TAI Hurkus is a primary and basic trainer aircraft designed and manufactured by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI). It is a two-seat, single-engine turboprop aircraft being developed from the KAI KT-1 trainer. It is being built principally to meet the requirements of the Turkish Air Force (TAF). The aircraft will be used to execute basic pilot training, instrument flying, navigation training, and weapons and formation training missions.
KT-1 Woongbi: Details
The Hurkus will also be exported as a civilian and military flight trainer aircraft. The first aircraft was rolled out in June 2012. Its maiden flight, which was expected to take place in 2009, was first delayed until November 2012 and then further until mid-2013. It was finally held in August 2013 and three more tests were performed in September 2013. Hurkus flew at an altitude of 10,200ft during its fourth flight.
Hurkus training aircraft design
Hurkus has been designed to execute its missions day or night. It is being built adhering to the EASA CS 23 standards. In December 2006, the Secretariat for Defence Industries (SSM) approved the eight-month conceptual design of the Hurkus. The critical design review of the aircraft was completed in April 2009.
The aircraft has been designed to be fully operational in civil and military pilot training bases all over the world. Hurkus is equipped with a Pratt & Whitney Canada engine that can produce 1,600hp of output power.
Pratt & Whitney PT6A-68T turboprop engine – Image @afwing.com
Development of the Hurkus aircraft
The development programme of the Hurkus began in March 2006 as part of the contract signed between the SSM and TAI. The programme includes the development of two aircraft variants, namely Hurkus-A basic trainer and Hurkus-B advanced trainer. Four aircraft will be designed, built, examined, verified and certified by TAI under the programme.
The aircraft was named after Turkey’s first aviator, Vecihi Hurkus. It was designated such during the eighth International Defence Industry Fair held in Ankara, Turkey. The indigenous design prototype of Hurkus was showcased at the 47th International Paris Air Show in June 2007.
Microtecnica (now part of Goodrich) was awarded a contract by TAI in April 2010 to supply the environmental control system (ECS) for the Hurkus trainer aircraft. The ECS is equipped with three major subsystems including bleed air, temperature control and cooling. The system uses air discharged from the engine to pressurise, ventilate and heat the cabin. In contrast, cooling is rendered by a separate vapour cycle compressor. Work on the first prototype of the ECS was concluded at the end of 2010. The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) certified the Hurkus aircraft design in July 2012.
- Basic version which has been certified with EASA according to CS-23 requirements. It is intended for the civilian market
- Advanced version with integrated avionics (including HUD, MFDs, and Mission Computer). Cockpit avionics layout is similar to F-16 and F-35 fighters. The Turkish Army is considering an order for 15 aircraft.
Hürkuş-C – Image @afwing.com
- An armed version for the close air support role will have a maximum weapons load of 3,300lb (1,500kg) and also carry a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor. As the Hürkuş will be capable of operating from unprepared runways, it could also attract export orders, TAI believes. The Turkish Army has expressed interest in the Hürkuş C to provide support for its attack helicopters.
Coast Guard version
Coast Guard version – Image @afwing.com
- TAI plans to offer another version of the Hürkuş to support the Turkish Coast Guard’s maritime patrol operations. The aircraft’s rear seat would be occupied by an operator for a FLIR sensor using an ASELSAN FLIR system.
ASELFLIR-300T Electro-Optical Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Targeting System
ASELFLIR-300T is a high performance electro-optical reconnaissance, surveillance and targeting system designed for fixed-wing and rotary-wing airborne platforms, including Unmanned Air Systems (UASs), helicopters and aircrafts. ASELFLIR300T consists of
- High Resolution Infrared Camera
- Laser Range Finder/ Designator (LRF/D)
- Laser Spot Tracker
- Color Day TV Camera
- Spotter TV Camera.
There exists also a laser Pointer configuration which replaces the Color Day TV Camera. The System consists of the following Line replaceable Units (LRUs)
- Turret Unit
- Electronic Unit
- Hand Control Unit(Optional)
- Boresight Unit (Ground Support Equipment)
- Reconnaissance and Surveillance
|IR Camera Resolution||1440×576|
|Fields of View (FOVs)
|IR: 1.75° – 6.4° – 30°|
|Zoom Day TV: 2° – 40°|
|Spotter TV: 0.8°|
|Field of Regard (FOR)||Azimuth: 360° continuous|
Elevation: -50° to +150°
Elevation: +20° to -105°
|Laser Range Finder and Target Designator||Range: up to 20 km
Wavelength: 1064 nm
Repetition rate: up to 20 Hz
|Laser Pointer||Wavelength: NIR|
|Laser Spot Tracker||Wavelength: 1064 nm|
|Communication Interface||MIL-STD-1553B, RS-422
|Video Interface||3x Analog PAL/CCIR
1x Digital (Optional)
|Power Interface||28 VDC|
Diameter: 534 mm
Height: 633 mm
|Weight||Turret Unit: 95 kg
Electronics Unit: 23 kg
*Note May not be this model*
HURKUS A cockpit
Hurkus features a full glass cockpit with a tandem seat configuration for two crew – a student pilot and an instructor.
2 cockpit types: Type A (civilian-type) and B (military type) cockpit instrumentation layout
HURKUS B as the main user requirements
While three major indicator in the cockpit (6 ” X8 “
GMFD , Grafic Multi Functional Display) be
Pilots content and users of these indicators
It has been requested to be identified by
In addition, users of HURKUS B avionics architecture
Defined and different from HÜRKUŞ
It has the following additional requirements :
-Using Moving Map
-Basic Flight Management System
-Virtual Gun Shooting and Scoring System
-Virtual Radar System
-To transfer data from the ground station and place
-video transport function of the station
-Emergency positioning function
-Flights to record critical data
collision avoidance system integration
Translated by google – source mmo.org.tr
The cockpit is equipped with zero-zero ejection seats and provides 11° outside view to the front pilot and 5° outside view to the pilot seated at the rear. It is also fitted with an all-digital avionics suite, cockpit pressurisation system, escape system and on-board oxygen generating system.
“The Mk10 and Mk 11 seats can be found in more than 50 countries on such aircraft as the Pilatus PC-7/PC-9/PC-21, the Korean KT-1 and newcomers such as the HAL HTT-40 and TAI Hurkus.” Source ainonline.com
MK11 EJECTION SEATS
The Martin-Baker Mk11 seat embodies all the design features of the Company’s more sophisticated escape systems but at reduced weight and size. The Mk11 seat design offers a great deal of flexibility allowing each installation to be tailored specifically to an individual customer’s requirements.
The Mk11 seat is fitted in the Pilatus PC-9 and PC-7 and PZL L-130.
|Operating Ceiling||40 000ft (12,192m)|
|Minimum height/Speed||Zero/60 KIAS in near level attitude|
|Crew boarding mass range||60 to 126.7 kg|
|Crew size range||Specific crew size range|
|Maximum Speed for ejection||400 KIAS|
|Parachute type||GQ Type 1000 Mk2|
|Parachute deployment||Drogue assisted|
|Drogue parachute type||Yes|
|Drogue deployment||Fired by cartridge generated gas, Initiated by trip rod|
|Ejection seat operation type||Ejection gun|
|Ejection initiation||Handle on seat pan initiates gas operated seat firing system|
|Automatic back-up unit||No|
|Barostatic time-release unit||Fired by cartridge generated gas initiated by trip rod|
|Timers||Drogue gun time delay, command delay breech|
|Seat adjustment||Up/down Actuator operated 28 Vdc|
|Arm restraints||Firing handle remains attached to seat pan to help prevent flailing|
|Leg restraints||Yes, two garters|
|Oxygen supply||Bottled emergency oxygen, Connection for main oxygen supply|
|Personal survival pack||Equipped for desert survival, manual deployment|
|Miniature detonating cord||No|
|Canopy fracturing system||Canopy breakers|
|Interseat sequencing system||Yes, through command delay breech unit|
- PC-7 MkII
- Seat firing handle is pulled, causing seat initiation cartridge to fire
- Command firing initiated (if selected)
- Harness retraction unit operated
- Primary cartridge fires
- Top latches disengage, seat rises up rails, secondary cartridges fire progressively
- Canopy breakers shatter canopy
- Drogue gun time-delay mechanism initiated by trip rod
- Barostatic time-release unit (BTRU) initiated by trip rod
- Seat services and command ejection quick-disconnects disconnected
- Emergency oxygen supplied to aircrew
- Leg restraint lines restrain aircrew’s legs, lower attachments shear
- Drogue deploys after delay, to stabilise and decrease velocity of seat
- Barostatic time release unit monitors the altitude
Above pre-determined altitude
- Seat falls, stabilised by drogue
- Emergency oxygen supply continues
Below pre-determined altitude
- BTRU mechanism operates, cartridge fires
- (If BTRU fails, manual deployment also available by pulling manual override handle)
- Drogue shackle freed
- Parachute mechanical lock freed
- Upper harness locks released
- Lower harness lock mechanism releases lower harness lugs, negative-g strap and leg restraint lines
- Aircrew momentarily held in seat by sticker straps
- Drogue extracts and deploys the main parachute canopy
- Main parachute canopy fully deploys and lifts aircrew and personal survival pack (PSP) from seat.
- Reaction to sticker clips ensures divergence of aircrew and seat
- PSP manually lowered on drop line below aircrew
- Normal parachute descent follows
- Manual opening of PSP
The cockpit is fitted with a strengthened glass canopy for clear visibility and bird strike resistance. It incorporates a primary flight display (PFD), which provides flight data to the pilot. A small multifunctional display is also installed on the left side of the PFD. The flight controls are located on the left side of the displays.
HURKUS B Cockpit
The avionics suite installed in the Hurkus includes a head-up display (HUD), multi-function displays (MFDs), global positioning system, a mode S transponder, radar altimeter, attitude heading reference system and an emergency locator beacon. An air data computer will analyse the flight data and display it to the pilot in a readable format.
1st application for BAE’s LiteHUD will be Turkey’s Hürkuş B advanced trainer
Featuring Patented Optical Waveguide technology
LiteHUD® is a small and compact Head-Up Display (HUD), offering space and weight advantages paired with the latest optical waveguide technology. Its modular and lightweight design improves flight safety, reducing fatigue and increasing situational awareness day or night. Providing seamless operation with night vision goggles (NVGs), LiteHUD® allows for incremental capability upgrades with minimal impact to helmet and aircraft installation.
The benefits of LiteHUD
- 60% smaller and 50% lighter than a conventional HUD, integrates easily into both existing and future cockpits
- Incorporates significantly larger eye motion box, increasing pilot comfort
- High-resolution navigation and sensor imagery displayed under all flight conditions
Hurkus is powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-68T turboprop engine driving a five-bladed Hartzell HC-B5MA-3 propeller. The engine develops a power output of 1,600shp.
Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-68T turboprop engine
(A-64 to A-68)
* Powers are approximate values at take-off. Available at sea level, standard day, static conditions, uninstalled.
** Dimensions are approximate values.
*** Equivalent Shaft Horsepower: includes estimated equivalent contribution of exhaust thrust.
Engine data pwc.c
Five-bladed Hartzell HC-B5MA-3 propeller
The Hurkus has a service ceiling of 34,700ft and can climb at the rate of 4,370ft a minute. The aircraft has a maximum cruise speed of 574km/h. Its stall speed is 143km/h. The maximum range of Hurkus is 1,478km.
Data from TAI and Airforce Technology
- Crew: one
- Capacity: one passenger
- Length: 11.17 m (36 ft 8 in)
- Wingspan: 9.96 m (32 ft 8 in)
- Height: 3.70 m (12 ft 2 in)
- Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-68T turboprop aircraft engine, 1,200 kW (1,600 shp)
- Propellers: 5-bladed Hartzell Propeller HC-B5MA-3
- Maximum speed: 574 km/h (357 mph; 310 kn)
- Cruising speed: 463 km/h (288 mph; 250 kn)
- Stall speed: 143 km/h (89 mph; 77 kn)
- Range: 1,478 km (918 mi; 798 nmi) at 15000 ft (4572 m)
- Endurance: 4.25 hours at 15000 ft (4572 m)
- Service ceiling: 10,577 m (34,701 ft)
- g limits: +7/-3.5
- Rate of climb: 22 m/s (4,300 ft/min)
- Guns: 12.7mm and 20mm pods
- Rockets: Roketsan Cirit, 2.75 inch rockets
- Missiles: Roketsan UMTAS
- Bombs: Mk-81, Mk-82, Tübitak SAGE HGK-3 (82), Tübitak SAGE KGK-82, BDU33 and MK106 training ordinance
2.75” Laser Guided Missile CİRİT
Properties of the Product
CİRİT, is a missile with the longest range in its class which provides a superior precision against light, armored/unarmored and stationary/mobile targets as well as being a cost effective solution.
- The 2.75″ Missile with the Longest Range
- Insensitive Munitions (Level V)
- Multi Purpose (Armor Piercing, Anti Personnel and Incendiary) Warhead
- Integration to Various Platforms (Helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Stationary Platform, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platform)
- Standard Mode and Smart Mode Pod Integration
- Not a Guidance Kit, New Generation All-Up Round Missile System
- Composite Propellent Technology with Reduced Smoke
In the Inventory of Turkish Armed Forces
|Diameter||2.75″ (70 mm)|
|Maximum Range||8 km|
|Minimum Range||1,5 km|
|Weight||15 kg (Without tube complete)|
|Propellant Type||HTPB Based, Smokeless, Composite Solid Propellant|
|Warhead Type||Multi Purpose Warhead, Armor Piercing, Personnel, Incendiary|
|Warhead Type||High Explosive Warhead|
|Guidance||Mid – Phase Guidance with MEMS – AÖB|
|Guidance||Terminal Guidance with Semi-Active Laser Seeker|
|Target Types||Light Armored / Unarmored Vehicles, Stationary and Moving Targets, Bunkers|
|Platforms||Helicopters (AH – 1W, T – 129 ATAK etc.), UAV’s, Land Vehicles, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platforms and Stationary Platforms|
L-UMTAS anti-tank missile
Properties of the Product
- UMTAS, with its Imaging Infrared Seeker and Laser Seeker options, is an anti-tank missile, having a range of 8 km and lock on before/after launch and “fire and forget/fire and update” properties, used against armored targets, from air to ground as well as ground to ground.
- Insensitive Munitions (Level V)
- Tandem Warhead Effective Against Reactive Armors
- Integration to Various Platforms (helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Stationary Platform, Light Attack Aircraft, Naval Platform)
- IIR or Laser Seeker Options
- Lock on Before / After – Launch
- Fire and Forget / Fire and Update Properties
- RF Data Link
- Smokeless Composite Solid Propellant
UMTAS, which was developed by Roketsan primary for use from attack helicopters, is an antitank missile system. With its advanced technology it is highly effective against all armored threats in the field.
UMTAS, with its maximum range of 8 km and minimum range of 500 m is capable of operating all weather conditions and day/night.
UMTAS, which can be used in Fire and Forget and Fire and Update modes, with the flexibility provided by its target update capability, offers to fire behind the mask position, fire against targets hiding behind mask and adjust hit point and damage assesment capability. UMTAS, defined as the official antitank system of the National Attack Helicopter (T – 129) under development, can be integrated to various platforms (Helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Stationary Platform, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platform)
|Max. Rangel||8 km|
|Min. Range||0,5 km|
|Propellant Type||HTPB-Based Reduced Smoke Composite Propellant|
|Warhead Type||Insensitive Tandem Warhead Effective Against Armor with Reactive Protection|
|Guidance||Imager Infrared (IIR) or Laser|
|Target Types||Heavy Armored / Armored Vehicles|
|Platforms||Helicopters (AH – 1 W, T – 129 ATAK etc.), UAV’s, Land Vehicles, Light Attack Aircraft, Naval Platforms and Stationary Platforms|
Teber laser-guided bomb
TEBER system is designed to increase the probability of hit, against moving target. TEBER is compatible with Mk-81 and Mk-82 general purpose bombs.
TEBER consists of a semi-active laser seeker (SAL), a (body) strake kit that is located in the front section. Tail section has aerodynamic control surfaces, inertial guidance system combined with GPS/GNSS receiver, guidance computer, control actuation system and thermal battery.
Growing interest for TEBER for the requirements of Gulf countries is expected.
|Guidance Modes||INS onlyINS+GPSINS + GPS + Laser|
|Range||2 – 8 Nautical Mile (Depending on release altitude)|
|CEP – 50||< 3 m|
|Maneuver Capability||± 3 g|
|Moving Target Engagement||Up to 110 km/s|
|Weight (Mk-82, Mk-81)||~270 kg (595 lb), ~155 kg (345 lb)|
|Length (Mk-82,Mk-81)||2650 mm (104’’), 2100 mm (81.5’’)|
BDU33 and MK106 training ordinance
BDU33 training ordinance
Practice ordnance includes 25-pound BDU-33 bombs having a spotting charge that releases a cloud of smoke on impact. The BDU-33 is used to simulate the MK 82 in low drag configuration. The munitions to be loaded onto aircraft are brought to the flightline on a trailer. The BDU-33 bombs are lifted out of a metal cage on a trailer and are locked in place underneath the aircraft. The BDU-33 bombs are lifted out of a cage on the trailer and carried to the aircraft 20 feet away. BDU-33 munitions are loaded onto TERs (Triple Ejector Racks) and SUUs (Suspension Units). The BDU-33 is pushed against a spring loaded catch and locked into place. The unloading of the BDU-33 from the aircraft involves loosening the bolts and releasing the spring. The BDU-33 is carried back to the trailer. Source fas.org
MK106 training ordinance
- Air data computer
- Attitude and heading reference system
- Emergency locator transmitter
- Mode S transponder
- Radar altimeter
Main material source airforce-technology.com