaz turboshaft engines
Engine power 2 x 2 000 hp
Maximum cruising speed 309 km/h
Range 940 km
Cannon 1 x 20-mm Armscor cannon
Missiles 4 x four-round launchers for TOW or Denel ZT-6 Mokopa anti-tank missiles, provision for air-to-air missiles
Other launchers with 70-mm unoperated rockets in place of the missiles

Main material source

Updated Nov 11, 2019

Raytheon delivered its AN/SPY-6(V) Air and Missile Defense Radar array to US Navy’s Pacific Missile Range Facility in Hawaii

Rapid Fire | Monday, July 11, 2016, 00:59 UTC

Raytheon has delivered its AN/SPY-6(V) Air and Missile Defense Radar array to the US Navy’s Pacific Missile Range Facility in Hawaii ahead of the first radar light-off in early July . According to Tad Dickenson, AMDR program director, the array was the last component to ship and all other components, including the back-end processing equipment, were delivered earlier and already integrated at the range.


US Navy all set for AN/SPY-6(V) radar array tests



Posted on July 7, 2016

American defense contractor Raytheon informed that it has delivered the first AN/SPY-6(V) air and missile defense radar array to the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Missile Range Facility in Hawaii ahead of schedule.

The company said the array was installed according to plan, in preparation for first radar light-off in early July. SPY-6(V) is the next-generation integrated air and ballistic missile defense radar for the U.S. Navy, filling a capability gap for the surface fleet.

The delivery and installation of the AN/SPY-6 radar at the Advanced Radar Development Evaluation Laboratory (ARDEL) followed the successful completion of Near Field Range testing in Sudbury, Massachusetts in late May, and marks the beginning of the Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) program’s next phase of execution that includes live test campaigns at PMRF — involving air and surface targets as well as integrated air and missile defense (IAMD) flight tests.

In less than 30 months, the SPY-6(V) array completed design, fabrication and initial testing. Soon to transition to low rate initial production, SPY-6(V) remains on track for delivery in 2019 for the first DDG 51 Flight III destroyer.

“Several months of testing at our near-field range facility, where the array completed characterization and calibration, have proven the system ready for live target tracking,” said Raytheon’s Tad Dickenson, AMDR program director. “The array was the last component to ship. With all other components, including the back-end processing equipment, delivered earlier and already integrated at the range, AMDR will be up and running in short order.”

“The extensive testing to date has demonstrated good compliance to the radar’s key technical performance parameters,” said U.S. Navy Captain Seiko Okano, major program manager, Above Water Sensors (IWS 2.0). “The technologies are proven mature and ready for testing in the far-field range, against live targets, to verify and validate the radar’s exceptional capabilities.”

As Raytheon eplains, the SPY-6(V) is the first scalable radar, built with RMAs – radar building blocks. Each RMA, roughly 2′ x 2′ x 2′ in size, is a standalone radar that can be grouped to build any size radar aperture, from a single RMA to configurations larger than currently fielded radars.

All cooling, power, command logic and software are scalable, allowing for new instantiations without significant radar development costs.

Providing greater capability – in range, sensitivity and discrimination accuracy – than currently deployed radars, SPY-6(V) increases battlespace, situational awareness and reaction time to effectively counter current and future threats.

The inherent scalability could allow for new instantiations, such as back-fit on existing DDG 51 destroyers and installation on aircraft carriers, amphibious warfare ships, frigates, Littoral Combat Ship and DDG 1000 classes, without significant new radar development costs, Raytheon said.

When it comes to the DDG 51 Flight III destroyer, however, the SPY-6(V) AMDR will feature 37 RMAs – which is equivalent to SPY-1D(V) +15 dB meaning SPY-6 can see a target of half the size at twice the distance of today’s radar while 4 array faces will provide full-time, 360° situational awareness.

The video below illustrates the radar’s scalability and provides a visual of how it all should work.


The Highly Capable, Truly Scalable Radar


The Air and Missile Defense Radar – AN/SPY-6(V) – is the Navy’s next generation integrated air and missile defense radar. It is advancing through development and on track for the DDG-51 Flight III destroyer.

The radar significantly enhances the ships’ ability to detect air and surface targets as well as the ever-proliferating ballistic missile threats.

AMDR provides greater detection ranges, increased discrimination accuracy, higher reliability and sustainability, and lower total ownership cost as well as a host of other advantages when compared to the current AN/SPY-1D(V) radar onboard today’s destroyers.

The system is built with individual ‘building blocks’ called Radar Modular Assemblies. Each RMA is a self-contained radar in a 2’x2’x2’ box. These individual radar RMAs can stack together to form any size array to fit the mission requirements of any ship, making AMDR the Navy’s first truly scalable radar.

The inherent scalability could allow for new instantiations, such as back-fit on existing DDG 51 destroyers and installation on aircraft carriers, amphibious warfare ships, frigates, Littoral Combat Ship and DDG 1000 classes, without significant new radar development costs.

For the DDG 51 Flight III destroyer, the SPY-6(V) AMDR will feature:

  • 37 RMAs – which is equivalent to SPY-1D(V) +15 dB
    Meaning, SPY-6 can see a target of half the size at twice the distance of today’s radar
  • 4 array faces to provide full-time, 360° situational awareness
    Each face is 14’ x 14’ – which is roughly the same dimension as today’s SPY-1D(V) radar

AMDR Advantages

  • Scalable to suit any size aperture or mission requirement
  • Over 30 times more sensitive than AN/SPY-1D(V) in the Flight III configuration
  • Designed to counter large and complex raids
  • Adaptive digital beamforming and radar signal/data processing functionality provides exceptional capability in adverse conditions, such as high-clutter and jamming environments. It is also reprogrammable to adapt to new missions or emerging threats.
  • All cooling, power, command logic and software are scalable


Designed for high availability and reliability, AMDR provides exceptional capability and performance compared to SPY-1 – and at a comparable price and significantly lower total ownership cost.

AMDR’s performance and reliability are a direct result of more than 10 years of investment in core technologies, leveraging development, testing and production of high-powered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductors, distributed receiver exciters, and adaptive digital beamforming. AMDR’s GaN components cost 34% less than Gallium Arsenide alternatives, deliver higher power density and efficiency, and have demonstrated meantime between failures at an impressive 100 million hours.

AMDR has a fully programmable, back-end radar controller built out of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) x86 processors. This programmability allows the system to adapt to emerging threats. The commercial nature of the x86 processors simplifies obsolescence replacement – as opposed to costly technical refresh/upgrades and associated downtime – savings that lower radar sustainment costs over each ship’s service life.

AMDR has an extremely high predicted operational availability due to the reliable GaN transmit/receive modules, the low mean-time-to-repair rate, and a very low number of Line Replaceable Units. Designed for maintainability, standard LRU replacement in the RMA can be accomplished in under six minutes – requiring only two tools.

This new S-band radar will be coupled with:

  • X-band radar – a horizon-search radar based on existing technology
  • The Radar Suite Controller (RSC) – a new component to manage radar resources and integrate with the ship’s combat management system



Mobility Sea-based and is highly mobile
Role Planned to replace AN/SPY-1 as the primary radar for the Aegis Combat System
Deployment Scheduled to be deployed on DDG-51 Flight III destroyers upon development[i]
Frequency S-band (X-band for corresponding horizon-search AN/SPQ-9B radar)
Producer Raytheon



General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 1005840 m
Range Max: 463 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 1.1 km Generation: Early 2020s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPY-6 AMDR – (AESA) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Long-Range
Max Range: 463 km


Kra Canal in Southern Thailand

If one looks at a map of Thailand he or she will notice that in Southern Thailand there is a narrow strip of land where on the right hand side is the South China Sea and on the left hand side there is the Andaman Sea. This strip of land borders Myanmar (Burma) towards the northwestern side and Malaysia towards the southwestern side. It is known as the Isthmus of Kra.

45 years ago the founder of the biggest privately-owned petroleum refinery in Thailand — Thai Oil Refinery PLC — Mr. Chow Chowkwanyun (spelling may not be 100% correct) was already proposing the building of a man-made canal like the Suez and Panama canals to enable ships going from Asia to India, Middle East and Europe and vice versa to shorten their traveling time and save operating expenses like fuel and charter time significantly while generating additional income for the Thai Government to fund industrialization and economic development in Southern Thailand to counter the fast-spreading Islamic insurgency activities in that part of the country.

Succeeding generations of Thai government have paid lip service to promoting such an important project and basically took no action to proceed with it. Every time someone in the Thai Government introduce a new proposal to investigate and determine the economic feasibility of implementing such a project, I was told by informed sources the late Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore will immediately fly to Bangkok with his team of Singaporean government officials to “rain cash from helicopter” in Government House in Bangkok. That is of course quite possible because building and operating such a canal will significantly affect the economy of Singapore, especially when they depend a lot of tne entrepot trade between the small island and Indonesia, and also Singapore is the biggest petroleum refining country in Southeast Asia today. I can envision that if the Thai Government goes ahead with the Kra Canal project, many, if not all, of the petroleum refineries in Singapore today (almost all foreign-owned and operated) will eventually move to Thailand and be located on both sides of the canal.

This situation is about the change though. The present Thai Government under the military strongman is discussing the building of just such a canal with China offering both financial and technology back-up to see to it’s successful completion. What I was told was the Chinese-backed International Infrastructure Bank stands ready to provide funding for up to 100% of the project and China is offering to design and build the canal with close participation from all three major SET-listed Thai civil engineering contractors like ItalThai, C.K. and SinoThai.

Hopefully, this time around, if the military government in Bangkok is sincere and truly wants to develop the economy of Southern Thailand and neutralize the Muslim insurgents in that area, the Kra Canal project should be able to see the light of day. Any efforts by the present Singapore Government to scuttle the project will be strongly rebuffed by Beijing. Such a project will truly and significantly promote the industrialization and economic development of the relatively poor Southern Thailand region and benefit the Kingdom and Thai people as a whole.

09 Jul 2016
Original post


Can’t wait to see it happen it would bring great prosperity not just for Thailand but surrounding countries will greatly benefit also, however on a negative note it would also bring increased meddling by superpowers

“Any efforts by the present Singapore Government to scuttle the project will be strongly rebuffed by Beijing.”



If one were to look at a Pacific-centered world map, one would realize that Thailand and the Malacca Straits are located right in-between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. In 1987, at a conference on “The Kra Canal Project and the Development of Thailand” held at the Dusit Thani Hotel, Dr. Uwe Henke von Parpart, Director of the Fusion Energy Foundation, an American mathematician of German origin, remarked that Thailand is situated at the most strategic spot in Southeast Asia, the junction point between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Thus, Thailand is also located right in the middle of two-thirds of the world’s population. Dr. Parpart went to predict that both China and India would grow to become major economic powers and that should Thailand decide to build the Kra Canal in the south, the country would greatly benefit from its strategic position.


Prof. Dr. Surasak Nananukul, a leading Thai economist of his time, remarked clearly that “The development of a Special Economic Zone” around the Kra Canal would be a major feature in the Global Logistic Infrastructure. The special economic zone would also be a key factor in the “Regional Investment Village.” The existence of the Kra Canal would immediately place Thailand on one of the world’s major sea lane of communication. At present, Thailand is situated at the bottom-end of the lane. All agricultural and manufactured goods have to be first placed on small feeder ships before being transfered onto large ocean freighters that dock in Singapore. Singapore has an advantage because it is situated at the front-end of the lane. The Kra Canal will make it possible for Thailand to be at the front-end of the lane and thus, be able to compete with Singapore.

Dr. Surarak compared the Kra Canal Special Economic Zone to those of China, which would be able to attract enormous amounts of foreign investment simply because the Kra Canal would be part of the Global Logistic Infrastructure, a major feature in developing trade and industrial development. Dr. Surasak went on to con- clude there are five features of the Kra Canal Special Economic Zone to consider:

1. A Center for Maritime Transportation

2. The Special Economic Zone

3. Regional Investment Village

4. Business-friendly Economic System

5. An Economic Zone based on Peace and Neutrality

In the proposal of the Commission of Assets and Securities Market on he subject of “Next Frontier of Capital Market Development” on September 11, 2014, Dr. Worapol Sokhatiyanraks remarked that Thailand has a geographic advantage. It has the potential to become a Logistic Hub with a competitive edge. Thailand could also become the center of cargo transportation by land and air. The development of the high speed train, Thailand will be able to link to other ASEAN nations, China, India, the European continent, Africa and the United States of America. In any case, be- cause Thailand would only slightly benefit from this project, Dr. Worapol suggested that transportation of oil by pipeline would act as an economic land bridge be- tween Satun (Pak Bara Port) on the Andaman Sea and Songkhla province on the Gulf of Thailand. The oil pipeline would be 140 km. long. Giant oil storage towers, deep-sea ports and refineries would line the two coasts of Thailand.

The Land Bridge might help to reduce the problems of congestion in the Straits of Malacca somewhat because the transportation of oil represents 50% of goods that go through the Malacca Straits. In any case, transportation of oil alone would not be able to transform Thailand into a Maritime Logistic Hub. The Port of Singapore receives more than 130,000 vessels (2009 figures) per annum. It is also a major transshipment center. Approximately 1.780 billion tons of cargo transported by 45% of vessels going through the Straits of Malacca, the equivalent of 32 million containers (TEUs), are taken off major ocean-going vessels, put onto feeder ships and vice versa. This fact alone places the Port of Singapore second only to the Port of Shanghai in China.

It is unlikely that the oil pipeline or otherwise known as the Land Bridge would be able to turn Thailand into a Maritime Logistic Hub, the main reason being that it is single-purposed and can be used for only one kind of cargo, in this case only liquid cargos (oil). To handle all types of cargo (liquid cargos, containers, bulk cargos, etc., it would require double-handling, once on the coast of the Gulf of Thailand and again on the coast of the Andaman Sea. Double handling would increase transporta- tion costs. Normally ocean-going cargo vessels try to avoid double-handling. If there is not a good enough reason impelling double-handling, ocean-going vessels would not want to use the services of the Land Bridge. Therefore, it is clear that such a Land Bridge will not provide the necessary impetus for Thailand to become a Mari- time Logistic Hub in the future.





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Russian Mi-24 Hind Helicopter Shot Down During Combat With ISIS In Palmyra Syria – Video


WarLeaks – Daily Military Defense Videos & Combat Footage

Published on Jul 9, 2016

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2 Russian pilots killed as ISIS shoots down chopper near Palmyra – MoD

Published time: 9 Jul, 2016 16:59Edited time: 9 Jul, 2016 20:38

Islamic State militants have downed a military helicopter near Palmyra, Syria, killing two Russian pilots on board. The helicopter had been attacking the advancing terrorists at Damascus’ request when it was taken down, according to the Russian defense ministry.

On July 8, Russian military pilot-instructors Evgeny Dolgin and Ryafagat Khabibulin, were conducting a calibration flight on a Syrian Mi-25 (export version of the Mi-24) helicopter loaded with ammunition in the province of Homs,the official statement from the Ministry of Defense reads.

The crew received a request from the Syrian command group to help defeat the advancing terrorists and fire for effect. The captain of the aircraft, Ryafagat Khabibullin, made the decision to attack.”

The Ministry of Defense stated that due to the skillful actions of the crew the terrorists were thrown back and the attack had been thwarted.

However, their helicopter was shot down by terrorists as it was turning to head back to the base.

Having spent their ammunition, while turning back to the base, the helicopter was shot down by terrorists from the ground and crashed in an area controlled by the Syrian government. The crew did not survive,Russia’s defense ministry said, adding that both pilots will posthumously receive state awards for their actions.

Russia’s Interfax news agency reported, citing a source in the Russian military, that the helicopter had been downed with the aid of an American TOW antitank missile system.

According to reports, terrorists used the American TOW system to down the helicopter, which, having exhausted its ammunition, was on the course back to the base at an extremely low altitude,the source is quoted as saying.

Friday’s tragedy puts the number of Russian military casualties in Syria at 10.

In June, serviceman Anton Erygin suffered fatal wounds after falling under militant fire while guarding a Russian center for reconciliation convoy in Homs province.

Earlier in April, Russia paid its respects to Lt. Aleksandr Prokhorenko, who called in artillery fire on his own position after being surrounded by the terrorists near the Syrian city of Palmyra.

Prokhorenko, dubbed ‘Russian Rambo’ by international media, was awarded the title of Hero of Russia for his feat.


Mi-24 Hind: Details


L-39NG/L-39CW Multi-Role Jet Trainer, Czech Republic

L-39NG (next generation) is the latest multi-role, advanced jet trainer aircraft designed by Aero Vodochody Aerospace. It is being developed to provide enhanced military flight training capabilities required for fourth- and fifth-generation fighters.

The aircraft offers superior manoeuvrability and extended range. It will serve as a primary and advanced jet trainer, full weapon training aircraft, and attack aircraft for nations with limited air force. It can also be used to conduct light combat and reconnaissance missions under all climatic conditions.

Ostrava NATO Days 2015: L-39NG – Czech Offer of Next Generation Albatros


Ostrava NATO Days 2015 gave the Czech Aero Vodochody company an occasion to present its L-39NG (Next Generation) trainer technology demonstrator to the public. The jet had made its maiden flight a few days before the event in Ostrava. The main idea behind the design was to prolong the service-lives of the L-39 airframes that are in good technical condition, once the lifetime of their AI-25TL engines ends. Besides that, the L-39NG jet is going to be offered globally as a brand new design, with a new fuselage. Maiden flight of the first example of the new jet is scheduled to happen in 2 years.   For the numerous users of the L-39 jets, this approach may make it possible to realize the modernization programme in two, separate stages. At the first stage, the Soviet-made engine is going to be replaced with the Williams International FJ44-4M propulsion system, together with the relevant avionics facilitating its operation. Additionally, depending on the client’s requirements, other elements of the L-39NG onboard equipment may be installed on the original airframes, including the Genesys Aerosystems avionics and multi-function and helmet mounted displays, delivered by the Speel Praha company. During the next phase, a brand new fuselage may be connected with the used engine. Thanks to this approach, the total cost of the whole operation is going to be distributed across time, in comparison with the cost of purchasing the brand-new jet. Source

Genesys Aerosystems avionics


Genesys provided avionics for Cessna’s Scorpion, and its electronic flight information systems (EFIS) are also being installed in helicopters being made by Sikorsky for the U.S. State Department and other specialized customers. The lightweight and highly capable EFIS has also been installed in Embraer Super Tucano aircraft sold to Columbia, and Smith said there are similar opportunities in the offing. Source

The new generation aircraft was introduced at the Farnborough International Airshow in July 2014. The L-39NG prototype is scheduled to be unveiled in 2016 and the first deliveries are expected to commence in 2018. It is intended to replace the ageing fleet of L-39 Albatros jet trainer / ground attack aircraft as well as other existing jet trainers.

Czech trainer and attack aircraft L-39NG first time in the air

On Monday, September 14, 2015 carried a crew of Aero Vodochody factory AEROSPACE as composed Miroslav Schützner and Vladimir Kvarda test flight of the prototype demonstrator L-39NG new engine FJ44-4M firm Williams International, avionics built on multifunctional displays Genesys Aerosystems and HUD display companies SPEEL Prague .

l-39ngPhoto: L-39NG first time in vzduchu./ AEROSPACE AERO Vodochody 

Read entire article: Here

L-39NG “Technology Demonstrator” prototype

P1220296_resizeImage of L-39NG “Technology Demonstrator” prototype – Image:  jets.hu3_resize(56)Image of L-39NG “Technology Demonstrator” prototype front seat cockpit – Image: jets.hu4_resize(54)Image of L-39NG “Technology Demonstrator” prototype rear seat cockpit – Image:

In addition to gear the biggest transformation of the on-board electronics fall through. Modular central computer serves up data in dashboard displays, symbology on demand (signal system), which means that the country still serving légierejében combat those types of data appear in a similar way. This greatly shortens the time of the type of retraining, since the students already familiar with the handling of the war machine before the on-board systems before they meet him in real life. The instrument panel lighting will be compatible with NVG night vision devices as well. Three large-size liquid crystal display are installed, which is very similar to many other types. The cockpit equipment because more and more uniformed, usually on the left screen displaying the flight parameters, in the middle of the navigation and tactical information, while the left side of the on-board systems are shown. Translated by google Source

Read rest of article: Here

Aero launches prototype and pre-serial production of L-39NG: Here


Aero Vodochody has begun prototype and pre-serial production of its L-39NG jet trainer and light-attack platform, the manufacturer reported on 20 July.

The Czech company announced that assembly of the first four L-39NGs had begun “in recent weeks”, comprising three prototype and one pre-serial production model. Of the three prototypes, one will be used for flight trials with the other two serving as ground-based fatigue platforms. The pre-serial production aircraft will be delivered to the launch customer, Czech state-owned company LOM Praha.

Aero Vodochody Reveals New Jet Trainer Plans: Here



Czech company Aero Vodochody is assembling three new two-seat L-159T2 advanced jet trainers in its factory at Prague. This is the latest version of an aircraft that serves the Czech Air Force and two export customers: the Iraqi air force and the contract air service provider Draken International. The company has also provided more detail on its plans to produce a new version of its original L-39 jet trainer, and to upgrade those still serving with various air forces.

Aero completes development of new L-39CW-variant Albatros: Here


Aero Vodochody has completed development of a new variant of its L-39 trainer and light attack aircraft designated the L-39CW, the company announced on 20 November.

The L-39CW involves retrofitting an existing L-39 with a more powerful and more efficient Williams International FJ44-4M jet engine as well as modern avionics. According to Aero, ground and flight trails have now been completed and the configuration is ready for delivery.

The first pre-serial L-39NG made its first flight on 22nd December: Here


Design and features of L-39NG aircraft

The L-39NG’s attributes are the following:
  • Based on the successful and proven airframe of the L-39 Albatros
  • Weight reduction
  • Less drag due to removal of wing tip tanks
  • Increased life of up to 15,000 flight hours
  • Improved detail parts precision (CAD modelling and CNC machining)
  • Compatible with L-39 GSE


The L-39NG multi-role aircraft is an extensive modernisation of the L-39 Albatros jet trainer / ground attack aircraft. It features a lighter and stronger airframe incorporating improved aerodynamics, and selected L-39/159 spares and off-the-shelf components. The redesigned airframe offers a fatigue life of up to 15,000 flight hours.

The rugged design incorporates redesigned wet wings with integral fuel tanks and power assisted ailerons. The fuel tanks are installed with single-point pressure refuelling system. The L-39NG is also equipped with nose wheel steering, debriefing system, wide track undercarriage, low pressure tyres, an in built health and usage monitoring system, and a variety of optional equipment.


The aircraft measures 12.03m in overall length and has wing span of 9.56m. It has an empty weight of 3,100kg, maximum take-off weight of 6,300kg and landing weight of 5,800kg. It is capable of carrying maximum external payloads of up to 1,200kg. The internal and external fuel capacities are 1,450kg and 570kg respectively.

The L-39NG requires low maintenance and operation costs, and offers improved corrosion resistance, high reliability and extended endurance.



Technology demonstrator of the L-39NG based on the L-39C airframe with the Williams International FJ44-4M turbofan.[16]

L-39NG Stage 1

Re-engined L-39 Albatros to be powered by Williams International FJ44-4M turbofan. Optionally includes an installation of the L-39NG Stage 2 avionics.[8]

L-39NG Stage 2

Newly built L-39NG jet trainer aircraft with Genesys Aerosystems avionics suite and glass cockpit, new airframe with five hardpoints, and FJ44-4M engine.[9]


L-39NG cockpit and avionics


The configurable tandem glass cockpit of the L-39NG aircraft accommodates a crew of two on zero-zero ejection seats and provides increased training effectiveness and bird strike protection. The single-piece canopy offers improved all-round visibility for the crew.

L-39NG cockpit

7_resizeCockpit – imagejets.hucockpitImage:
  • Modular avionics core
  • Embedded virtual training capability
  • NVG compatibility
  • Integrated digital avionics with configurable glass cockpit for increased training effectiveness

In order to provide the pilot with an efficient training and enable him a smooth transition to the fighter unit, the cockpit of the L-39NG will have the following features:


New Concept L – 39 NG will be fully ready for use night vision devices . The new larger screen with digital maps will be incorporated into an existing L – 159 aircraft. Image

  • HUD
  • MFDs
  • Electronic Stand-by Instrumentation
  • HOTAS Controls
  • NVG compatibility
  • Centralized cockpit management
  • Master moding:
    o NAV (Navigation)
    o A/G (Air-Ground)
    o A/A (Air-Air)
  • Simulated and live weapon delivery
  • Single piece canopy – improved view out of the cockpit


The crew station lighting is compatible with night vision goggles (NVGs) to provide enhanced field of view during low-light flight operations.

IDU-680 Genesys Aerosystems L-39NG can be equipped with display Series IDU-680 Genesys Aerosystems. / Genesys Aerosystems

Genesys Aerosystems is a leading provider of integrated avionics systems for military and civilian customers.Genesys offers avionics systems Aerosystems can be used independently or as an integrated solution for the entire cockpit.

Their system Synthetic Vision EFIS (Electronic Flight Instrument System) has revolutionized increase safety at low years and now it has been approved for more than 700 models of airplanes and helicopters.

Series displays IDU-450 and the IDU-680 is among the most efficient on the market in price / performance ratio and because of the wide distribution of users to provide quality after-sales support, a high ability to adapt to specific customer requirements and easily accessible maintenance. Source


The modular cockpit incorporates fully integrated and open-architecture digital avionics suite, embedded virtual training systems, and communication systems to provide trainee pilots with real-time experience.

L-39NG weapon systems

The armed version of the L-39NG multi-role aircraft can be equipped with four blocks of unguided rockets and bombs up to 370kg under the wings. It can also be installed with one under-fuselage weapon pylon to carry a range of armament. It can be optionally fitted with gun pods and reconnaissance pods.

9e28c29699bb7dc626c114bcf5746328Image: defence24.plP1220145_resizeImage:

Propulsion and performance

The L-39NG jet trainer aircraft is powered by Williams International FJ44-4M light and fuel efficient turbofan engine, which develops a maximum thrust of 16.87kN and generates low noise signature. The engine features an electrical starting system and dual FADEC systems. The air inlets are placed over the wing to prevent damages to the engine due to foreign objects.

Williams International FJ44-4M

DSC_0001-768x514Williams FJ44-4M engine instalation

The expiring service life, limited serviceability and availability of spare parts of the original AI-25TL engine are in direct contrast to the airframe of most L-39 aircraft, which is still capable of future service for a limited time.

The selection of the Williams International FJ44-4M engine for both the re-engining of existing L-39 fleets as well as the final L-39NG aircraft is a solution that:

    • Enables the extension of operation life of current L-39 fleets
    • Provides a modern and reliable power unit for the L-39NG (FADEC controlled)
    • Increases the flight safety as the FJ44-4M engine is a product of 21st  century technology
    • Increases the aircraft performance (for example the acceleration time is 3-5 sec versus 9-12 sec of the original engine)
    • Reduces maintenance demands and operation cost by saving both fuel and manpower for maintenance
    • Enables a smooth transition from the current L-39 aircraft to the L-39NG via the re-engining option (see section LINK)


• Max thrust 16.87 kN 3,790 lbst
• Length 1.34 m 52.8 in
• Diameter 0.67 m 26.3 in
• Weight 305 kg 670 lb


• high thrust
• short acceleration time
• low specific fuel consumption
• low dry weight
• electrical starting system
• dual FADEC control
• surge resistant
• low noise signature
• lifetime warranty (TAP Blue)
• low maintenance demands
• high TBO limits
• no calendar service life limitations


The engine provides a maximum speed of 775km/h and internal fuel capacity of 1,450kg, and ensures a ferry range of 2,590km. The aircraft can climb at a rate of 23m/sec and has a maximum service ceiling of 38,000ft.



Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image by @scramble_nl

Updated Mar 18, 2020

Beijing Yanjing Motor Company to produce Russian GAZ Tigr Multirole Utility Vehicles under license


Published: Wednesday, 06 July 2016 14:50

People`s Republic of China`s (PRC) Beijing Yanjing Motor Company (BYMC) is producing Russian GAZ-2330-36/VPK-233136 Tigr (SPM-2) multirole utility vehicles (MUV) under license. The Chinese variant of the Tigr MUV has been unveiled at the China Military and Civilian Integration Expo 2016 (July 4 – July 6, 2016) in Beijing.


The YJ2080 Sentinel

The vehicle is designated as YJ2080 Sentinel in Chinese service. BYMC has fully localized the manufacturing process of the MUV. Its armoured hull is identical to the original Tigr car. YJ2080 has received new headlights and radiator grill. The Sentinel`s troops compartment has been fully remastered. The vehicle features new dashboard with single integrated multifunctional display (MFD) intended for the navigation system. The car`s lining is made of soft plastic. The crew`s anti-blast seats (ABS) have been replaced by non-protected ones. YJ2080 has a crew of two servicemen and can transport up to five soldiers with individual weapons and equipment. BYMC does not disclose the specifications of the Sentinel MUV. The type and designation of the vehicle`s engine are not known.

BYMC displayed three modifications of YJ2080 at the defense show. The first one was MUV intended for the transportation of troops on the battlefield. It can carry up to five soldiers. The vehicle is equipped with central hatch and pinpoints for the installation of light anti-personnel weapons, such Kalashnikov PKM machinegun chambered for 7.62x54Rmm round or automatic grenade launchers (AGL). The second vehicle is configured as mobile command post or police car. It can transport up to four soldiers and integrated electronic equipment. The third variant is a mobile radar station and two additional searchlights. BYMC does not disclose the technical specifications of the radar.


According to open sources, BYMC ordered five assembled Tigr vehicles and five technological kits for local assembly from Rosoboronexport in July 2008. In late 2008, this contract was followed by the second one that includes 10 ready GAZ-2330-36 vehicles and 90 technological kits. Most part of YJ2080 MUVs has been supplied to Chinese police/military police forces.

According to the Tigr`s original developer and manufacturer, Military Industrial Company (Russian acronym: VPK, Voyenno-Promishlennaya Kompaniya), VPK-233136 4×4 wheeled MUV has a full weight of 7,800 kg, a length of 5,700 mm, a width of 2,400 mm, a height of 2,300 mm, a maximum road speed of 120 km/h, an operational range of 1,000 km, a crew of two servicemen and a capacity of four to seven servicemen (it depends on the vehicle`s configuration). The vehicle is powered by YaMZ-5347-10 (215 h.p.) diesel engine. VPK-233136 is equipped with air cooling unit. The vehicle is armoured at Level 2 STANAG 4569 (all-round protection against 7.62mm steel core armour-piercing bullets at 30 m distance).


Guess we will be seeing clones soon!

Tigr GAZ-2330 light armoured vehicle personnel carrier


The GAZ-2975 “Tigr” is a Russian high-mobility multipurpose military vehicle, manufactured by Military-Industrial Company LLC (BMK). The GAZ-2330 “Tigr” is the military version of the vehicle and has been referred to as “the Russian Humvee”. The GAZ-2975 Tigr was officially taken into service at the end of 2006 and manufactured in 2007. The vehicle is intended to carry and protect personnel. It can accommodate up to 10 officers armed and in full gear. The vehicle has been field- and combat-tested before being sent to serve with OMON (Special Purpose Police Unit). The pilot production of GAZ-2330 “Tigr” started in 2004. In 2005 only 96 vehicles were made, mostly for MVD. The vehicle is very expensive now (by the Russian standards, of course), 60-65.000 US$ a piece. Though specialists consider GAZ-2330 a very successful vehicle.


GAZ-233014: armoured special purpose vehicles
– GAZ-233034 and 233036: special police vehicle
– GAZ-233014-0000186 and GAZ-233014-0000184: APCs armoured personnel carriers
– GAZ-2330001: is an unarmored vehicle variant
– Tigr-M GAZ-233114: upgrade version of Tigr vehicle with new engine and armour
– Tigr SPM-2 GAZ 233036: Special police vehicle
– Tigr GAZ-233001: Tigr without armour
– Tigr MK-BLA-01: Unmanned aerial vehicle carrier
– Tigr Kornet-EM: Tigr combat vehicle carrying of the Kornet-EM Multipurpose missile system.
– Tigr Scout Vehicle: The vehicle is equipped with telescopic with radar system
– Tigr-M MKTK REI PP: mobile electronic warfare vehicle with system Leer-2


The Tigr GAZ-2330 can be armed with light machine gun or grenade launcher. Hatches and brackets for installation of 7.62mm Pecheneg machinegun and 30mm AGS-17 grenade launchers are mounted on the vehicle’s roof. The windows of GAZ-233036 special police vehicles are equipped with firing ports.


7.62mm Pecheneg machinegun and 30mm AGS-17 grenade launcher


Kornet-EM Multipurpose missile system


Design and Protection




The TIGR’s armored hull provides protection against small-arms fire, shell fragments and IED blasts. The hull and door windows are bulletproof and the vehicle’s spall liners protect personnel against spalls if the hull is hit by bullets or fragments and exclude ricochet from the opposite side if the hull is pierced.




YaMZ-5347-10 (215 h.p.) diesel engine


The Tigr is equipped with a powerful diesel engine with the turbo charging and air cooling system and a five-level manual gearbox. The independent torsion suspension of all the wheels, telescopic shock-absorbers and regulated pressure tires ensure exceptional cross-country ability, high speed of 80 km/hour over rough terrain and up to 140 km/hour on the road. «Tiger» is capable to force a crossing over water ways with the depth of 1.2 meter.



The Tigr GAZ-2330 incorporates a central tire inflation system which can adapt tire pressure to suit a variety of surfaces. The TIGR carries an electric winch with a pulling force of 4,000 kg and 20 m of wire rope. The vehicle is also equipped with an automatic fire extinguishing system for the engine compartment.

One 7.62 mm machine gun or 30 mm grenade launcher
Country users
Designer Company
Military-Industrial Company
Inflation system, electric winch, fire extinguishing system
2 + 6 soldiers
protection against small-arms fire, shell fragments and IED blasts. Level 3.
7,200 kg
140 km/h maximum speed on road
1,000 km
Lenght, 5.7 m; Width, 2.4 m; Height, 2.4 m



New Project 23420 Small Anti Submarine Warfare Ship

Wednesday, 17 February 2016 10:21

Russia’s Almaz Central Marine Design Bureau (member of United Shipbuilding Corporation OCK) unveiled the new Project 23420 small anti submarine warfare (ASW) ship. The vessel features a futuristic design with very sleek lines.

According to Almaz, the small ASW ship is designed for conducting combat operations against underwater, surface and air adversaries, for guarding naval bases, for engaging enemy shore installations with artillery fire, for patrolling the state sea border and EEZ.

The Almaz Central Marine Design Bureau, founded in 1949, is a leading design and engineering organization in the Russian shipbuilding industry, unique by its range of designs and their complexity. The Almaz CMDB today is the leading Russian designer of high-speed craft, small and medium size surface combatants, landing air cushion vessels, mine countermeasures vessels, special purpose vessels and floating docks.


The Project 23420 ship displaces about 1300 tons for a length of 75 meters. Its endurance is 15 days at sea with a range of 2500 nautical miles and a crew of about 60 sailors.

There are two types of propulsion systems available: diesel or diesel-electric propulsion with fixed pitch propellers or diesel-gas turbine propulsion with variable pitch propellers.

Version 1 Version 2
1 x diesel or diesel-electric propulsion 1 x diesel-gas turbine propulsion
2 x fixed pitch propellers 2 x controllable pitch propellers

Version data

Project 23420 systems:


1 x 76-mm AK-176MA gun (152 rounds) or
1 x 30-mm AK-306 gun (500 rounds)

76-mm AK-176MA gun

gun mount

Comparing to older versions, AK-176MA features twice higher pointing accuracy of drives and twice better fire density, while the weight became lighter making less than 9 tons.

According to the Arsenal press service, Russian Navy has obtained the up-to-date 76.2-mm gun mount that is not only comparable to foreign counterparts but surpasses them in some parameters. Source

The gun is controlled by the MP-123-02 FCS.  This system uses radar, TV and laser designators.  This fire control system has a range of 28 miles (45 km) without ECM and 18 miles (30 km) with ECM and weighs 5.1 tons (5.2 mt).

Uses a monobloc barrel with a casing and a vertical sliding breech block.  Automatics are recoil operated.  The barrel is sea-water cooled, which is pumped between the casing and barrel at 11.5 fps (3.5 mps).

Some of these guns have been sold to the People’s Republic of China.

Nomenclature note:  This gun is classified as 76 mm/60 but the actual bore diameter is 76.2 mm (3.0″) and the actual barrel length is 59 calibers.

Sphere 02

Independent gyro stabilized electro-optical surveillance device

SFERA-02_MVMS-2015_01Sphere 02
Designation 76 mm/60 (3″) AK-176
Ship Class Used On Grisha V, Parchim II (Pr. 1331M), Babochka (Pr. 1141), Nanuchka III (Pr. 1234.1), Dergach (Pr. 1239), Turya (Pr. 206M), Pauk (Pr. 1241.2), Ropuchka (Pr. 775), Tarantul I (Pr. 1241.1) and other classes
Date Of Design 1977
Date In Service 1979
Gun Weight 1,810 lbs. (821 kg)
Gun Length oa 176.54 in (4.484 m)
Bore Length N/A
Rifling Length N/A
Grooves 24
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume 225.8 in3 (37 dm3)
Rate Of Fire Selectable to 30, 60 or 120 – 130 rounds per minute


30-mm AK-306 gun


The AK-306 (A-219) system was a modification of the AK-630 (A-213) system for use on light ships, like air cushion craft, ekranoplanes and small displacement motor boats.  Externally, there was no difference between AK-306 and AK-630 guns, but internally instead of using the exhaust to power the automatics, the AK-306 (A-219) used electricity. 

AO-18LAO-18L (for AK-306):  341.7 lbs (155 kg) 

This version also lacked radar control, being only optically guided, hence making it less of a anti-missile weapon and more of a surface-to-surface weapon.  The design started in 1974 and the system was accepted into service in 1980.  By 1986, 125 systems were in service.

Date Of Design 1963
Date In Service AK-630:  1976
AK-630M:  1979
AK-306:  1980 
3M87:  1989
Gun Weight AO-18 (for AK-630):  under 452 lbs. (under 205 kg)
AO-18L (for AK-306):  341.7 lbs (155 kg) 
GSh-6-30K (for AK-630M1-2):  352.5 lbs. (160 kg)
Gun Length oa 64.13 in (1.629 m)
Bore Length 63.78 in (1.620 m)
Rifling Length 57.48 in (1.46 m)
Grooves 16
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume N/A
Rate Of Fire AK-630:  4,000 – 5,000 rounds per minute
AK-630M:  4,000 – 5,000 rounds per minute
AK-630M1-2:  10,000 rounds per minute
AK-306:  600 – 1,000 rounds per minute 
3M87:  10,000 rounds per minute
Palash:  1,000 rounds per minute



1 x 3M-47 Ghibka gun ring
20 x Igla(S) MANPADS

3M-47 Ghibka gun ring


The 3M-47 Ghibka turret was designed by Altair Naval Radio Electronics Scientific Research Institute and is manufactured by the Ratep Joint Stock Company. 

Ghibka 3M-47 (3M47 Gibka) Turret Mount is intended for guidance and remote automated launching of IGLA type missiles to provide protection of surface ships with displacement of 200 tons and over against attacks of anti-ship missiles, aircraft and helicopters in close-in area..


The turret mount utilizes information from ship’s radars. The missiles are equipped with homing head with optical tracking (passive) and artifical thermal noise detector. The system is design to resist natural (background) and artificial jamming conditions. The turret mount is equipped with 9M39 and 9M342 anti-aircraft guided missiles. 

To date, 3M-47 Ghibka is installed on Project 21630 “Buyan” class corvettes, Project 21631 “Buyan-M” class missile corvettes and will be installed on the future Mistral type LHD for the Russian Navy.

Version 1 with 4 SAM
Version 2 with 8 SAM

Short-range shipborne surface-to-air missile system
Visual detection range at the control module
12 to 15 Km
Guidance sector (in degrees)
Azimuth: +150 to -150 | Elevation: 0 to 60
Number of simultaneously engaged targets
Firing mode
Single | Salvo
Number of launch modules
Version 1: 2 | Version 2: 4
Number of SAM per launch module
SAM Type
Igla (9M39) | Igla-S (9M342)
Reaction time
< 8 seconds
Manual loading time for 1 module by 1 man
< 3 minutes
Turret mount weight (with 2 launch modules)
< 650 Kg



2 x 12.7-mm machine-guns (2000 rounds)

12.7-mm machine-guns

1813480Image –


1 x Paket-E/NK system (2 x launchers, 8 x torpedoes) or
1 x RPK-8E system (1 x RBU-6000, 48 x 90R ASW missiles and RGB-60 depth bombs)

Paket-E/NK system (2 x launchers, 8 x torpedoes)


The Paket-E/NK small-sized anti-submarine system with anti-torpedo is designed:

– to engage (destroy) submarines in ship’s close-in zone (when carrying out submarine warfare tasks)

– to destroy torpedoes, attacking the ship (when carrying out anti-torpedo defence tasks)

The complete set of the Paket-E/NK comprises:

– Paket-E control system

– rotating or fixed launching units

– Paket-AE specialized target designation sonar

– combat modules mounted on the launchin unit


Depending on missions assigned to the surface ship, its launching units can house combat modules armed with different combinations of small-sized heat-seeking torpedoes and/or anti-torpedoes, both in nomenclature and in quantity.

The small-sized heat-seeking torpedo is designed to engage enemy submarines, and the anti-torpedo is designed to intercept and destroy attacking torpedoes. Both are housed in unified transport-launch containers.

The Paket-E/NK system can operate independently or be integrated into ship’s antisubmarine/anti-torpedo defence system, solving a number of tasks in fully automatic or automated modes, such as:

– generation of target designation data for small-sized heat-seeking torpedoes, based on data, provided by ship’s sonar systems and posts

– detection and classification of attacking torpedoes, determination of their movement parameters, and generation of target designation data for anti-torpedoes

– pre-launch preparation of combat modules, generation and transfer of firing data to them, launching of anti-torpedoes and/or small-sized heat-seeking torpedoes

– launching units control

The Paket-E/NK system is a radically new weapon system, allowing surface ships to solve ASW/anti-torpedo defence tasks with high effectiveness, and to increase substantially their survivability.

The delivery set of the Paket-E/NK small-sized antisubmarine/anti-torpedo system is customer-defined.

An automated testing and trouble-shooting system can be delivered for combat modules operational support. Source


RPK-8E system (1 x RBU-6000, 48 x 90R ASW missiles and RGB-60 depth bombs)


Depth-Charge Rocket Launcher RBU-6000

  • It is possible to modernize the RBU Launcher using the electric servo drive with the up-to-date cell base.
  • It is an effective combat device for protection of Naval ships against submarines and attack torpedoes. It is possible to use new rockets 90R with underwater gravitation homing projectile.
rpk890R rocket – Image @warefare.be001.jpgfea40392-c39d-424c-882c-dd7e6be0b54fOriginal


Calibre, mm


Number of Barrels


Launcher Weight, kg


Weight of  Rocket RGB-60, kg


Range of Fire by Rocket RGB-60, m
 – maximum
 – minimum
Weight of  Rocket 90R, kg


Range of Fire by Rocket 90-R, m
 – maximum
 – minimum


Laying Speed, deg/s
 – in elevation
 – in training




2 x DP-64 grenade-launchers (240 rounds)

DP-64 grenade-launcher


DP-64 grenade launcher is designated for protection of submarines in the above-water position, ships at external roadsteads, against attacks of underwater combat swimmers.

The grenade launcher allows carrying out loading and fire conducting by one person at a range of up to 400 m.

Firing the grenade launcher is conducted with FG-45 fragmentation grenade to destroy a swimmer and with SG-45 signal to mark the swimmer’s location.

DP-64 grenade launcher allows conducting fire ordinary small arms from any place of the ship deck, from the deck house of a submarine in the above-water position and from a helicopter. Source


1 x Gorizont-AIR-S-100 unmanned aerial vehicle suite (2 x UAVs)

Gorizont-AIR-S-100 unmanned aerial vehicle


The Schiebel S-100 Camcopter is a Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) UAS in use in several navies. The system has an endurance of over six hours at a speed of 55 knots carrying 75 lbs of payload. The Camcopter’s diminutive size and payload makes it ideal for sea-based intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance from smaller naval ships such as offshore patrol vessels.

In June 2013, Schiebel announced that it was upgrading the aircraft to integrate maritime radar, electronic support measures (ESM) and EO/IR sensors into the S-100 system.

The UAV flies with the French Navy and possibly China’s People Liberation Army-Navy. A variant called the Gorizont Air S-100 produced in Russia under license from Schiebel reportedly serves with the Russian Coast Guard. Source



1 x Sigma-E CMS
1 x Pozitiv-ME1.2 detection and target assignment radar
1 x Gorizont 25 integrated navigation radar
2 x IFF 67R items (No info)
1 x Blokirovka suite (No info)

Sigma-E CMS


Pozitiv-ME1.2 detection and target assignment radar

Positiv-ME1 and Positiv-ME1.2 Active Radars are designed for plan scanning, detection and tracking of air and surface targets, output of target designation data to users. The radars perform the following tasks:

  • radar air and surface surveillance;
  • detection of air targets including small-sized, diving, and flying at extremely low altitude;
  • detection of surface targets under conditions of normal and increased radar detection range, as well as under best visibilty conditions;
  • positioning (azimuth, range and elevation angle) and moving parameter determination of tracked targets;
  • friend-or-fore and individual identification of tracked targets by means of IFF system with embedded antennas;
  • target classification according to the path characteristics;
  • tracked target threat assessment;
  • automated target assignment;
  • display of target assignment chart featuring its dynamic on-line correction;
  • output of surface and air target designation data to missile firing control systems, as well as to artillery and torpedo systems, and jamming systems;
  • automated control of operation modes depending on interference situation;
  • automated performance monitoring and fault detection;
  • recording and archiving of tracked target data, data on made decisions, and statuses of integrated systems;
  • crew training in simulated tactical situation.

Positiv-ME1 and Positiv-ME1.2 Active Radars can be used as:

  • target detection systems, detection module, radar module for CIWS or missile systems;
  • scanning radars for the ships of various classes, as well as for land mobile platforms, stationary facilities and transportable containers.

Main specifications

  Positiv-ME1 Positiv-ME1.2
Target detection range up to 250 km up to 150 km
Fighter-class target detection range up to 110 km up to 50 km
Sector width by elevation up to 85 deg. up to 85 deg.

Special features

  • Output of surface and air target designation data to missile firing control systems, torpedo and artillery systems, as well as to jamming systems.
  • High rate of scanning.


Gorizont 25 integrated navigation radar

Here is open hardware-software structure with possibility to build up subfunctions of ship automated control:

– continuous computing and displaying of ship location and motion parameters oriented to marine charts and radar image.
– possibility of preliminary and actuating route plotting.
– efficiency, adequate accuracy for navigational parameters.
– color division for information and high resolution of data displayed.
– integrated solution for navigation problems and ship collision avoidance warning.
– keeping the electronic ship’s journal and reproduction of registered navigational information.
– improved reliability for navigation monitoring and collision avoidance.
– equipment compactness and ease of control.
– self-contained operation of component parts of the complex at one of the device failure.
– wide range of interfaced navigational equipment (liggers, gyros, receiver-indicator satellite systems, echo sounders).
– possibility to increase the number of indicators with ECDIS.
– store plotting on paper charts with the help of digitizer (optional).

The complex includes:

– NRS “Gorizont-25” (device AP, I-27M2K).
– electronic chart navigational-information system – “Pribor МК-54IS”.
– satellite navigational receiver МТ-102 with power supply IP ~ 220/=24V.
– digitizer Yeoman Navigator Pro with communicator (optional).
– UPS – device IBP.
– printer.
-power distribution box. 



1 x MGK-335EM-03 sonar suite
1 x Anapa-ME anti-diver sonar or 
1 x Lovat dipping sonar (No info)
1 x Vinietka-EM sonar

MGK-335EM-03 sonar suite


Anapa-ME anti-diver sonar

Underwater Saboteur Detection Sonar


Anapa-ME sonar is designed to detect underwater combat swimmers with flippers or underwater delivery vehicles, to protect vessels stopped in the open sea, unprotected road-steads or basing points, and to safeguard important military and industrial installations,hydro technical facilities in ports, open sea and other water areas.Its main missions are as follows:
•automatic underwater saboteur detection,tracking and identification;
•automatic measurement of target current coordinates and their feeding into fire control systems of anti saboteur weapons.


Anapa-ME sonar is intended for Russian built ships offered for export. To ensure anti-saboteur underwater protection of different ships and sea platforms, five Anapa-ME modifications with different module composition are proposed for delivery.

Vinietka-EM sonar

Designed for surface ships, solving the problem of anti-submarine defense, the protection of waters, convoy escort and patrol ships. Uses towed astern of the ship towed flexible extended antenna (GPBA) and low-frequency transducer that provides in sonar mode effective detection of low-noise submarines. Along with the work carried out sonar ASG shumopelengovaniya mode, which allows you to detect torpedoes and surface ships at great distances.

Main characteristics

Submarine detection range:
    in shallow water 10-20 km *
   in the deep sea 15-60 km *
Sector Overview (course angle) ± 180 °
The accuracy of the coordinates in the automatic mode of support purposes:
    Bearing (traverznyh in the corners and on the straight tack carrier) 2 °
    range 1% of the scale
towing speed up to 18 knots.
Detection range:
    torpedo 15-30 km *
    surface ship 30-100 km *
    submarine 15-20 km *
The accuracy of direction finding traverznyh in the corners and on the straight tack carrier 2 °
towing speed up to 14 kt
Operation CEO at sea state to 5 points

* – Depending on the version of GAS



1 x 120-mm PK-10 system (2 x launchers, 40 x rounds)

PK-10 Shipborne Decoy Dispensing System


AZ-SO-50/AZ-SOM-50 rounds


These rockets are designed to protect small, medium and large displacement ships against guided weapons at close ranges by setting up distracting decoy targets. The rockets are launched from the KT-216 launcher of the PK-10 shipboard system.

The following three types of the caliber rockets are developed and series produced:

      • SR-50 radar jamming rocket;
      • SO-50 optronic jamming rocket;
      • SK-50 combined jamming rocket.

Basic characteristics

SR-50 SO-50 SOM-50
Caliber, mm 120 120 120
Length, mm 1,226 1,226 1,226
Weight, kg
– rocket 25.5 25 25
– payload 11 7.3 9.1
Payload type chaff IR, laser chaff, IR, laser
Operating temperature range, ° C from -40 to +50



1 x Kama-NS-V navigation system (No info)


1 x Buran-E communications suite (No info)
Communication equipment complying with GMDSS requirements for A1+A2+A3 areas or
foreign-produce equivalent according to a customer’s proposal

Main material source navyrecognition.compics 

Note: There are only 2 pics of this ship that I can find on the web at time of posting

Updated Jun 05, 2017

BTR-3E1 wheeled armoured vehicle personnel carrier

The BTR-3E1 is an 8×8 wheeled combat vehicle designed to carry infantry troops, arms and supplies on the battlefield while providing fire support from a turret mounted gun. It can also carry out reconnaissance, combat support, and patrol missions. The BTR-3E1 armored personnel carrier is designed, manufactured and marketed by the Ukrainian Defence Company UkrespectExport. The BTR-3E1 is based to the BTR-3U Guardian which was developed as a private venture in 2000 by Ukrainian and Unired Arab Emirates companies. The BTR-3U is an improved variant of the Russian made wheeled armoured personnel carrier BTR-80. The BTR-3E1 is the export variant of the BTR-3U. Thailand has placed an order for 96 BTR-3E1 series vehicles and the first of these were delivered early in 2009. The first 2 of 96 BTR-3E1 have been delilvered at U Tapao Airport on 17 September 2010. The second batch of 121 BTR-3E1 with a price tag of 5 billlion Baht have been ordered by Royal Thai Army and 14 BTR-3E1 has been ordered by Royal Thai Navy to be used by Royal Thai Marine Corps.


Ukraine will produce armored vehicles in Thailand

20:29, 3 November 2015

The signed agreement provides the production of armored vehicles of BTR-3 family

November 2, in Bangkok, Thailand, the international exhibition of triple purpose armament (for Army, Navy and Air Force) “Defense & Security-2015” started its work. The exhibition will run until November 5.

The Ukrainian delegation was headed by Minister of Defense Stepan Poltorak. Representatives of the State Concern “UKROBORONPROM” and State Enterprise “UKRSPETSEXPORT” also joined the event.

In the course of exhibition the negotiations between members of the Ukrainian delegation, Vice-Prime Minister – Minister of Defense of Thailand Prawit Wongsuwan cand the senior military leadership of the country took place. The negotiations concerned the extension of military cooperation between two states.

Ukrainian product of the Defense Industrial Complex as part of joint stand of the State Concern “UKROBORONPROM” was presented by “UKRSPETSEXPORT”. In particular, the exhibition presented new samples of anti-tank guided missiles, demonstrated MBT “OPLOT” APC-3E1and other military equipment. This year the exhibition “Defense & Security-2015” is attended by 37 official delegations from all around the world and 400 defense companies from 50 different countries.

Earlier it was reported that Ukraine and Thailand discussed the possibility of joint production of Ukrainian armored vehicles, including BTR-3E1. Production will be concentrated on the territory of Thailand. Source



The BTR-3E1 is fitted with the BM-3 Shturm turret. The turret is armed with a ZTM-1 30 mm automatic gun which can be remotely operated to provide increased solider protection in hostile environments. The 30mm gun has a maximum firing rate of 330 rounds per minute and can fire AP-T (Armour Piercing – Tracer), HEF-I (High Explosive Fragmentation – Incendiary) and HE-T (High Explosve – Tracer) rounds.A 7.62 mm machine gune is mounted at the left side of the main armament. Three smoke-grenades discharger are mounted to each side at the front of the turret. Anti-tank missile launcher “Barrier” are mounted at the right side of th turret and a 30 mm automatic grenade launcher AGS-17 is mounted at the left side.The Turret is equipped with a fire control system with SVU-500 weapon stabilizer and on track sighting system with TV screen day/night and integrated laser range finder.


The hull and turret of the Guardian APC are of all-welded steel armour, providing the occupants with protection from small arms fire and shell splinters. A Kevlar liner can be provided for increased protection.The driver is seated at the front of the hull on the left side with the vehicle commander to his right.


The BTR-3E1 used a 8×8 chassis. The BTR-3E1 is powered by a Diesel engine UTD-20 mounted at the rear of the vehicle, coupled to a mechanical transmission. The engine compartment is fitted with an automatic double-action fire extinguishing system. The BTR-3E1 can run at a maximum road speed of 95 km/h with a range road of 850 km. source

Thai BTR are fitted with MTU 6R106TD21


Engine data according to source