The PAK FA (Russian: ПАК ФА, Russian: Перспективный авиационный комплекс фронтовой авиации, Perspektivny Aviatsionny Kompleks Frontovoy Aviatsii, literally “Prospective Airborne Complex of Frontline Aviation”) is a fifth-generation fighter programme of the Russian Air Force. The T-50 is the name of the prototype aircraft (though it is unlikely it will be the name for the production aircraft) designed by Sukhoi for the PAK FA programme. The aircraft is a stealthy, single-seat, twin-engine jet fighter, and will be the first operational aircraft in Russian service to use stealth technology. It is a multirole fighter designed for air superiority and attack roles. The fighter is planned to have supercruise, stealth, supermaneuverability, and advanced avionics to overcome the prior generation of fighter aircraft as well as ground and maritime defences.
First prototype of the PAK-FA, B/N 51, during an early test flights, January and February 2010 (Sukhoi images) @ausairpower.net
The PAK FA is intended to be the successor to the MiG-29 and Su-27 in the Russian Air Force and serve as the basis for the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) being co-developed by Sukhoi and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force. The T-50 prototype first flew on 29 January 2010 and the first production aircraft is slated for delivery to the Russian Air Force starting in late 2016 or early 2017.
The 117S powerplant (© 2009 Vitaliy V. Kuzmin) @ausairpower.net
The prototypes and initial production batch will be delivered with a highly upgraded variant of the AL-31F used by the Su-27 family as interim engines while a new clean-sheet design powerplant is currently under development. The aircraft is expected to have a service life of up to 35 years.
PAK FA “051” @moddb.com
Sukhoi Makes Her Move?
“Stealth aircraft require jamming support aircraft to accompany them so they can be stealthy. A stealth fighter is simply a design trend that will burn out (like the 1950s-60s era ‘all-missile’ fighter without a gun did) in another decade or so.”
It is now clear that the Russian Sukhoi PAK-FA fighter is not to be an all-aspect stealth machine but rather a counter-stealth machine. While it has some stealthy features (just enough) to exploit the poorer target-detect performance of opposing stealth-fighters only equipped with radar (like F-22A) T-50 is also equipped with some decidedly “non-stealthy” sensors like OLS (and second spherical ball behind the cockpit) to detect/attack F-22 outside the radio spectrum. This misread of T-50 has produced some bizarre statements/analysis on the PAK-FA from Western stealth-fighter proponents, including:
“The Electro-Optical System (OLS) turret employed on the prototype is likely the Su-35S OLS, and is incompatible with a VLO design, as it is a broadband spherical reflector. We can expect to see a faceted VLO fairing similar to that designed for the canceled F-22A AIRST (Advanced IRST) in a production PAK-FA configuration.”
These types of observations by western stealth-fighter proponents – are nonsense. The western argument prefers the Russians to copy the west (with all aspect stealth) to validate the overall F-22 concept (that the Americans have yet again set the design trend(s) for high visibility military technology). Otherwise, the western argument will conclude: “they can’t because its too expensive.” The hard facts are that F-22A will never reach supporters expectations due to basic physics – that have nothing to do with program cost(s). – Posted 14-Jan 2014 @theboresight.blogspot.com
File photo of MiG-1.44 @afbase.com
During the mid to late 1990s the aviation community was tantalised by the impending debut of Russia’s first fifth-generation fighter, the Mikoyan MFI. The MFI was developed to counter the threat posed by the ATF programme under which the F-22 was created. Mikoyan claims that the MFI’s combination of aerodynamic properties, armament and avionics render it superior to any contemporary fighter, including the F-22A.
The aircraft rolled out in 1999 is apparently designated MiG 1.44 and is understood to be a demonstrator only. The planned production MFI was referred to as the 1.42. and would have a slightly different air intake design, an internal weapons bay (faired over on the 1.44) and, possibly, cranked-delta wings. The 1.44/1.42 is the first Russian fighter to employ a tail-first configuration. Weapons are mostly carried in an internal bay in the centre fuselage (faired over on the 1.44).
It is believed, that the MFI is equipped with a pulse-Doppler fire control radar persistently referred to as NO-14. This phased-array unit is designed for beyond visual range combat and has the ability to attack six targets at a time.
Prototype construction began in 1989, and after lengthy ground tests, the 1.44 made its first high-speed run in late 1994. Unfortunately, the programme had to be suspended before the 1.44 could become airborne due to ANPK MiG’s dire financial problems. The 1.44 remained classified by the Russian Defense Ministry until it was finally publicly unveiled in January 1999. After great delay, the 1.44 finally made its brief but important first flight in January 2001. The future of the MFI remains unclear, and the line between it and the 1.44 remains equally blurred. It seems that the MFI programme was abandoned. The Russian air force’s officially selected the new Sukhoi PAK FA as its new fifth-generation fighter.
However in 2010 photos of the new Chinese J-20 stealthy multi-role fighter appeared, which is very similar to the MiG 1.42. It is speculated, that development of the J-20 was assisted by the MiG aviation company.
Left: MiG 1.44; Right: J-20 @zone5aviation.com
Dimensions and weight
Weight (maximum take off)
Engines and performance
|2 x Saturn AL-41F turbojets|
Traction (with afterburning)
|2 x 175 kN (estimated)|
|2 760 km/h|
|4 500 km|
|unspecified type of cannon|
|R-77 (AA-12 ‘Adder’) air-to-air missiles and new air-to-surface missiles|
See details of Chinese J-20: HERE
Chinese J-20 Stealth fighter
Though not a participant in the MFI, Sukhoi started its own program in the early 1990s to develop technologies for a next-generation fighter aircraft, resulting in the S-37, later designated as the Su-47. Due to a lack of funds after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the MiG 1.44 program was repeatedly delayed and the first flight of the prototype did not occur until 2000, nine years behind schedule.
Sukhoi Su-47/S-37 @media.moddb.com
The Su-47 is of similar dimensions to previous large Sukhoi fighters, such as the Su-35.To reduce development costs, the Su-47 borrowed the forward fuselage, vertical tails, and landing gear of the Su-27 family. Nonetheless, the aircraft includes an internal weapons bay, and space set aside for an advanced radar.
Though similar in overall concept to the Grumman X-29 research aircraft of the 1980s, the Su-47 is larger and far closer to an actual combat aircraft than its US counterpart.
Like its immediate predecessor, the Su-37, the Su-47 is of tandem-triple layout, with canards ahead of wings and tailplanes. Interestingly, the Su-47 has two tailbooms of unequal length outboard of the exhaust nozzles. The shorter boom, on the left-hand side, houses rear-facing radar, while the longer boom houses a brake parachute.
The Su-47 has extremely high agility at subsonic speeds, enabling the aircraft to alter its angle of attack and its flight path very quickly while retaining maneuverability in supersonic flight. The Su-47 has a maximum speed of Mach 1.6 at high altitudes and a 9g capability.
The swept-forward wing, compared to a swept-back wing of the same area, provides a number of advantages:
- higher lift-to-drag ratio
- better agility in dogfight situations
- higher range at subsonic speed
- improved stall resistance and anti-spin characteristics
- improved stability at high angles of attack
- a lower minimum flight speed
- a shorter take-off and landing distance
The forward-swept midwing gives the Su-47 its unconventional appearance. A substantial part of the lift generated by the forward-swept wing occurs at the inner portion of the wingspan. This inboard lift is not restricted by wingtip stall and the lift-induced wingtip vortex generation is thus reduced. The ailerons—the wing’s control surfaces—remain effective at the highest angles of attack, and controllability of the aircraft is retained even in the event of airflow separating from the remainder of the wings’ surface.
A downside of such a forward-swept wing design is that it geometrically produces wing twisting as it bends under load, resulting in greater stress on the wing than for a similar straight or aft-swept wing. This requires the wing be designed to twist as it bends—opposite to the geometric twisting. This is done by the use of composites wing skins laid-up to twist. Despite this, the plane was initially limited to Mach 1.6.
As of FY 2013, several engineering modifications have raised the maximum speed parameter limit to Mach 1.8. / Mach 2.2.
As of FY 2014 this new maximum speed limit data is yet to be confirmed by an official confirmation communiqué by Sukhoi.
The thrust vectoring (with PFU engine modification) of ±20° at 30°/second in pitch and yaw will greatly support the agility gained by other aspects of the design. Source @everything.explained.today
Sukhoi Su-47/S-37 cutaway @d.hatena.ne.jp
S-37/S-32 vital statistics
Wingspan: 16.7 m
Length overall: 22.6 m
Height overall 6.40 m
Weight empty, equipped : 24,000 kg (52,910 lb)
Max T-O weight : 34,000 kg (74,960 lb)
Max level speed at height : 2,500 km/h (1,350 knots)
Max level speed at S/L : 1,400 km/h (756 knots)
Service ceiling : 18,000 m (59,050 ft)
Range with max fuel at height : 1,782 nm (3,300 km/2,050 miles)
Number of hardpoints: 14: 2 wingtip, 6-8 under wing, 6-4 conformal under fuselage
Air-to-air : R-77, R-77PD, R-73, K-74
Air-to-surface: X-29T, X-29L, X-59M, X-31P, X-31A, KAB-500, KAB-1500
Su-47 (S-37 Berkut) Golden Eagle Fighter, Russia @airforce-technology.com
The MiG 1.44 was subsequently canceled and a new program for a next-generation fighter, PAK FA, was initiated. The program requirements reflected the capabilities of Western fighter aircraft, such as the Eurofighter Typhoon and F-22 Raptor.
See details of Eurofighter Typhoon: HERE
See details of F-22 Raptor: HERE
F-22 Raptor @static.wixstatic.com
Following a competition between Sukhoi, Mikoyan, and Yakovlev, in 2002, Sukhoi was selected as the winner of the PAK FA competition and selected to lead the design of the new aircraft.
Detailed comparison of PAK FA T50 VS F22 Raptor: Here
Multimode highly maneuverable aircraft
PAK FA INFORMATION TRANSLATED FROM PARALAY.COM @defence.pk
In addition, a flattening of the fuselage reduces the effective area of the radar in the most likely areas of exposure: lateral and front projection plane.
Smoothing the graph cross-sectional areas at the site of an airplane cockpit can improve the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft by reducing drag. Source @defence.pk
Plane integral aerodynamic layout
To reduce the PAK FA’s developmental risk and spread out associated costs, as well as to bridge the gap between it and older previous generation fighters, some of its technology and features, such as propulsion and avionics, were implemented in the Sukhoi Su-35S fighter, an advanced variant of the Su-27.
See details of Su-35: HERE
Sukhoi Su-35S and PAK FA “054” fighter @rt.com
The Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association (NAPO) is manufacturing the new multirole fighter at Komsomol’sk-on-Amur along with Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO), and final assembly is to take place at Komsomol’sk-on-Amur. Following a competition held in 2003, the Tekhnokompleks Scientific and Production Center, Ramenskoye Instrument Building Design Bureau, the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP), the Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant (UOMZ) in Yekaterinburg, the Polet firm in Nizhny Novgorod and the Central Scientific Research Radio Engineering Institute in Moscow were selected for the development of the PAK-FA’s avionics suite. NPO Saturn is the lead contractor for the interim engines; Saturn and MMPP Salyut will compete for the definitive second stage engines.
On 8 August 2007, Russian Air Force Commander-in-Chief (CinC) Alexander Zelin was quoted by Russian news agencies that the program’s development stage was complete and construction of the first aircraft for flight testing would begin, and that by 2009 there would be three fifth-generation aircraft ready. In 2009, the aircraft’s design was officially approved.
5th Gen Development
Conventional thinking in the planning of air campaigns, empirically observable from the Blitzkrieg campaigns of the 1940s through to the recent United States led air campaigns since 1991, places a heavy emphasis on the defeat of opposing airfields by aerial attack, to deny an opponent the opportunity to contest airspace. To achieve this effect, an attacker needs the capability to repeatedly penetrate defended airspace to shut down airfields, keep them shut down, and inflict attrition upon opposing aircraft on the ground.
Basically the Russians built the MiG-23 to fight F-105s, F-104s, F-4s, Mirage IIIs and as a technological response to the USAF`s needs for a variable geometry fighter in the form of a cheap soviet F-111sky. The Americans responded with the F-15 and F-14 and much later with the F-16 and F-18, this prompted the development of the Su-27 and MiG-29 and the west then designed the Eurofighter, Rafale Gripen and F-22 to counter the MiG-29 and Su-27 threat.
The F-22A may get ‘first look’ with the APG-77, the Advanced Infra Red Search and Track (AIRST) sensor having been deleted to save money, but the PAK-FA may get ‘first look’ using its advanced infra-red sensor. A radar cross section of only -20 dBSM would deny early Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missile shots using the AIM-120C/D AMRAAM to all current and planned US fighters. Doing any better, like -30 dBSM or -40 dBSM, simply increases the level of difficulty in prosecuting long range missile attacks. The consequence of this is that missile combat will be compressed into shorter distances and shorter timelines. A larger portion of engagements will be at visual range, and most BVR engagements will end up taking place inside 30 nautical miles. Then, the engagement becomes a supersonic equivalent of the Battle of Britain or air combat over North Korea. The outcome will be difficult to predict and will depend on missile capabilities zone and the pilots.
Information superiority aims at reducing one’s own observation to action loop (Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action) while elongating the enemy’s loop. Posted on 26/10/2013 @Surajit Sarma
T-50 PAKFA stealth fighter to start flight testing by military pilots: HERE
In December 2014, the Russian Air Force planned to receive 55 fighters by 2020. But Yuri Borisov, Russia’s deputy minister of defence for armaments stated in March 2015 that the Air Force will slow PAK FA production and reduce its initial order to 12 jets due to the nation’s deteriorating economy. Due to the aircraft’s complexity and rising costs, the Russian Air Force will retain large fleets of fourth-generation Sukhoi Su-27 and Su-35S.
The T-50’s maiden flight was repeatedly postponed from early 2007 after encountering unspecified technical problems. In August 2009, Alexander Zelin acknowledged that problems with the engine and in technical research remained unsolved. On 28 February 2009, Mikhail Pogosyan announced that the airframe was almost finished and that the first prototype should be ready by August 2009.
Sukhoi’s new aircraft project code name is Τ-50, while according to the Russian Air Force, the aircraft will be called Ι-21 and the construction code will be Izdelie 701. Source @redstar.gr
Image @redstar.grImage @redstar.gr
The first taxi test was successfully completed on 24 December 2009. Flight testing of the T-50 began with T-50-1, the first prototype aircraft, on 29 January 2010. Piloted by Hero of the Russian Federation Sergey Bogdan, the aircraft’s 47-minute maiden flight took place at KnAAPO’s Dzemgi Airport in the Russian Far East.
On 3 March 2011, the second T-50 completed a 44-minute test flight. The first two prototypes lacked radar and weapon control systems; the third and fourth aircraft, first flown in 2011 and 2012, are fully functional test aircraft. On 14 March 2011, the T-50 achieved supersonic flight at a test range near Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
PAK FA “052” – Image @idrw.org
The T-50 was displayed publicly for the first time at the 2011 MAKS Airshow, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin was in attendance. On 3 November 2011, the T-50 reportedly performed its 100th flight. More than 20 test flights were made in the next nine months.
The third prototype, T-50-3, was the first prototype to fly with an AESA radar. Originally scheduled for the end of 2011, these flights occurred in August 2012, and showed performance comparable to existing radars. On 22 November 2011, T-50-3 took its first flight from KnAAPO’s airfield in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, piloted by Sergey Bogdan. The aircraft spent over an hour in the air, and was subjected to basic stability and powerplant checks. It differs from the other prototypes in the way it lacks a pitot tube. All 14 test aircraft are scheduled to fly by 2015.
PAK FA “054”
The fourth prototype had its first flight on 12 December 2012 and joined the other three aircraft in testing near Moscow a month later. By the end of 2013, five T-50 prototypes were flown, with the fifth prototype having its first flight on 27 October 2013; with this flight the program has amassed more than 450 flights. The first aircraft for State testing was delivered on 21 February 2014. However the VVS lacks facilities for testing some of the aircraft’s performance parameters.
PAK FA “055”
The fifth flying prototype T-50 ‘055’ was severely damaged by an engine fire after landing in June 2014. The aircraft was returned to flying condition after cannibalizing components from the unfinished sixth prototype.
Latest pics of Pak-Fa T-50 No.8: Here
Sukhoi T-50 (ПАК ФА) performing aerial refuelling trials with Il-78M tanker: Here
The PAK FA is a fifth generation multirole fighter aircraft and the first operational stealth aircraft for the Russian Air Force. Although most information is classified, sources within the Sukhoi company and Defense Ministry have openly stated that the aircraft will be stealthy, supermaneuverable, have supercruise capability, incorporate substantial amounts of composite materials, and possess advanced avionics such as active phased array radar and sensor fusion.
PAK FA design by paraplay – Image @defence.pkPAK FA design by paraplay
Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft, T-50 PAK-FA design & testing: Updates
Patent submitted for the PAK-FA
Adjustable leading edge vortex controllers (LEVCONs) PAK FA
Weapons are carried internally in weapons bays within the airframe, and antennas are recessed from the surface of the skin to preserve the aircraft’s stealthy shape. The IRST housing is turned backwards when not in use, and its rear is treated with radar-absorbent material (RAM) to reduce its radar return.
Rafale Stile Photo by wsoul | Photobucket
To mask the significant RCS contribution of the engine face, the partial serpentine inlet obscures most, but not all, of the engine’s fan and inlet guide-vanes (IGV). The production aircraft incorporates radar blockers similar in principle to those used on the F/A-18E/F in front of the engine fan to hide it from all angles. The aircraft uses RAM to absorb radar emissions and reduce their reflection back to the source, and the canopy is treated with a coating to minimize the radar return of the cockpit and pilot.
PAK FA incorporates radar blockers similar in principle to those used on the F/A-18E/F in front of the engine fan – Image @img-new.cgtrader.com
The T-50’s design emphasizes frontal stealth, with RCS-reducing features most apparent in the forward hemisphere; the shaping of the aft fuselage is much less optimized for radar stealth compared to the F-22. The combined effect of airframe shape and RAM of the production aircraft is estimated to have reduced the aircraft’s RCS to a value thirty times smaller than that of the Su-27. Sukhoi’s patent of the T-50’s stealth features cites an average RCS of the aircraft of approximately 0.1-1 square meters.
The radar cross section ( RCS ) is a measure of how detectable an object is with radar. The bigger the RCS, the easier the detection. Its unit of measure is in square meters ( m² ) or decibels relative to one square meter ( dBsm ). Depending on its shape, an object can have different RCS when illuminated from different directions. The RCS can also vary based on the illuminating frequency of the radar. In air combat, the frontal RCS of an aircraft is the most relevant for obvious reasons. The table below compares the RCS ( frontal by default ) of different aircrafts and objects in the X-Band :
RCS in m²
RCS in dBsm
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
Sukhoi Su-35 Super Flanker
Lockheed Martin F-35 Side/Rear
Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk
Lockheed Martin F-35 Frontal
Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit
Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor
Boeing X-45 UCAV
The PAK-FA is thought to have an all-aspect RCS of 0.01m² or -20dBsm. These are merely analytical estimates based on publicly available images of the prototype which may differ from the final production version. It is also worth noting that the prototypes may not necessary have the full VLO treatment like RAM coatings which is not needed when performing non-stealth related tests like weapons integration and may lead to falsely optimistic conclusions by Western defense analysts.
It would seem at first glance that the PAK-FA is less stealthy compared with the F-22 and the F-35 but in reality, the Russian designers gave up some stealth in exchange for aerodynamic agility. At -20dBsm, the PAK-FA is still several magnitudes more stealthy than legacy 4th and 4++ generation fighters like the Rafale or the US Teen-series fighters. It will probably be stealthy enough to delay detection by advanced AESA radars like the F-22’s APG-77 until the enemy fighter is within its BVR missile range.
Also, unlike the F-35 where the -30dBsm RCS holds true only for the frontal aspect ( the rear and profile RCS is much higher due to less radar shielding to save costs ), the RCS of the PAK-FA is more or less the same when viewed from all angles ( all-aspect ). So less stealthy than the F-22 but enough to pose a tough challenge for its opponents. Source @daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
However, like other stealth fighters, the T-50’s low observability measures are chiefly effective against high frequency (between 3 and 30 GHz) radars, usually found on other aircraft. The effects of Rayleigh scattering and resonance mean that low-frequency radars, employed by weather radars and early-warning radars are more likely to detect the T-50 due to its physical size. However, such radars are also large, susceptible to clutter, and are less precise.
Pre-production and initial production batches of the T-50 will use interim engines, a pair of NPO Saturn izdeliye 117, or AL-41F1. Closely related to the Saturn 117S engine used by the Su-35S, the 117 engine is a highly improved and uprated variant of the AL-31 that powers the Su-27 family of aircraft. The 117 engine produces 93.1 kN (21,000 lbf) of dry thrust, 147.1 kN (33,067 lbf) of thrust in afterburner, and has a thrust to weight ratio of 10.5:1. The engines have full authority digital engine control (FADEC) and are integrated into the flight control system to facilitate maneuverability and handling.
Item 117 (AL-41F1) Engine – Fiery Heart of the Pak Fa fighter / Изд. 117 (АЛ-41Ф1)
The Saturn-Lyulka 117S is equipped with modern high and low-pressure turbines, an all-new digital control system, thrust-vectoring nozzles and fan with diameter of 932mm. The lifespan and mean time between overhaul (MTBO) of the engine are 4,000 hours and 1,000 hours respectively. Source @airforce-technology.com
Highly upgraded variant of the AL-31F 117S used by the Su-27 family as interim engines (© 2009 Vitaliy V. Kuzmin) @.ausairpower.net
The existing PAK-FA prototype effort is clearly focussed on minimising risk during the initial process of proving the aerodynamic, airframe and systems design. Russian open sources have stated that the prototypes are powered by the existing production Al-31F 117S, often labelled for marketing reasons as the Al-41F1A, variant 19,400/32,000 lbf (8,800/14,500 kp) engine, employed in the Su-35S. While this engine lacks the performance rating of the earlier developmental Al-41F series and its likely derivatives, it is capable of supercruise and thus permits significant flight test and flight control system development to be performed without the high risks characteristic of the concurrent use of a developmental engine and developmental airframe.
The cited TVC capability of the 117S engine is ±15° in the vertical plane, and ±8° in the horizontal plane, with deflection angle rates of now up to 60 °/sec, putting them in the same onset rate category as fighter-type aerodynamic flight control surfaces. The engine employs a larger diameter fan, at 932 mm vs. the 905 mm fan in the earlier Al-31FP TVC engine. Key hot end components in the core were redesigned to employ the cooling system technology developed in the 1990s Al-41F, permitting much higher TIT ratings and a commensurately reduced thrust lapse rate with altitude, in turn permitting supercruise operation.
Harmonisation of the digital flight control laws with the precision 3D TVC nozzle system requires a robust and reliable 3D TVC nozzle equipped powerplant.
Uncertainties remain in terms of the capabilities and design of the intended powerplant for Full Rate Production aircraft. Saturn have been developing a new engine for the PAK-FA since 2006, labelled as the “Fifth Generation Fighter Engine”. Clearly this will employ technology from the existing 39,600 lbf class Al-41F, developed initially for the MFI.
Above: workshare breakdown for the developmental fifth generation engine; below: intended applications for same. The Russian language legend shows a common core [Basic Gas Generator] exploited for a range of other applications, including maritime surface combatant powerplants, and fixed power station or gasline pumping applications (NPO Saturn).
Public comments by Russian parliamentary scientific advisor Konstantin Makienko, in a recent media interview, indicate that the Russians envisage the PAK-FA project in terms of a 40 – 50 year operational life cycle, reflecting historical experience with the T-10, which entered development during the early 1970s.
Against such timescales, it is a certainty that production PAK-FA aircraft will see two or three generations of powerplant fitted to the design, which further explains the employment of the large, seemingly oversize propulsion system intakes. Clearly, the Sukhoi penchant for alternate intakes in Flanker designs continues with the PAK-FA design.
Production PAK-FA aircraft will therefore at some stage acquire a high variable bypass supercruising engine with a variable cycle core and augmenter, as the diverse needs of long range/persistence and supercruise dictate this design approach. When the US dropped the variable cycle YF-120 from the ATF program during the early 1990s, it was for fear of development risks impacting deployment timelines, leaving the production F-22A Raptor with a much more basic F119-PW-100 engine design. Source @ausairpower.net
A gas turbine engine-power center GTDE-117M / GTDE-117-1M ( http://koavia.com ).
The auxiliary power unit and the starters for the T-50 aircraft designed and manufactured by the factory “Red October” (St. Petersburg). Probably, on the T-50 model is used, the gas turbine engine power unit GTDE-117M / GTDE-117-1M, which is a turboshaft engine with free turbine, has a modular design. Turbocharger module – single shaft with a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine. Reducer power turbine is made by a two-stage multi-threading scheme. Purpose: providing standalone preflight preparation of the aircraft without starting the main engines and their subsequent launch ..
Power in starter mode – 110 hp
Dimensions – 680 x 260 mm
Weight – 40 kg
The two 117 engines incorporate thrust vectoring (TVC) nozzles whose rotational axes are each canted at an angle, similar to the nozzle arrangement of the Su-35S. This configuration allows the aircraft to produce thrust vectoring moments about all three rotational axes, pitch, yaw and roll. Thrust vectoring nozzles themselves operate in only one plane; the canting allows the aircraft to produce both roll and yaw by vectoring each engine nozzle differently. The engine inlet incorporates variable intake ramps for increased supersonic efficiency and retractable mesh screens to prevent foreign object debris being ingested by the engines.
Engine inlet incorporates variable intake ramps for increased supersonic efficiency and retractable mesh screens to prevent foreign object debris being ingested by the engines
The 117 engine is to also incorporate infrared and RCS reduction measures. In 2014, the Indian Air Force openly expressed concerns over the reliability and performance of the 117 engines; during the 2011 Moscow Air Show, a T-50 suffered a compressor stall that forced the aircraft to abort takeoff.
Production T-50 from 2020 onward will be equipped with a more powerful engine known as the izdeliye 30, a clean sheet design engine that will supersede the 117. NPO Saturn and MMPP Salyut are competing to supply this definitive second stage engine. Compared to the 117, the new powerplant will have increased thrust and fuel efficiency, greater reliability, and lower costs.
The izdeliye 30 has fewer fan and compressor stages than the 117, thus reducing the number of parts compared to its predecessor. The engine is designed to produce approximately 107 kN (24,050 lbf) of dry thrust and up to 167 kN (37,500 lbf) in afterburner. Full scale development began in 2011 and the engine’s compressor began bench testing in December 2014. The first test engines are planned to be completed in 2016, and flight testing is projected to begin in 2017. The new powerplant is designed to be a drop-in replacement for the 117 with minimal changes to the airframe.
New Engine for T-50 PAK FA to Carry Out 1st Flight in 4Q 2017: Here
New engine being designed for fifth-generation Russian fighter aircraft: Here
Russia to test-fly PAK FA fighter powered with Phase II engine in late 2017
The first flight of the Russian fifth-generation fighter (Russian acronym – PAK FA) powered by the Phase II engine is slated for late 2017, Yevgeny Marchukov, general designer/director, Lyulka Design Bureau (an affiliate of the Ufa Engine Production Association, UMPO), told TASS on Thursday, March 10, 2016.
“If all goes to plan, the Phase II engine’s fight flight on the flying testbed will take place late in 2017, with a T-50 (PAKFA) prototype to act as flying testbed,” the general designer said.
“One of the flying testbed’s engine nacelles will house a Phase I engine and the other the advanced one,” he added.
According to Marchukov, the Phase II engine is in the prototype manufacture, demonstrator assembly and core engine test stages. The first core engine has been tested, with good enough results produced. The second core engine’s assembly is nearing the end. “We will test the engine demonstrator this summer,” Marchukov said.
The general designer emphasized: “The Phase II engine designed for the PAK FA is a Generation 5+ design, even a Generation 5++ one.” The engine is 15-20% superior to the previous ones in terms of specific characteristics.
“The engine’s characteristics have been refined through a sharp improvement in the operating cycle parameters, efficiency of units and introduction of advanced technologies and materials in the first place. It features higher thrust and a sizeable reduction in specific fuel consumption in virtually all operating modes, i.e. not only in the cruising range mode, but in the acceleration and afterburning modes as well – the modes the aircraft is normally flown in. This implies a life cycle cost reduction,” the general designer explained. “In addition, a hefty specific weight reduction through advanced technologies and materials has been planned.”
According to Marchukov, “there have been difficulties in the development of the advanced engine, because not all of the materials have been certificated, and we may not use them for now. Therefore, the early prototypes will be somewhat different to the ones used in the official trials. We are working on the powerplant in cooperation with the plane’s designers, including the work on the air intake, because it is an all-new engine designed to remain in service for 30 years at the least.”
“We plan to use the advanced engine’s core engine to derive a whole spectrum of advanced powerplants for aviation and power generation applications,” the general designer concluded. Source @airrecognition.com
Internal weapon bays
The T-50 has two tandem main internal weapon bays each approximately 4.6 m (15.1 ft) long and 1.0 m (3.3 ft) wide and two small triangular-section weapon bays that protrude under the fuselage near the wing root. Internal carriage of weapons preserves the aircraft’s stealth and significantly reduces aerodynamic drag, thus preserving kinematic performance compared to performance with external stores. The T-50’s high cruising speed is expected to substantially increase weapon effectiveness compared to its predecessors. Vympel is developing two ejection launchers for the main bays: the UVKU-50L for missiles weighing up to 300 kg (660 lb) and the UVKU-50U for ordnance weighing up to 700 kg (1,500 lb). The aircraft has an internally mounted 9A1-4071K (GSh-301) 30 mm cannon near the right LEVCON root.
UVKU-50L ejection launchers PAK FA main weapons bays
The primary medium-range missile is the active radar-homing K-77M (izdeliye 180), an upgraded R-77 variant with AESA seeker and conventional rear fins. The short-range missile is the infrared-homing (“heat seeking”) K-74M2 (izdeliye 760), an upgraded R-74 variant with reduced cross-section for internal carriage. A clean-sheet design short-range missile designated K-MD (izdeliye 300) is being developed to eventually replace the K-74M2. For longer ranged applications, four large izdeliye 810 beyond-visual-range missiles can be carried, with two in each main weapons bay.
PAK-FA Weapons Capabilities
Very little has been disclosed to date on the intended weapons suite for the PAK-FA. The internal bays are claimed to fit eight AAMs. The limited width of the centre fuselage bays indicates that most likely these would each fit three staggered RVV-SD rounds, this being the latest variant of the R-77 / AA-12 Adder and a direct equivalent to the US AIM-120 AMRAAM series. To date only the active radar seeker equipped RVV-SD variant has been displayed, the intended heatseeking and anti-radiation variants have yet to be seen in mockup form or marketing literature.
While a new WVR AAM has been planned, it is likely that a derivative of the RVV-MD / R-74 Archer series will be used with early PAK-FA variants.
For very close air combat, a 30 mm gun mounted in the starboard forward fuselage will be employed – the type has not been disclosed to date but it is likely to be a variant of the GSh-30 series carried by the Su-35S Flanker.
With eight stations cited for external stores, and the diversity of guided bombs, ASMs and cruise missiles available for the Su-30MK/Su-35S Flanker series, there is no shortage of alternatives for external carriage by the PAK-FA.
Internal weapons for strike roles are a much more interesting consideration, due to the limited volume of the internal bays. Recent designs known to have folding surfaces for internal carriage include the new KTRV Kh-38 and Kh-58UShKE Kilter.
It is likely, but yet to be confirmed, that KTRV are developing an analogue to the GBU-39/B Small Diameter Bomb.
Given the well established and managed aerodynamics of this area of the Flanker designs, weapon clearances from the internal bays across the whole of the PAK-FA’s operational envelope should be achieved with little, if any, difficulties, and without the need for employment of exotic and heavy techniques such as aero-acoustic local flow control and shaping or similar. Source @ausairpower.net
9A1-4071K (GSh-301) 30 mm cannon
There were test firing 9A1-4071K aircraft cannon for the Russian fifth generation fighter T-50 (PAK FA) for scientific test range aircraft systems, located near the village of Faustovo Moscow region.
The gun is ideal for aircraft: its weight of only 50 kilograms, it is considered to be the easiest in the world of 30-millimeter cannon. Unique automation scheme has allowed the base to give 9A1-4071K highest for this type of weapon rate per barrel – up to 1,800 rounds per minute. Feature of the gun is also a stand-alone system vodoisparitelnogo cooling barrel. Its principle of operation is simple: the gun in the casing is water, which is heated in the barrel (during firing) is converted into steam.
Fire from the new gun will be conducted high-explosive-incendiary projectiles and armor-piercing tracer shells, capable of striking even lightly armored ground, surface and air targets. On ground targets gun is effective when shooting at a distance of 1800 meters, in the air – to 1200. Previously 9A1-4071K gun was tested in a multi-purpose fighter Su-27SM. T-50 (PAK FA project) – a fifth-generation aircraft equipped with a fundamentally new avionics suite and promising radar with a phased antenna array. Source gadgetstyle.com.ua
Magazine Capacity: 150
Number of Barrels: 1
Caliber: 30 millimeter
Max Range: 1,800 meter (5,906 foot)
Min Range: 200 meter
Max Rate of Fire: 1,500 round per minute
Muzzle Velocity: 860 mps
Cartridge Weight: 0.83 kilogram
Combat Weight: 50 kilogram (110 pound)
Projectile Weight: 0.39 kilogram
Russia’s New T-50 get cannon shells that feature synthetic polymer navigation equipment: Here
K-77M (izdeliye 180)
Medium-range missile is the active radar-homing K-77M (izdeliye 180), an upgraded R-77 variant with AESA seeker and conventional rear fins
The Vympel NPO R-77 missile (NATO reporting name: AA-12 Adder) is a Russian medium range, active radar homing air-to-air missile system. It is also known by its export model designation RVV-AE. It is the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.
Another improvement program was designated the R-77M, which made the missile longer and heavier, making use of a two-stage motor as well as an improved seeker. A further product-improvement of the R-77, designated the R-77M1 and then the R-77-PD, was to feature a ramjet propulsion device. This missile was destined for the MiG 1.44 that for the MFI program. The weapon has a laser fuse and an expanding rod warhead that can destroy the variable sized targets. However, due to funding shortage and eventual cancellation of the MiG 1.44, development of this model may have stopped by 1999; no information or announcement regarding the R-77M and R-77-PD has appeared since.
According to specifications, the R-77-1 and its export variant RVV-SD is 15 kg (33 lb) heavier than the basic R-77 / RVV-AE, weighing 190 kg (420 lb) rather than 175 kg (386 lb). Maximum range is increased to 110 km (68 mi) from 80 km (50 mi). The missile is also slightly longer at 3.71 metres (12.2 ft), rather than the 3.6 metres (11.8 ft) of the basic variant. Additional improvements include upgrades to the missile’s radar seeker and boat tail rear section to reduce drag. Russian missile manufacturer Agat previously confirmed it was working on seeker upgrades for the R-77, implying that at least two projects were underway, one for export and one for the Russian air force.
K-77M (izdeliye 180) – Highly improved variant for the PAK FA with AESA seeker, conventional fins, and two-pulse motor.
K-77ME (izdeliye 180-BD) – Ramjet model of the K-77M.
K-74M2 (izdeliye 760)
Short-range missile is the infrared-homing (“heat seeking”) K-74M2 (izdeliye 760), an upgraded R-74 variant with reduced cross-section for internal carriage @cdn3.artstation.com Short-range missile is the infrared-homing (“heat seeking”) K-74M2 (izdeliye 760), an upgraded R-74 variant with reduced cross-section for internal carriage @cdn3.artstation.com
For the PAK FA, Vympel is developing two new missiles based on R-73/R-74 technology. The first of these is izdeliye 760. Based on the K-74M, this is intended to match the performance of the MBDA Advanced Short-Range Air-to-Air Missile (ASRAAM) and the Raytheon AIM-9X Sidewinder. It will have an improved IR seeker, an inertial control system, a datalink receiver for target updates and an advanced rocket motor with a longer burn time. To make the missile suitable for internal carriage, its cross-section will be reduced to 320×320 mm.
To maximise the weapon’s coverage, it can be fired in lock-on-after-launch (LOAL) mode, starting under inertial control before achieving in-flight lock-on. It will be able to engage targets up to 160ⅹ from the aircraft’s heading.
According to a Vympel representative, izdeliye 760 is about to begin flight tests. Development is due to be completed in 2010.
The follow-on K-MD (izdeliye 300) is intended to outperform the ASRAAM and AIM-9X. Although it will draw on the experience gained with the R-73/R-74 series, for most practical purposes it will be an all-new missile.
Its guidance system will be based on a new IR seeker incorporating a focal-plane array (FPA). This will have more than twice the lock-on range of the izdeliye 760 seeker, a high resistance to countermeasures and a target-recognition capability. Source @secretprojects.co.uk
PAK FA wing root weapons bays
The main bays can also accommodate air-to-ground missiles such as the Kh-38M, as well as multiple 250 kg (550 lb) KAB-250 or 500 kg (1,100 lb) KAB-500 precision guided bombs. The aircraft is also expected to carry further developed and modified variants of Kh-35UE (AS-20 “Kayak”) anti-ship missile and Kh-58UShK (AS-11 “Kilter”) anti-radiation missile. For missions that do not require stealth, the T-50 can carry stores on its six external hardpoints. PAK FA chief designer Alexander Davydenko has said that there is a possibility of the installation of BrahMos supersonic cruise missile on the PAK FA and its FGFA derivative; only one or two such missiles may be carried due to heavy weight of the BrahMos.
Kh-38M air-to-ground missiles
Kh-38 air to surface missile
Kh-38ME family consists of the following missiles: Kh-38MAE, Kh-38MKE, Kh-38MLE and Kh-38MTE modular aircraft guided missiles designed to shoot down a broad range of armored, reinforced and soft ground targets, sea surface and coastal targets, as well as groups of targets.
The Kh-38ME series is a comprehensive battlefield weapon, also launched from positions in tactical depth.
Modularity brings high combat effectiveness against a variety of targets owing to the use of different payloads and guidance methods:
– Kh-38MAE – inertial + active radar guidance;
– Kh-38MKE – inertial + satellite guidance;
– Kh-38MLE – inertial + semiactive laser guidance;
– Kh-38MTE – inertial + thermal-imaging guidance.
The 250-kg payload (half of the missile total weght) consists of HE-Frag or penetrating warhead in Kh-38MAE, Kh-38MLE and Kh-38MTE, or a cluster warhead in Kh-38MKE.
The two-phase solid-propellant motor allows the missile to attain a speed twice as high as the speed of a sound. Kh-38MEs are carried by both FW and RW aircraft.
• operational missile;
• missile simulator with weight & dimensions of the real missile;
• operating missile for training;
• inert missile;
• cut-in-halves missile for training;
• missile for training in flight
Delivery set also includes:
• operational documentation set;
• ten-year group set of SPTA;
• single set of SPTA.
Ground operation of missiles is supported by arrangement of “Oka-E-1” air means of destruction.
Launch range envelope, km
3 – 40
Launch speed envelope, km/h (max Mach number)
Max missile turn angle, ang.degree:
in horizontal plane after launch
Target destruction probability:
under enemy’s attack/without enemy’s attack
Shelf life, years
Warhead weight, kg
up to 250
two-phase solid-propellant motor
Max launch weight, kg
LengthxDiameterxWing span, m
Place of missile’s location
release devices such as AKU or APU
launch range, m
speed range, m/c
KAB-250 precision-guided munition (PGM)
Russia’s KAB-250 guided bomb @ IHS Jane’s 360
KAB-500 precision guided bombs
KAB-500Kr CONTROLLED AIR BOMB
Size, kg 500
Weight of warhead , kg 380
Guidance system TV correlation
homing head ensuring target lockon
while aboard the carrier
and automatic guidance during fall
Warhead HE concrete-piercing
Combat use conditions in daytime
at visually discernible targets
during level flight or dive
Guidance accuracy (CEP), m up to 4
KAB-500-OD CONTROLLED AIR BOMB
Size, kg 500
Weight of warhead , kg 250
Guidance system TV correlation
Warhead fuel-air explosive
Combat use conditions in daytime at visually
during level flight
or dive on the
Guidance accuracy (CEP), m up to 4
Kh-35UE (AS-20 “Kayak”) anti-ship missile
Kh-35UE (AS-20 “Kayak”) anti-ship missile (wings extended)
The Zvezda Kh-35U (‘Star’, Russian: Х-35У, AS-20 ‘Kayak’) is the jet-launched version of a Russian subsonic anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran (‘Uranus’, SS-N-25 ‘Switchblade’, GRAU 3M24 ) or Bal (‘Ball’, SSC-6 ‘Sennight’, GRAU 3K60). It is also nicknamed “Harpoonski”, because it looks like and functions very similar to the American Harpoon Anti-Ship missile. It is designed to attack vessels up to 5000 tonnes.
The Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins and a semisubmerged air duct intake.
Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or ship or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system after input of target coordinates. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area. At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system then turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an extremely low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained.
The Kh-35 anti-ship missile can be employed in fair and adverse weather conditions at sea states up to 5-6, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures.
The Kh-35’s aerodynamic configuration is optimized for high subsonic-speed sea-skimming flight to ensure stealthy characteristics of the missile. The missile has low signatures thanks to its small dimensions, sea-skimming capability and a special guidance algorithm ensuring highly secure operational modes of the active radar seeker.
Its ARGS-35E active radar seeker operates in both single-and-multiple missile launch modes, acquiring and locking on targets at a maximum range of up to 20 km. A new radar seeker, Gran-KE have been developed by SPE Radar MMS and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker.
- Kh-35 (3M-24) – Base naval version for Russia (2003). Missile range – up to 130 km, detection range 20 km (as in all versions), length and weight – 4,4 m and 620 kg respectively (as in the land-based version), body diameter – 0,42 m, wing span – 1,33 m, altitude – en route 10–15 m, at terminal area about 4 m, cruise speed – 0,8 Mach, warhead type – HE penetrator, warhead weight – 145 kg (as in all versions).
- Kh-35E (3M-24E) – Export version of Kh-35 (1996).
- Kh-35U – Base upgrade unified missile (can be used with any carrier), version for Russia in production (as of July 1, 2015). Range 260 km, with satellite navigation and active-passive radar homing head, protection from spoofing, detection range 50 km.
- Kh-35UE – Export version of Kh-35U, in production.
- Kh-35V – Version for Russia, launched from a helicopter.
- 3M-24EMV – Export version of Kh-35 missile-target without warhead for Vietnam.
- Kh-35 Uran/Uran-E (SS-N-25 ‘Switchblade’, 3M-24) – Shipborne equipment of the control system with a missile Kh-35/Kh-35E.
- Bal/Bal-E – Coastal (SSC-6 Sennight) missile complex with Kh-35/Kh-35E missiles (2008).
- 3M-24 – Naval, Anti Ship, also can have LACM and coastal (Bal, Klub) roles . SS-N-25 Switchblade SLCM from ships boats and submarines .
- KN-09 – Reported North Korean copy of the Kh-35U.
- Kh-37 or Kh-39 possible name for nuclear-tipped variant .
Kh-58UShK (AS-11 “Kilter”) anti-radiation missile
Kh-58UShK (AS-11 “Kilter”) anti-radiation missile (wings extended)
The Kh-58 (Russian: Х-58; NATO:AS-11 ‘Kilter’) is a Soviet anti-radiation missile with a range of 120 km. As of 2004 the Kh-58U variant was still the primary anti-radiation missile of Russia and its allies. It is being superseded by the Kh-31. The NATO reporting name is “Kilter”, after a pixie in the 1902 book The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus by L. Frank Baum.
It was designed to be used in conjunction with the Su-24’s L-086A “Fantasmagoria A” or L-086B “Fantasmagoria B” target acquisition system. The range achieved depends heavily on the launch altitude, thus the original Kh-58 has a range of 36 km from low level, 120 km from 10,000 m (32,800 ft), and 160 km from 15,000 m (49,200 ft).
The Kh-58 was deployed in 1982 on the Su-24M ‘Fencer D’ in Soviet service. The Kh-58U entered service in 1991 on the Su-24M and Mig-25BM ‘Foxbat-F’. The Kh-58E version can be carried on the Su-22M4 and Su-25TK as well, whilst the Kh-58UshE appears to be intended for Chinese Su-30MKK’s.
- Kh-58 (Izdeliye 112) – original version for the Su-24M
- Kh-58U – improved version with longer range and lock-on-after-launch
- Kh-58E – export version first offered in 1991 a downgraded Kh-58U
- Kh-58EM – another version offered for export in the 1990s
- Kh-58UShE (Uluchshennaya Shirokopolosnaya Exportnaya : ‘improved, wideband, export’) – new wideband seeker in new radome, intended for Su-30
- Kh-58UShKE – version shown at MAKS 2007 with folding fins for internal carriage in the Sukhoi PAK FA.
- Kh-58UShKE(TP) – version shown at MAKS 2015 with an added IIR UV seeker.
Some Western sources have referred to a Kh-58A that is either optimised for naval radars or has an active seeker head for use as an anti-shipping missile – it probably represents another name for the Kh-58U. Source @revolvy.com
R-37 (Western designation: AA-13 Arrow, although sometimes AA-X-13 Arrow) RVV-BD
The R-37 (Western designation: AA-13 Arrow, although sometimes AA-X-13 Arrow) is a large, fast, powerful, and extremely long-ranged Russian air-to-air missile. Vympel, a sizeable research and production company, (now part of TRV) designed and built the R-37.
The R-37 was developed to replace the R-33 (Western designation: AA-9 Amos), which was used on the MiG-31. Its main purpose is to shoot down aircraft (particularly high value AWACS—Airborne Warning And Control System—aircraft) and possibly even cruise missiles from such long range that the launch platform is safe from retaliation.
A council of ministers in the USSR started the development of the R-37 in 1983. Testing began six years later in 1989. In 1994, the K-37 (the R-37’s name in development) secured a kill and a record at the same time by hitting its target from 300 kilometers. However, in 1998, the K-37 program was dropped due to its high cost and lack of enough suitable MiG-31 launch platforms. But, in 2006, the Russian government restarted the weapon’s development as part of the MiG-31BM program. The new version is known as R-37M or RVV-BD. It is unknown if this missile has entered service yet, although according to some sources it entered production in 2014.
The R-37M is believed to track its targets with both semi-active and active radar homing. Its radar system is the 9B-1388. The R-37M probably homes on its targets in this way: first, the launch platform detects its target and launches the R-37 towards the target’s hypothesized position. Once the R-37M comes within suitable range of the target, it activates its own radar and homes in on the target. The R-37M can also use a fire-and-forget mode where it is completely independent of its launch platform.
The recent R-37M is a powerful and effective missile. It is much more maneuverable than its predecessor, the R-33. It can engage targets from any altitude between 15 and 25 000 meters, giving it great versatility. Its high explosive fragmentation warhead is huge—60 kilograms—and capable of critically damaging even large AWACS aircraft. It has an incredibly fast speed—Mach 6 or about 7,350 km/h, which is enough to easily catch up with every type of aircraft. Above all, it reportedly has an enormous range— of up to 200.
Although normally called the R-37, this missile has many other names. In the West it is designated as the AA-X-13, AA-13, Arrow, or even Andi. In Russia, it is also known as the Izdeliye 610 or RVV-BD (Raketa Vozduh-Vozduh Bolyshoy Dalnosty or English for Long-Range Air-to-Air Missile).
|Country of origin||Russia|
|Entered service||2016 (?)|
|Missile length||4.06 m|
|Missile diameter||0.38 m|
|Fin span||1.02 m|
|Missile launch weight||510 kg|
|Warhead weight||60 kg|
|Range of fire||up to 200 km|
|Guidance||semi-active and active radar homing|
BrahMos supersonic cruise missile
BrahMos supersonic cruise missile
The BrahMos (Hindi: ब्रह्ममोस -brahmos, Russian: Брамос) is a short range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between the Russian Federation’s NPO Mashinostroeyenia and India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. It is based on the Russian P-800 Oniks cruise missile and other similar sea-skimming Russian cruise missile technology. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.
It is the world’s fastest anti-ship cruise missile in operation. The missile travels at speeds of Mach 2.8 to 3.0. The land-launched and ship-launched versions are already in service, with the air and submarine-launched versions currently in the testing phase. An air-launched variant of BrahMos is planned which came out in 2012. A hypersonic version of the missile, BrahMos-II, is also presently under development with speed of Mach 7 to boost aerial fast strike capability. It is expected to be ready for testing by 2017.
Though India had wanted the BrahMos to be based on a mid range cruise missile like P-700 Granit, Russia opted for the shorter range sister of the missile, P-800 Oniks, in order to comply with Missile Technology Control Regime restrictions, to which Russia is a signatory. Its propulsion is based on the Russian missile, and missile guidance has been developed by BrahMos Aerospace. The missile is expected to reach a total order worth US$13 billion.
The BrahMos-A is a modified air-launched variant of the missile which will arm the Su-30MKI of the air force as a standoff weapon. To reduce the missile’s weight to 2.55 tons, many modifications were made like using a smaller booster, adding fins for airborne stability after launch, and relocating the connector. It can be released from the height of 500 to 14,000 meters (1,640 to 46,000 ft). After release, the missile free falls for 100–150 meters, then goes into a cruise phase at 14,000 meters and finally the terminal phase at 15 meters. BrahMos Aerospace plans to deliver the missile to the IAF in 2015, where it is expected to arm at least three squadrons. An Su-30MKI is able to only carry one BrahMos missile.
The missile was also planned to arm the Indian Navy‘s Ilyushin Il-38 and Tupolev Tu-142 maritime patrol and anti-submarine aircraft with 6 missiles per aircraft, but this could not be made possible due to insufficient ground clearance of the IL-38, high cost of modifying the Tu-142 and the questionable benefits of modifying an ageing fleet.
The air-launched version for the Indian Air Force was ready for testing in 2008. An expert committee from the DRDO and the Indian Air Force (IAF) had ruled out any structural modifications to the Sukhoi Su-30MKI to carry the missile. On 22 October 2008, A. Sivathanu Pillai, Chief Controller, R&D, DRDO and CEO and managing director of BrahMos Aerospace, announced that trials and tests were to be carried out by 2011, and the IAF would get its own version of BrahMos by 2012.
On 10 January 2009, it was reported that two Indian Air Force Su-30MKI fighter jets were sent to Russia for a retrofit program that would enable them to launch the missile. On 8 August 2009, Alexander Leonov, Director of the Russian Machine Building Research and Production Center, said “we are ready for test launches.” He also said that a new takeoff engine for launching of the missile in air and at extreme high altitudes had been developed, and the initial test firing of the missile would be undertaken from the Su-30 MKI, but did not specify the dates. On 26 February 2012, A. Sivathanu Pillai said that the air-launched version of BrahMos is being developed and will be tested by the end of 2012. This version of the BrahMos missile will use air breathing scramjet propulsion technology and would be more fuel efficient than a traditional rocket-powered missile.
The purchase of over 200 air-launched BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles for the IAF was cleared by Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on 19 October 2012, at the cost of ₹60 billion (US$892 million). This would include funds for the integration and testing of the BrahMos on Su-30MKI of the IAF. As per this plan, the first test of the air-launched version of the missile was to be conducted by December 2012. Two Su-30MKI of the IAF would be modified by the HAL at its Nashik facility where they will also be integrated with the missile’s aerial launcher. The trial is now expected to happen in early 2014.
BrahMos-II is a hypersonic cruise missile currently under development and is estimated to have a range of 290 km. Like the BrahMos, the range of BrahMos II has also been limited to 290 km to comply with the MTCR. With a speed of Mach 7, it will have double the speed of the current BrahMos missile, and it will be the fastest hypersonic missile in the world. Development could take 7–8 years to complete
BrahMos-NG (Next Generation) is a mini version based on the existing BrahMos, will have same 290 km range and mach 3.5 speed but it will weigh around 1.5 tons, 5 meters in length and 50 cm in diameter, making BrahMos-NG 50 percent lighter and three meters shorter than its predecessor. The system is expected to be inducted in the year 2017. BrahMos-NG will have lesser RCS (radar cross section) compared to its predecessor, making it harder for air defense systems to locate and engage the target. BrahMos-NG will have Land, Air, ship-borne and Submarine tube-launched variants. First test flight is expected to take place in 2017–18. Initially Brahmos-NG was called as Brahmos-M.
The missile will arm the Sukhoi Su-30MKI, MiG-29K and future inductions such as the Dassault Rafale. Submarine launched variant will be capable of being fired from the new P75I class of submarines. A model of the new variant was showcased on 20 February 2013, at the 15th anniversary celebrations of BrahMos Corporations. The Sukhoi SU-30MKI would carry three missiles while other combat aircraft would carry one each.
BrahMos claims it has the capability of attacking surface targets by flying as low as 5 meters in altitude and the maximum altitude it can fly is 14000 meters. It has a diameter of 70 cm and a wing span of 1.7 m It can gain a speed of Mach 2.8, and has a maximum range of 290 km. The ship-launched and land-based missiles can carry a 200 kg warhead, whereas the aircraft-launched variant (BrahMos A) can carry a 300 kg warhead. It has a two-stage propulsion system, with a solid-propellant rocket for initial acceleration and a liquid-fuelled ramjet responsible for sustained supersonic cruise. Air-breathing ramjet propulsion is much more fuel-efficient than rocket propulsion, giving the BrahMos a longer range than a pure rocket-powered missile would achieve. Source @revolvy.com
T-50 PAK FAs to be armed with BrahMos light cruise missiles: Here
PAK FA carrying Vympel NPO R-77 missile on external pylonPAK FA carrying Vympel NPO R-77 missile and R-73/R-74 on external pylon PAK FA carrying Vympel NPO R-77 and Kh-31 missile on external pylon
Kh-31PD anti-radiation missile
The Kh-31P is based on the normal aerodynamic scheme with X-shaped arrangement of the wing and rudder. The missile consists of three compartments. Each compartment is a structurally and functionally complete unit. In the case in a plane bearing surfaces there are four round side supersonic inlet closed in flight discharged plugs conical shape. The Kh-31P is equipped with high-explosive fragmentation warhead, upgraded X-31PD – universal tape, weighing 110 kg, increased lethality.
Engine 31DPK – ramjet, created in the ICD “Soyuz” (city Turaevo Moscow region). It consists of: air intakes, fuel tanks with a system of repression and fuel metering equipment, front-line unit, the combustion chamber with a fixed supersonic nozzle, electrohydraulic control system roszhiga.
flight speed, m / s:
Airspeed carrier km / h
600-1250 (0.65 <=””
Starting weight, kg
Weight of warhead, kg
bearing angle goal at the start:
± 15 °
Aviation launcher AKU-58
Empty weight PU, kg
High-explosive incendiary bomb aviation OFZAB-500 was established use in high speed with low altitudes against manpower and easily vulnerable field installations, warehouses and fuel depots. The bomb is intended to replace in the Russian Air Force obsolete FOZAB-500. It is used at altitudes of 300 – 20,000 m at speeds of 100 – 1200 km / h.
OFZAB-500 allows the wearer to carry out maneuvers with large congestion. The bomb can be used on a large number of combat aircraft of Soviet and Russian-made MiG-21, MiG-27, MiG-29, Su-17, Su-22, Su-24, Su-25, Su-27, Tu-95, Tu -16.
weight bombs, kg
Weight of explosive, kg
250 kg incendiary + 37.5 kg PF
ODAB-500PMV (ОДАБ-500ПМВ – Объемно-детонирующая авиационная бомба) thermobaric air bomb
Bomb manufactured by the Russian company basalts. Furthermore, the term thermobaric air bomb can meet even the names vacuum bomb, fuel, bomb, aerosol bomb, v detonujúca bomb or a high-explosive bomb.
The bomb is designed to control industrial zones, unprotected or protected by live force (eg. In enclosures, tunnels, caves), nepancierovanej technology and military equipment. The bomb is scheduled for troop (front) airplanes and helicopters. It can be used for the destruction of anti-personnel mines and anti-tank.Planes can toss a bomb from a height of 200 to 12,000 m at speeds of 500-1500 km / hr. Helicopters can toss a bomb from a height of 1100 – 4000 M at speeds of 50-300 km / h.
Bomb has built a lighter.
Diameter Bomb: 500 mm
Length: 2380 mm
Weight bombs: 525 kg
Weight of filling: 193 kg
equivalent of TNT explosions: 1000 kg
ПАК ФА / Т-50-4 борт №054 перед вылетом из Комсомольска-на-Амуре в Раменское, 15.01.2013 г. (фото – пресс-служба ОАО “Сухой”, http://ria.ru). PAK-FA / T-50-4 board №054 before departure from Komsomolsk-on-Amur in Ramenskoye, 15/1/2013 (photo – the press-service of JSC “Sukhoi”, http://ria.ru).
The T-50 has a glass cockpit with two 38 cm (15 in) main multi-functional LCD displays similar to the arrangement of the Su-35S. Positioned around the cockpit are three smaller control panel displays. The cockpit has a wide-angle (30° by 22°) head-up display (HUD), and Moscow-based Geofizika-NV provides a new NSTsI-V helmet-mounted sight and display for the ZSh-10 helmet.
Large wide-angle (30° by 22°) head-up display (HUD)Система индикации на лобовое стекло Т-50 и моделирование изображения ИЛС на компьютерном симуляторе кабины Т-50 в КБ Сухого, г.Москва, 01.03.2010 г. (ТВ-кадры, http://rutube.ru). Display System on the windshield of T-50 and ILS simulation image on a computer simulator cockpit T-50 Sukhoi, Moscow, 01.03.2010 (TV footage, http://rutube.ru)NSTsI-V helmet-mounted sight and display
Primary controls are the joystick and a pair of throttles. The aircraft uses a two-piece canopy, with the aft section sliding forward and locking into place. The canopy is treated with special coatings to increase the aircraft’s stealth.
The T-50 employs the NPP Zvezda K-36D-5 ejection seat and the SOZhE-50 life support system, which comprises the anti-g and oxygen generating system. The 30 kg (66 lb) oxygen generating system will provide the pilot with unlimited oxygen supply. The life support system will enable pilots to perform 9-g maneuvers for up to 30 seconds at a time, and the new VKK-17 partial pressure suit will allow safe ejection at altitudes of up to 23 km.
Ejection seat K-36D
Pilot dressed in a suit PPK-7 helmet IMS-10 with mask KM-36M on the seat F-36D-5 and next to the oxygen system KS-50 / Source: mycity-military.com
Scientific Manufacturing Company Zvezda announced the completion of the tests the state of new life-support systems designed for remote control of the 5th generation fighter T-50 PAK FA.
CEO and chief engineer of the company at the same time, Sergei S. Pozdniakow, at a press conference at the United Aircraft Corporation (OAK) announced the completion of the testing phase of the main elements of life support system remote control, designed for fighter Sukhoi T-50 PAK FA.
oxygen mask KM-36M;
pressure suit JCC-17; (VKK -17)
oxygen system KS-50;
ejection seat K-36D-5.
Helmet IMS-10 (ZSh-10) with mask KM-36M / Source: mycity-military.com
These facilities helps to keep alive the pilot even in situations where at an altitude of 20,000 meters will decompress the cockpit of the aircraft. The new helmet is also 350 grams lighter than currently used in the Russian Air Force (VVS). Source @nowastrategia.org.pl
Testing of survival equipment for pilots of T-50 fighters has been completed
NPP Zvezda completed production and state testing of survival equipment for pilots of T-50 fifth-generation fighters, Rossiyskaya gazeta reports with reference to the press-service of United Aircraft Corporation.
According to NPP Zvezda Director – General Designer, Sergey Pozdnyakov, the testing of multi-purpose protective helmet ZSh-10, KM-36M oxygen mask, PPK-7 anti-G suit, VKK-17 pressurized suit and KS-50 oxygen system has been successfully completed. Moreover, K-36D-5 ejection seat has also successfully passed the state tests.
It was reported that the new equipment allows saving the pilot’s life in case of cockpit depressurization at an altitude up to 20 km. The new protective helmet is 350 g lighter compared to the previous model thanks to using the new composite material – organoplastic. The helmet is synchronized with a number of instruments located in the cockpit in order to reduce the pilot’s workload.
We remind you that T-50 fifth-generation fighter has 14 weapon stations. It will replace the Su-27 heavy fighter. The primary objective of the new fighter is gaining air superiority. It will be armed with efficient short-, medium- and long-range air-to-air missiles. Posted July 20, 2015 Source @ruaviation.com
Russian sources claim that the new OKB Aviaavtomatika HOTAS control set is likely to be used in the PAK-FA, but no formal disclosures by manufacturers have been made to date.
Like the Su-35S, the PAK-FA will employ a dual mode Glonass/GPS receiver and Kalman filter based inertial navigation suite, with an RLG.
As with the Su-35S, the PAK-FA will carry datalinks for bi-directional data transfers. There have been no disclosures at this time on the datalink terminals or waveforms intended.
PAK FA cockpit – mockup PAK FA “055” @img.sputniknews.com – Оптико-локационная станция 101КС-O комплекса 101КС (Optic-location station 101KS-O from 101KS system) can be seen under and behind the cockit – laser-based countermeasuresComparison of frontal cockpit viewof Su-35 and PAK FA
The main avionics systems are the Sh121 multifunctional integrated radio electronic system (MIRES) and the 101KS Atoll electro-optical system. The Sh121 consists of the N036 Byelka radar system and L402 Himalayas electronic countermeasures system.
Main nose-mounted N036-1-01 X band active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, or active phased array radar (see below Photonic Radar as new radar for PAK FA)
Developed by Tikhomirov NIIP Institute, the N036 consists of the main nose-mounted N036-1-01 X band active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, or active phased array radar (Russian: Активная фазированная антенная решётка, Aktivnaya Fazirovannaya Antennaya Reshotka, Russian: АФАР, AFAR) in Russian nomenclature, with 1,552 T/R modules and two side-looking N036B-1-01 X-band AESA radars with 358 T/R modules embedded in the cheeks of the forward fuselage for increased angular coverage.
Russian PAK FA to be Equipped With Futuristic Photonic Radar: HERE
Zhuk-AE/FGA-35 modified radar with AESA
Zhuk-AE/FGA-35 modified radar with AESA
“Photonics is essentially analogous to electronics, but it uses in place of electrons the electromagnetic field of photons. Photons are more common in terms of the number of particles in the universe and, unlike electrons, have no mass or charge. For this reason, photonic systems are not subject to external electromagnetic fields and have a much larger signal transmission range and bandwidth.”
“Today, telecommunications photonics is helping to create a new trend – radio photonics arising from the merger of radio-wave optics, microwave, optoelectronics, and other branches of science and industry.
In other words, radio photonics deals with problems of transmission, reception, and transformation of information using electromagnetic waves of microwave and photonic devices and systems. These photons facilitate the creation of radio frequency parameters unattainable with conventional electronics.”
1.) Electronics based on photonics will have decreased the need for ‘servers’ down to 1/100th the current level, and will increase the data transfer rate by 10 fold!
2.) When fully mature photonics will allow truck based radars to have the same power, resolution, and capability as massive OTH radars!
3.) KRET’s early work in radiophotonics (photonics based radars) are incredibly promising. Developments in the field while it’s in it’s infancy allows airborne radars (AEW while based on photonics) weight to be cut down 1/2 the current weight, and increased the resolution by 10 fold!
4.) Photonic based radars will have it’s ECM resistance grow by several orders of magnitude! Will be heavily resistant to electro-magnetic storms…
5.) By the 2020’s photonic based AESA radars will grow by leaps and bounds in capability. The weight of AESA radar will be cut down by 1.5 to 3 times, increase the reliability and efficiency by 2 to 3 times, and increase the scanning speed and resolution by several dozen times that of contemporary AESA radars! (KRET creates a laboratory for research in Photonics @thaimilitaryandasianregion.wordpress.com)
Detection range of Phazotron Zhuk ASE radar is much further @ausairpower.net
Zhuk-AE/FGA-35 modified radar with AESA
Below quote on the radar from AI article by Piotr Butowski
The basic radar system for the Russian Air Force MiG-35S version is the N041R mechanically scanned, slotted-array radar. The export version is fitted with the Zhuk-ME (FGM229) variant. The Zhuk-M radar is not the latest, but a perfected and more economic design. A more advanced variant – the FGA35 Zhuk-AE with active electronic scanning – has already been flight tested on the MiG-35, tests that have included the
launch of missiles.
Russian MiG-35 fighter assembly plant with FGA35 Zhuk-AE: HERE
Zhuk-AE is the first non-american AESA radar for fighter jets ready for use. The latest incarnation of the Zhuk radar family featuring an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA). Russian industry has crossed the key hurdles of designing and integrating viable GaAs MMICs and performing the overall integration and design of an AESA. From this point we will see increasingly convergence with Western technology for AESAs, as new technologies like Gallium Nitride HEMT transistors are incorporated. The radar is stated to provide a detection range of 130 km for a head on target with up to 30 targets tracked and 6 of those engaged at any one time. As an AESA the radar is liquid cooled, with each transceiver capable of being switched off to prevent damage from overheating and switched on again when cooled. Two variants of the Zhuk-A exist: the FGA-29, and the follow on FGA-35 which will boast an improved detection range of 200 km with 60 targets tracked, the radar will also support a maximum mapping resolution of 1x1m in air to surface mode. The FGA-35 will feature a 700 mm antenna with an increased number of transmit and receive modules to between 1000-1,100, a 20 degree incline and a peak power of 6 kW. Source @5th Gen Development
With new radar the PAK FA fighter can detect any stealth aircraft: HERE
See details of MiG-35: HERE
At MAKS 2013, the Phazotron company showed another variant of the Zhuk-A radar, initially designated FGA35 (3D), with new transceiver modules made from LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramics) technology. The array is much thinner and lighter than the Zhuk-AE variant. Each module is 13mm (0.5in) deep, several times less than those used on the Zhuk-AE. The array is air-cooled (the Zhuk-AE is – liquid-cooled) while the impulse power of each module is 5W. Yuri Guskov, Phazotron’s designer general promises the handover of the new radar for evaluation on the MiG-35 in 2014. (forum.keypublishing.com @thaimilitaryandasianregion.wordpress.com)
The suite also has two N036L-1-01 L band transceivers on the wing’s leading edge extensions that are not only used to handle the N036Sh Pokosnik (Reaper) friend-or-foe identification system but also for electronic warfare purposes. Computer processing of the X- and L-band signals by the N036UVS computer and processor enable the systems information to be significantly enhanced.
Image @militaryrussia.ruTwo N036L-1-01 L band transceivers on the wing’s leading edge extensionsTwo side-looking N036B-1-01 X-band AESA radars with 358 T/R modules embedded in the cheeks of the forward fuselage
The radar will reduce pilot load and make use of a new data link to share information between aircraft. The T-50 will have secure communication links to share data with all other friendly aircraft in the area, as well as airborne and ground-based control points. In 2012 ground tests of the N036 radar began on the third T-50 aircraft. The L402 Himalayas electronic countermeasures (ECM) suite made by the KNIRTI institute uses both its own arrays and that of the N036 radar system. One of its arrays is mounted in the dorsal sting between the two engines. The system was mounted on the aircraft in 2014.
Optiko-elektronnaya the integrated system (OEIS) of the plane the product 101КС consists of six elements:
N036UVS computer and processor
101 KS-0 (About – defensive) – system of counteraction of IK GSN
101 KS-V (In – air) – quantum optical lokatsionny system
101 KS-U (At – ultra-violet) – optical system of delivery of TsU for KS-O
101 KS-N (N – land) – the pendant aim container
PAK FA front section final design should look like101KS-V infra-red search and track turret
The UOMZ 101KS Atoll electro-optical system includes the 101KS-V infra-red search and track turret mounted on the starboard side in front of the cockpit. This sensor can detect, identify, and track multiple airborne targets simultaneously.
Оптико-локационная станция 101КС-O комплекса 101КС (Optic-location station 101KS-O from 101KS system) – laser-based countermeasures @vitalykuzmin.net
DIRCM systems like the PAK-FA’s 101KS-O work by directing a beam of energy towards the incoming heat seeking missile to confuse or destroy its tracking mechanism. In this case the directed energy takes the form of a laser beam. The 101KS-O turrets are located on the dorsal spine and the forward fuselage.
So in essence, the PAK-FA is overflowing with all sorts of sensors spanning a huge swathe of the electro-magnetic spectrum. Source @daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
101KS-O101 KS-U (At – ultra-violet) – optical system of delivery of TsU for KS-O @paralay.net101KS-U ultraviolet missile warning sensorsОптико-электронная подсистема 101КС-П комплекса 101КС (Optic-electronic subsystem 101KS-P from 101KS system) @vitalykuzmin.net
The 101KS-O infrared countermeasure system has sensors housed in turrets mounted on the dorsal spine and forward fuselage and uses laser-based countermeasures against heat-seeking missiles. The Atoll complex also includes the 101KS-U ultraviolet missile warning sensors and 101KS-N navigation and targeting pod.
101KS-N navigation and targeting pod (mounted on the underside of the engine air intake)PAK FA Glonass reciever antennae cover is placed behind the cockpitAK FA Glonass reciever antennae
Developed in Solidworks The reicevers are beaming up without giving up the aircraft position…Also its ECM protected. Source @defence.pk
- GLONASS – RUSSIAN GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM
- INTRODUCTION • GLONASS acronym for “Global Navigation Satellite System”, is a space-based satellite navigation system operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. • It provides an alternative to Global Positioning System (GPS) and is the only alternative navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. • Development of GLONASS began in the Soviet Union in 1976. • Glonass (a global navigation satellite system) is being built by Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems and is based on the US global positioning system (GPS). • It is currently being operated by the Russian Space Forces on behalf of the Russian Government
- DEVELOPMENT • The Soviet Union recognized the need to develop a new satellite-based radio navigation system in the 1970s. • The development of the Glonass satellite system began in 1976 with the aim of achieving global coverage by 1991. • About 43 Glonass satellites, as well as five additional test satellites, were successfully launched from 1982 to 1991. • The Russian Federation took over the development of Glonass upon dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. • Glonass achieved full deployment in 1995, with 24 satellites positioned in three different orbital planes. • Russia was unable to maintain the system until 2001 due to a financial crisis, which resulted in only eight spacecraft being operational.
- COMMUNICATION • The Glonass system transfers data to a ground control station (GCS) using a standard precision (SP) signal and modified high precision (HP) signal. • Real-time data is transmitted to the GCS using a 15-channel frequency division multiple access (FDMA) procedure. • FDMA is a channel access technique which assigns different frequencies to multiple users for communications. • Swepos, the Swedish national network of permanent satellite reference stations, is currently integrating Glonass into its operations.
- VARIATIONS • The Glonass system satellites have three versions, namely Glonass, Glonass-M and Glonass-K. • The Glonass was initially designed for a lifespan of 14 months but later this was extended up to two years. • The Glonass-M is an upgraded model which has a lifespan of seven years. • It features 12 primary antennas for L-band transmissions and laser corner-cube reflectors for orbit determination and geodetic research. • Glonass-K is the latest version with a lifespan of ten to 12 years. • The Glonass-K satellite completed thermal vacuum (TVAC) tests at the RISS facility in June 2010. • The satellite is fitted with a precision thermal control system to maintain a temperature of 0.1°C. • It completed acoustic tests in August 2010.
- INCEPTION • The first satellite-based radio navigation system developed in the Soviet Union was Tsiklon, which had the purpose of providing ballistic missile submarines a method for accurate positioning. • 31 Tsiklon satellites were launched between 1967 and 1978. • The main problem with the system was that, although highly accurate for stationary or slow- moving ships, it required several hours of observation by the receiving station to fix a position, making it unusable for many navigation purposes and for the guidance of the new generation of ballistic missiles. • In 1968–1969, a new navigation system, which would support not only the navy, but also the air, land and space forces, was conceived. • Formal requirements were completed in 1970; in 1976, the government made a decision to launch development of the “Unified Space Navigation System GLONASS”. Source @slideshare.net
Image @danielmarin.naukas.com Russia throwing money at GLONASS to beat GPS – Nov 21, 2011 – Image @navigadget.comGlonass reciever antennae white round plate behind cockpit
BINS-SP2 strapdown inertial navigation system
BINS-SP2 strapdown inertial navigation system, allows the fighters to navigate even in the absence of satellite, land-based, or offshore navigation systems. Source @kret.com
The BINS-SP2 architecture is based on three laser gyroscopes and three quartz accelerometers. The system can establish the platform’s coordinates and motion variables in the absence of external data inputs.
The system was developed by Moscow Institute of Electromechanics and Automatics, a subsidiary of Radioelectronic Technologies. General director Alexey Kuznetsov says the BINS-SP2 can operate at temperatures between –60° and +60° C, and at altitudes up to 25 km.
Anatoly Chumakov, general director of the BINS-SP2 manufacturer Ramenskoye Instrument Making Plant, predicts great demand for the system from military and civilian customers. Three examples per airframe could be installed on civilian aircraft, and two per airframe on warplanes. The system has a service life of 10,000 hours. It can also be used on sea vessels and road transport. Source @ato.ru
© Konstantinos Panitsidis @redstar.gr
Russian experts upbeat about export prospects for the PAK FA: Here
Sukhoi states that the main export advantage of the PAK FA is its lower cost than current US fifth generation jet fighters. Russia was reported to be offering the PAK FA for South Korea’s next generation jet fighter. South Korea’s defence procurement agency confirmed that the Sukhoi PAK FA was a candidate for the Republic of Korea Air Force’s next-generation fighter (F-X Phase 3) aircraft; however, Sukhoi did not submit a bid by the January 2012 deadline.
Russia’s Centre for Analysis of World Arms Trade predicts that the PAK FA will be available for export in 2025; though this may include the Sukhoi/HAL FGFA for India, the primary export version. Ruslan Pukhov, director of the Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, has projected that Vietnam will be the second export customer for the fighter. In 2012, Russian Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov said that Russia and India would jointly build the export version of the T-50 starting in 2020. In 2013, United Aircraft Corporation president Mikhail Pogosyan said that the Russian PAK FA and the Sukhoi/HAL FGFA will use “identical onboard systems and avionics”.
In 2013, Russia made an unsolicited call for Brazil to help in developing a next-generation fighter based on the T-50.
The completed joint Indian/Russian versions of the single-seat or two-seat FGFA will differ from the current T-50 flying prototypes in 43 ways with improvements to stealth, supercruise, sensors, networking, and combat avionics.
In March 2010, Sukhoi director Mikhail Pogosyan projected a market for 1,000 fighter aircraft over the next four decades, which will be produced in a joint venture with India, 200 each for Russia and India and 600 for other countries. He has also said that the Indian contribution would be in the form of joint work under the current agreement rather than as a joint venture. In June 2010, the Indian Air Force planned to receive 50 of the single-seat “Russian version” before receiving the two-seat FGFA. Then in an October 2012 interview the Chief of Air Staff of India, NAK Browne, said that the IAF will purchase 144 of the single-seat FGFA. To reduce development costs and timelines, the IAF plans to begin induction of the FGFA in 2020.
PM Modi’s Russia visit: New, cheaper deal on Sukhoi fighter planes
“Under the new offer, India will have to pay $3.7 billion, instead of $6 billion, for the technological know-how and three prototypes of PAK FA fighters. The proposal awaits a decision from Prime Minister Narendra Modi, when he meets Russian President Vladimir Putin for the annual India-Russia summit this week.
India and Russia had signed an inter-governmental agreement to co-develop and co-produce the FGFA in 2007, which was followed by the $295 million preliminary design contract in December 2010. Modelled on the successful Brahmos missile project, the project involves Russia’s Sukhoi Design Bureau and the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The overall FGFA project cost for making 127 single-seat fighters in India has been estimated to be around $30 billion.” Read full article: HERE
Navalized Sukhoi T-50 PAK FAs will be deployed on the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov and future Russian aircraft carriers. There will be a competition between the Sukhoi, Mikoyan and Yakovlev design bureaus to choose the new naval aircraft.
NAVALPAKFA.jpg Photo by somnath30 | Photobucket
Alexei Fedorov has said that any decision on applying fifth-generation technologies to produce a smaller fighter (comparable to the F-35) must wait until after the heavy fighter, based on the T-50, is completed.
Naval version – Image @defence.pk
Russia’s USC Plans to Begin Aircraft Carrier Production in 2019: HERE
From the model of the carrier it shows PAK FA T-50 so there would definitely be a Naval version.
On 10 June 2014, the fifth flying prototype, aircraft T-50-5, was severely damaged by an engine fire after landing. The pilot managed to escape unharmed. Sukhoi stated that the aircraft will be repaired, and that the fire “will not affect the timing of the T-50 test program”.
Проекции Т-50 (автор Yukio Suzuki, взято на http://paralay.iboards.ru) Projections of the T-50 (the author Yukio Suzuki, taken from http://paralay.iboards.ru)
Data from Aviation News, Aviation Week, Air International
- Crew: 1
- Length: 19.8 m (65.0 ft)
- Wingspan: 13.95 m (45.8 ft)
- Height: 4.74 m (15.6 ft)
- Wing area: 78.8 m2 (848.1 ft2)
- Empty weight: 18,000 kg (39,680 lb)
- Loaded weight: 25,000 kg (55,115 lb) typical mission weight, 29,270 kg (64,530 lb) at full load
- Max. takeoff weight: 35,000 kg (77,160 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × NPO Saturn izdeliye 117 (AL-41F1) for initial production, izdeliye 30 for later production thrust vectoring turbofan
- Dry thrust: 93.1 kN / 107 kN (21,000 lbf / 24,300 lbf) each
- Thrust with afterburner: 147 kN / 167 kN (33,067 lbf / 37,500 lbf) each
- Fuel capacity: 10,300 kg (22,700 lb)
- Maximum speed:
- Range: 3,500 km (2,175 mi) subsonic
- 1,500 km (930 mi) supersonic
- Ferry range: 5,500 km (3,420 mi) with one in-flight refueling
- Service ceiling: 20,000 m (65,000 ft)
- Wing loading: 317–444 kg/m2 (65–91 lb/ft2)
- Saturn 117: 1.02 (1.19 at typical mission weight)
- izdeliye 30: 1.16 (1.36 at typical mission weight)
- Maximum g-load: +9.0 g
- Guns: 1× 30 mm (1.181 in) 9A1-4071K (GSh-301) cannon in right LEVCON root
- Air to air loadout:
- Air to ground loadout:
- Air to sea loadout:
- 4× Kh-35
- 2× K-74M2 or 2× izdeliye 300
- Hardpoints: Six external hardpoints.
- Sh121 multifunctional integrated radio electronic system (MIRES)
- 101KS Atoll electro-optical system
Main material source: wikipedia.org
Updated Feb 27, 2017