KS-1/HQ-12 SAM – China

The Kai Shan – 1 (KS-1) (凯山一号) is the first Chinese surface-to-air missile to adopt a phased array radar


The KS-1 missile was developed for the PLA as a replacement for the HQ-2, itself a reverse-engineered copy of the Soviet S-75 Dvina and used the same command guidance and SJ-202 Fan Song engagement radar along with what appears to be a HQ-2 single-rail launcher adapted to twin rails for the more compact KS-1 missile. This launcher could be mounted on a 6×6 truck to increase system mobility or be emplaced in the standard fashion.

KS-1A @cnnb.com.cn

The single stage solid propellant KS-1A missile itself compares best to the RIM-66 SM-1/2 in general layout, but with a very short span delta wing design more akin the the US Hawk. The rail launchers are conceptually similar to the underslung SM-1 rail launcher. Missile performance is cited at a maximum range of 27 nautical miles, maximum altitude of 80 kft, and a maximum load factor of 20G with capability against 4-5 G targets. The nearest equivalent US missile is the RIM-66 SM-1 and SM-2 series, the KS-1 falls between the SM-1 and SM-2 in performance, and it is about 20 percent larger and 40 percent heavier at launch. Source ausairpower.net

KS-1A is the updated version, roughly the Chinese equivalent of the American MIM-23 HAWK, except it was designed to engage missiles as well as aircraft. This unique design feature means that it is the first Chinese SAM to adopt an indigenous planar passive phased array engagement radar, designated the H-200, which can simultaneously track multiple targets 100+ km away, it can guide six missiles to three targets at the same time (two missiles at each target). The new radars substantially improve the systems performance over the original KS-1

H-200 passive phased array engagement radar


Chinese sources claim early KS-1 variants used the HQ-2 radar package, but since then the H-200 phased array engagement radar has been disclosed as the primary radar component of the KS-1A system. This phased array compares closely in configuration to the US MPQ-53 Patriot and Russian 30N6E series engagement radars, and is available either as a static relocatable installation, or a fully road mobile design on a 6×6 truck. Chinese sources claim a high resistance to jamming, which is credible given the phased array design technique used. Source ausairpower.net


The first successful test-firing of the missile was in 1989; KS-1 development was complete in 1994. The missile was first publicized in 1998 at the Zhuhai airshow. An improved version, the KS-1A, which greatly enhanced its minimum altitude and range, has already been developed and first appeared at the sixth Zhuhai airshow in 2006. It was rumored that this improvement also increased its ability to engage targets maneuvering at a higher g force.


Standard deployment of a KS-1A SAM battery typically includes:

  • 1 Planar Passive phased array radar (PPAR)
  • 4 launchers, each with 2 missiles
  • 24 missiles
  • Other support equipment

KS-1A Battery Composition

24 Missiles

1 Guidance radar station

6 Dual-rail launcher vehicles

6 Transloader vehicles

2 Power supply vehicles

1 Frequency conversion power distribution vehicle

1 Missile test vehicle

3 Missile transport vehicles

2 Tool vehicles

1 Power supply vehicle

1 Set of technical support equipment

1 Electronics maintenance vehicle

2 Spare parts vehicles

1 Missile testing& metrology vehicle

Source ausairpower.net

KS-1C SAM missile in 2014 Zhuhai Air Show KS-1C SAM missile in 2014 Zhuhai Air Show15745035145_b607fe4a2e_bKS-1C SAM missile in 2014 Zhuhai Air Show


  • KS-1: The initial version with a SJ-202 engagement radar, which adopts a simple horn instead of a lens arrangement, the missile seeker has a traditional parabolic antenna, and can guide up to two missiles against one target. Range is in excess of 40 km. The KS-1 resembles the US SM-1 or SM-2 Standard.
  • KS-1A: A KS-1 development, with a Cassegrain antenna for the seeker, and the option of the towed H-200 planar array PPAR or mobile SJ-231 planar array PPAR, which can guide up to eight missiles against four targets (two missiles for each target) simultaneously. The SJ-231 radar adopts a more complex lens arrangement like that of the MPQ-53 radar of the MIM-104 Patriot. The delay in the development caused the earlier production KS-1A units to be deployed with the earlier H-200 radar used by the KS-1. Range is increased to more than 50 km. The KS-1 has been upgraded by more advanced subsystems of its successor the KS-2, such as the radar of latter.
  • KS-2: The latest and last of the KS series, did not enter mass production due to the availability of a more advanced SAM, but its subsystems are used to upgrade earlier models. The missile seeker has a planar slotted-array antenna, the radar is HT-233 PPAR used by the HQ-9.
  • HQ-12: A derivative of the KS series that utilizes the SJ-202/212 radar. The original SJ-202 is the radar used by the HQ-2 series SAM and its successor; the SJ-212 is a fully solid-state version which is also completely digitized, although both radars look very similar externally. In comparison to the KS-1/1A, the fire control radar of the HQ-12 allows the SAM to have the option of engaging either three targets with a pair of missiles for each target, or alternatively, engaging six targets with a single missile for each.
  • KS-1C: New variant with range increased to 70 km.
KS-1C SAM missile 

KS-1C SAM missile in 2014 Zhuhai Air Show 

  • FK-3: New variant with enhanced range to 100 km, and altitude from 50 m to 27 km. Launching rail is replaced by launching/transportation tubes, with firepower doubled from two to four. FK-3 has a dual mode command & control guidance system to counter electronic jamming, and it first appears in KSA 2014

FK-3 SAM Missile in 2014 Zhuhai Air Show 

Current operators: Here

KS-1A Missile Performance Specifications
Target RCS: 2 m2
Max. target-flying speed: 750 m/s
Altitude: 0.3 km – 27 km
Min. slant range: 7 km
Max. slant range: 38 km (Target speed:< 720m/s)
42 km (Target speed:< 420m/s)
50 km (Target speed:< 320m/s)
Kill radius of the warhead:   >50m
Single-shot killing probability: 89 %
Guidance mode: radio command guidance
Launch mode: Under-rail suspension
Time for deployment: 30 min.
Time for withdrawal: 20 min.
Missile diameter: 400 mm
Missile length: 5644 mm
Missile weight: 886 kg
Operating environment
Height of the site: 0 – 3,000 m AMSL
Ambient temperature: -40° to +50° C
Relative humidity: <93%
Surface wind speed: <20m/s

Source ausairpower.net/wikiwand.com

Updated Jan 19, 2108

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.