Daily Archives: April 20, 2016

Hobart Class Air Warfare Destroyers, Australia

The Hobart Class air warfare destroyers (AWD) are being built by AWD Alliance for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The air warfare destroyer programme, known as SEA 4000, will deliver three advanced multirole warships to replace the FFGs of the RAN.

The three AWDs will be named HMAS Hobart, HMAS Brisbane and HMAS Sydney. The first AWD is expected to be delivered in December 2014, and the second and third warships are slated for early 2016 and mid-2017 respectively.

The $8bn AWD project is the largest Defence procurement project ever undertaken in Australia. It is expected to create 3,000 jobs in Australia and also benefit thousands of companies based in the nation.

Hobart 1

Air warfare destroyer programme

The Hobart Class AWD programme is intended to deliver an affordable, effective, flexible and sustainable air warfare destroyer platform to the RAN. The requirement for modern warships was established by the Kinnaird Review in 2003. Gibbs & Cox and Navantia submitted warship designs to the Commonwealth Government.

The Australian Government selected ASC as the shipbuilder for the programme in May 2005. In June 2007, the existing design of Navantia was selected as a platform for the AWD programme. ASC entered into an alliance-based contract with the Defence Materiel Organisation and Raytheon Australia. The project has passed critical design review in January 2010.

Hobart Class AWD design

The AWD platform is based on the Navantia-designed F100 frigate, which is in service with the Spanish Navy. The baseline design has been slightly modified for Australian use, including the displacement of the AWD being increased to 7,000t, and the hangar modified to accommodate a range of helicopters.


The range now includes powerful diesel engines combined with improved fuel tank arrangements. The design also incorporates a bow thruster to provide better manoeuvrability.

AWD construction

The AWD Alliance subcontracted the FORGACS group and NQEA Australia as the preferred suppliers to build 70% of the blocks. In June 2009, the work allotted to the NQEA was transferred to BAE Systems Australia due to financial obligations.

The ships are being built using a modular construction method. The hull blocks of three destroyers are being constructed at three shipyards, including ASC in Osborne, BAE Systems in Melbourne and Forgacs in Newcastle. The assembling, outfitting, equipment and systems installation and trial activities will be carried out at the newly opened ASC Osborne shipyard.

A total of 31 blocks are being constructed for each ship, of which 70% are built by BAE Systems and Forgacs, and the remaining by ASC. ASC’s facility located northwest of Adelaide’s CBD will fabricate nine blocks for each ship. Work is currently underway on six blocks including decking and superstructure components.

Work is in progress on seven of the 12 main keel blocks fabricated for each ship at Melbourne and Victoria facilities of BAE Systems. Forgacs will fabricate 10 blocks for each ship in Newcastle. Work is underway on five central blocks, including the superstructure. Accommodation modules for all the ships are being built by Taylor Brothers in Hobart.

In June 2010, AWD Alliance has signed a $25m contract with Toll North to transport 66 hull blocks from Newcastle and Melbourne to Osborne Shipyard for assembly. BlueScope Steel has been contracted to supply 3,000t of steel required for the ship construction.


Hobart Class AWD missions

The Hobart Class will provide air defence for vessels, land-based forces and infrastructure in coastal lines. It will also defend and destroy missiles and aircraft within a range of 150km. The destroyers can also be deployed in law enforcement operations, defence aid to the civil community, collection of environmental data, rescue operations and diplomatic roles.

The Hobart Class will be equipped with advanced sonar systems, decoys and surface-launched torpedoes for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations.


Hobart Class AWD weapon systems

industries_defence_AWD Trials_P7.jpgPicture: Russell Millard – Image theleadsouthaustralia.com.au

The Hobart Class AWDs will be the first RAN warships to be equipped with the Aegis combat system. Aegis includes a SPY-1D(V) radar, Mk 41 vertical launch system (VLS), SM-2 standard missile and an open architecture (OA) combat system.

 AN/SPY-1D(V) for Hobart Class destroyers   

AN/SPY-1D(V) for Hobart Class destroyers

Minister for Defence Materiel Jason Clare announced the arrival in Adelaide of the first two state of the art ‘SPY’ radar array faces that will be installed on the Air Warfare Destroyers (AWDs).
“The multi-function SPY radar is capable of search, automatic detection, tracking of air and surface targets and missile engagement support,” Mr Clare said.
“It works to distinguish signals from stationary or moving targets and to identify and reject ‘clutter’ such as clouds and flocks of birds.”
The AN/SPY-1D(V) phased array radar will provide the Hobart Class destroyers with comprehensive surveillance around the ship.
The SPY radar is the main sensor for the Aegis Weapon System and is readily recognisable by the four octagonal-shaped array faces that are located on the superstructure of the ship.
The four array faces send out beams of electromagnetic energy in all directions, providing a continuous search and tracking capability for hundreds of targets.
The SPY radar, combined with the SPQ-9B horizon search radar, will ensure each of the AWDs go into service with state-of-the-art radar packages.
“Work on the future HMAS Hobart and HMAS Brisbane is well underway at Techport Australia, and work on the future HMAS Sydney will commence later this year,” Mr Clare said.
“All three AWDs will be armed with a 48 cell Vertical Launch System, Mk 45 5″ gun, phalanx close-in weapon system, torpedoes, anti-ship harpoon missiles, Nulka missile decoy system and hull mounted sonar, as well as variable depth sonar for detection and defence against enemy submarines and torpedoes.”
“This gives each destroyer an air defence, anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare capability as well as the ability to embark a helicopter at sea.”
The AWDs will provide greater protection for Australian Defence Force personnel by providing air defence for accompanying ships as well as land forces and infrastructure on nearby coastal areas. The AWDs will also provide self-protection against attacking missiles and aircraft.
The AN/SPY-1D (V) radar was supplied by United States company Lockheed Martin and acquired by the Australian Government through the Foreign Military Sales program. Source pojokmiliter.blogspot.com
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 1005840 m
Range Max: 324.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 1.1 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPY-1D(V) MFR [ABM Mod] – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Long-Range
Max Range: 324.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

MK 41 VLS canister


Each ship’s main weapon is a 48-cell Mark 41 Vertical Launch System. The cells are capable of firing the RIM-66 Standard 2 anti-aircraft missile or the quad-packed RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow point-defence missile. The Force 2030 white paper indicates that the Hobart’s Mark 41 launchers are likely to be equipped (either at construction or through later modification) to fire the RIM-174 Standard 6 anti-aircraft missile and the Tomahawk cruise missile. Source gutenberg.us


SM-2 standard missile

SM2BLKIIIA view3.jpg3f13ab02-0dc7-45ec-b53e-a9c28bba83b0Large

The Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) is the Navy’s primary surface-to-air fleet defense weapon. The currently deployed SM-2 Block II/III/IIIA configurations are all-weather, ship-launched medium-range fleet air defense missiles derived from the SM-1 (RIM-GGB), which is still in the fleet. SM-2 employs an electronic countermeasures-resistant monopulse receiver for semi-active radar terminal guidance and inertial midcourse guidance capable of receiving midcourse command updates from the shipboard fire control system. SM-2 is launched from the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) and the Mk 26 Guided Missile Launching System (GMLS). SM-2 continues to evolve to counter expanding threat capabilities, and improvements in advanced high and low-altitude threat interception, particularly in stressing electronic countermeasures (ECM) environments, are being implemented through modular changes to the missile sections.

The Standard Missile was produced in two major types, the SM-1 MR/SM-2 (medium range) and the SM-2 (extended range). It is one of the most reliable in the Navy’s inventory. Used against missiles, aircraft and ships, it first came into the fleet more than a decade ago. It replaced Terrier and Tartar missiles and is part of the weapons suit of more than 100 Navy ships.

The SM-2 is a solid propellant-fueled, tail-controlled, surface to air missile fired by surface ships. Designed to counter high-speed, high-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) in an advanced ECM environment, its primary mode of target engagement uses mid-course guidance with radar illumination of the target by the ship for missile homing during the terminal phase. The SM-2 can also be used against surface targets. SM-2 Blocks II through IV are long-range interceptors that provide protection against aircraft and antiship missiles, thereby expanding the battlespace.

SM-2 standard missile RIM-66 Standard 2 – Image: seaforces.org

RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow

RIM-162 ESSM was developed by the U.S. Navy in cooperation with an international consortium of other NATO partners plus Australia. ESSM is a short-range, semi-active homing missile that makes flight corrections via radar and midcourse data uplinks. The missile provides reliable ship self-defense capability against agile, high-speed, low-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), low velocity air threats (LVATs), such as helicopters, and high-speed, maneuverable surface threats. ESSM is integrated with a variety of U.S. and international launchers and combat systems across more than 10 different navies.

ESSM has an 8-inch diameter forebody that tapers to a 10-inch diameter rocket motor. The forebody includes a guidance section uses a radome-protected antenna for semi-active homing and attaches to an improved warhead section. A high-thrust, solid-propellant 10-inch diameter rocket motor provides high thrust for maneuverability with tail control via a Thrust Vector Controller (TVC).

ESSM’s effective tracking performance and agile kinematics result from S- and X-band midcourse uplinks, high average velocity and tail control, increased firepower through a vertical “quad pack” launcher (Mk-41 VLS), and greater lethality with a warhead designed for defeating hardened ASCMs.

Primary Function: Surface-To-Air and Surface-To-Surface radar-guided missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems, Tuscson, Ariz.
Date Deployed: 2004
Unit Cost: $787000 – $972000 depending on configuration
Propulsion: NAMMO-Raufoss, Alliant (solid fuel rocket)
Length: 12 feet (3,64 meters)
Diameter: 8 inches (20,3 cm) – 10 inches (25,4 cm)
Weight: 622 pounds (280 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 4+
Range: more than 27 nmi (more than 50 km)
Guidance System: Raytheon semi-active on continuous wave or interrupted continuous wave illumination
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead, 90 pounds (40,5 kg)

Source seaforces.org

Mk 25 Quad Pack

The Mk 25 Quad Pack canister has been designed to be fit in a Mk 41 VLS cell. Each Mk 25 canister can accommodate up to 4 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles (ESSMs).

The Mk 25 canister will be adapted by many navies of the world which aim to replace their current Sea Sparrow missiles with state-of-the-art ESSMs. In addition, the Mk 25 provides additional time-critical benefits through replacing steered canisters by the vertical launch system. Source deagel.com
Image: Mk 25 Quad Pack

The AWD will also be armed with the SM-6 long-range anti-aircraft missile, the Harpoon anti-ship missile system and Mk32 Mod9 surface vessel torpedo tubes (SVTT) for MU90 torpedoes.

RIM-174 Standard ERAM or Standard Missile 6 (SM-6)

rim-174 standard extended range active missile sm-6 eramRIM-174 Standard Extended Range Active Missile(ERAM), or Standard Missile 6 (SM-6) – Image: seaforces.org

The SM-6 provides extended range protection against fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles. The interceptor combines the airframe and propulsion of legacy Standard Missiles with the advanced signal processing and guidance control capabilities of the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). Source defencetalk.com

The RIM-174 Standard Extended Range Active Missile(ERAM), or Standard Missile 6 (SM-6) is a missile in current production for the United States Navy. It was designed for extended range anti-air warfare (ER-AAW) purposes providing capability against fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and anti-ship cruise missiles in flight, both over sea and land. The missile uses the airframe of the earlier SM-2ER Block IV (RIM-156A) missile, adding the active radar homing seeker from the AIM-120C AMRAAM in place of the semi-active seeker of the previous design. This will improve the capability of the Standard missile against highly agile targets, and targets beyond the effective range of the launching vessels’ target illumination radars. Initial operating capability was planned for 2013 and has been successfully achieved on November 27, 2013.The SM-6 is not meant to replace the SM-2 series of missiles, alongside which it will serve, but does give extended range and increased firepower. Source wikiwand.com

The big difference we can talk about is that it adds a GPS capability,” Raytheon said.

The SM-6 is designed to take out aircraft and cruise missile — and in limited scenarios ballistic missiles — which requires a smaller warhead class than the 500-pound class warhead found on the current Harpoons. It’s unclear if the missile will need warhead modifications.

Another lingering question is if the anti-surface mode of the SM-6 will be a networked weapon like the anti-air warfare mode in the Naval Integrated Fire Control Counter-Air (NIFC-CA) concept.

NIFC-CA can combine the targeting data from a Northrop Grumman E-2D Advanced Hawkeye and send targeting information to a SM-6 to intercept an air target beyond the range of the cruiser or destroyer firing the weapon.

“Does that mean an E-2 can guide a SM-6 to a bunch of swarming surface craft at long distances?” asked Wertheim.

Read full article: HERE 


SM-6 is a key component in the U.S. Navy’s Naval Integrated Fire Control – Counter Air (NIFC-CA), providing the surface Navy with an increased battlespace against over-the-horizon anti-air warfare threats.

The system’s operational modes include semi-active homing and active homing to provide highly accurate target engagement.

Vertically launched from a MK 41 VLS canister, SM-6 is compatible with existing AEGIS cruisers and destroyers and future cruisers and destroyers. Source raytheon.com

Tomahawk cruise missile

Tomahawk is an all-weather submarine or ship-launched land-attack cruise missile. After launch, a solid propellant propels the missile until a small turbofan engine takes over for the cruise portion of flight. Tomahawk is a highly survivable weapon. Radar detection is difficult because of the missile’s small cross-section, low altitude flight. Similarly, infrared detection is difficult because the turbofan engine emits little heat. Systems include Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver; an upgrade of the optical Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) system; Time of Arrival (TOA) control, and improved 402 turbo engines.

The Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile has been used to attack a variety of fixed targets, including air defense and communications sites, often in high-threat environments. The land attack version of Tomahawk has inertial and terrain contour matching (TERCOM) radar guidance. The TERCOM radar uses a stored map reference to compare with the actual terrain to determine the missile’s position. If necessary, a course correction is then made to place the missile on course to the target. Terminal guidance in the target area is provided by the optical Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) system, which compares a stored image of target with the actual target image.

Image: fas.org

Primary Function:

Long-range subsonic cruise missile for attacking land targets.


Hughes Missile Systems Co., Tucson, Ariz.

Power Plant:

Williams International F107-WR-402 cruise turbo-fan engine; solid-fuel booster


18 feet 3 inches (5.56 meters); with booster: 20 feet 6 inches (6.25 meters)


2,650 pounds (1192.5 kg); 3,200 pounds (1440 kg) with booster


20.4 inches (51.81 cm)

Wing Span:

8 feet 9 inches (2.67 meters)


Land attack, conventional warhead: 600 nautical miles (690 statute miles, 1104 km)


Subsonic – about 550 mph (880 km/h)

Guidance System:

Inertial and TERCOM


Conventional: 1,000 pounds Bullpup, or
Conventional submunitions dispenser with combined effect bomblets, or
WDU-36 warhead w/ PBXN-107 explosive & FMU-148 fuze, or
200 kt. W-80 nuclear device

Date Deployed:


The missiles are supplemented by two four-canister launchers for Harpoon anti-ship missiles, and a BAE Systems Mark 45 Mod 4 5-inch gun with a 62-calibre barrel. The 5-inch gun has a maximum range of 23.6 kilometres (14.7 mi). Two Babcock Mark 32 Mod 9 two-tube torpedo launchers will be carried, and used to fire Eurotorp MU90 torpedoes at submarines. For close-in defence, the ships will carry an aft-facing Phalanx CIWS system, plus two M242 Bushmaster autocannons in Typhoon mounts sited on the bridge wings. Source gutenberg.us

Harpoon anti-ship missiles

Harpoon anti-ship missiles

The Harpoon missile provides the Navy and the Air Force with a common missile for air, ship, and submarine launches. The weapon system uses mid-course guidance with a radar seeker to attack surface ships. Its low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory, active radar guidance and warhead design assure high survivability and effectiveness. The Harpoon missile and its launch control equipment provide the warfighter capability to interdict ships at ranges well beyond those of other aircraft.

The Harpoon missile was designed to sink warships in an open-ocean environment. Other weapons (such as the Standard and Tomahawk missiles) can be used against ships, but Harpoon and Penguin are the only missiles used by the United States military with anti-ship warfare as the primary mission. Once targeting information is obtained and sent to the Harpoon missile, it is fired. Once fired, the missile flys to the target location, turns on its seeker, locates the target and strikes it without further action from the firing platform. This allows the firing platform to engage other threats instead of concentrating on one at a time.

The Guidance Section consists of an active radar seeker and radome, Missile Guidance Unit (MGU), radar altimeter and antennas, and power converter. The MGU consists of a three-axis attitude reference assembly (ARA) and a digital computer/power supply (DC/PS). Prior to launch, the DC/PS is initialized with data by the Command Launch System. After launch, the DC/PS uses the missile acceleration data from the ARA and altitude data from the radar altimeter to maintain the missile on the programmed flight profile. After seeker target acquisition, the DC/PS uses seeker data to guide the missile to the target.

The Warhead Section consists of a target-penetrating, load-carrying steel structure containing 215 pounds of high explosive (DESTEX) and a safe-and-arm/contact fuze assembly. The safe-and-arm/contact fuze assembly ensures the warhead will not explode until after the missile is launched. It is designed to explode the warhead after impacting the target. The warhead section can be replaced by an exercise section which transmits missile performance data for collection and analysis.

The Sustainer Section consists of a fuel tank with JP-10 fuel, air inlet duct, and a jet engine. This provides the thrust to power the missile during sustained flight. The Sustainer Section has four fixed fins which provide lift.

The Control Section consists of four electromechanical actuators which use signals from the Guidance Section to turn four fins which control missile motion.

The Booster Section consists of a solid fuel rocket and arming and firing device. Surface and submarine platforms use a booster to launch Harpoon and propel it to a speed at which sustained flight can be achieved. The Booster Section separates from the missile before sustained flight begins.

The Harpoon Block II is an upgrade program to improve the baseline capabilities to attack targets in congested littoral environments. The upgrade is based on the current Harpoon. Harpoon Block II will provide accurate long-range guidance for coastal, littoral and blue water ship targets by incorporating the low cost integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) from the Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) program currently under development by Boeing. GPS antennae and software from Boeing’s Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) and SLAM Expanded Response (SLAM ER) will be integrated into the guidance section. The improved littoral capabilities will enable Harpoon Block II to impact a designated GPS target point. The existing 500 pound blast warhead will deliver lethal firepower against targets which include coastal anti-surface missile sites and ships in port. For the anti-ship mission, the GPS/INS provides improved missile guidance to the target area. The accurate navigation solution allows target ship discrimination from a nearby land mass using shoreline data provided by the launch platform. These Block II improvements will maintain Harpoon’s high hit probability while offering a 90% improvement in the separation distance between the hostile threat and local shorelines. Harpoon Block II will be capable of deployment from all platforms which currently have the Harpoon Missile system by using existing command and launch equipment. Source fas.org

BAE Systems Mk 45 5″ 62 calibre gun

BAE Systems Mk 45 5″ 62 calibre gun

Major upgrades of the Mk 45 Mod 4 include a 62-caliber barrel, strengthened gun and mount subsystems, advanced control system enhancement, and a reduced signature, low maintenance gun shield.

The Mk 45 Mod 4 provides NSFS range of more than 20 nautical miles (36 km) with the Navy’s new 5-inch Cargo projectile and an improved propelling charge.

Operation and performance of extended-range munitions are tailored for optimal effect and range in unison with the major subsystem upgrades of the Mk 45 Mod 4 Naval Gun. Source baesystems.com

Phalanx Block 1B close-in weapons system (CIWS)

Phalanx Block 1B close-in weapons system (CIWS)

MK 15 Phalanx Close-In Weapons System (CIWS) – The MK 15 Phalanx Close-In Weapons System (CIWS – pronounced “sea-whiz”) is a fast-reaction, rapid-fire 20-millimeter gun system that provides US Navy ships with a terminal defense against anti-ship missiles that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Designed to engage anti-ship cruise missiles and fixed-wing aircraft at short range, Phalanx automatically engages functions usually performed by separate, independent systems such as search, detection, threat evaluation, acquisition, track, firing, target destruction, kill assessment and cease fire.

Phalanx is a point-defense, total-weapon system consisting of two 20mm gun mounts that provide a terminal defense against incoming air targets. CIWS, without assistance from other shipboard systems, will automatically engage incoming anti-ship missiles and high-speed, low-level aircraft that have penetrated the ship primary defense envelope. As a unitized system, CIWS automatically performs search, detecting, tracking, threat evaluation, firing, and kill assessments of targets while providing for manual override. Each gun mount houses a fire control assembly and a gun subsystem. The fire control assembly is composed of a search radar for surveillance and detection of hostile targets and a track radar for aiming the gun while tracking a target. The unique closed-loop fire control system that tracks both the incoming target and the stream of outgoing projectiles (by monitoring their incoming noise signature) gives CIWS the capability to correct its aim to hit fast-moving targets, including ASMs.

The gun subsystem employs a gatling gun consisting of a rotating cluster of six barrels. The gatling gun fires a 20mm subcaliber sabot projectile using a heavy-metal (either tungsten or depleted uranium) 15mm penetrator surrounded by a plastic sabot and a light-weight metal pusher. The gatling gun fires 20mm ammunition at either 3,000 or 4,500 rounds-per-minute with a burst length of continuous, 60, or 100 rounds.

Block 1B Phalanx Surface Mode (PSUM) incorporates a side mounted Forward Looking Infrared Radar (FLIR) which enables CIWS to engage low slow or hovering aircraft and surface craft. Additionally, the FLIR assists the radar in engaging some ASCM’s bringing a greater chance of ship survivability. Block 1B uses a thermal imager Automatic Acquisition Video Tracker (AAVT) and stablilization system that provide surface mode and electro-optic (EO) angle track. These Block 1B enhancements will allow day/night detection capability and enable the CIWS to engage small surface targets, slow-moving air targets, and helicopters. Source fas.org

Primary Function

Anti-ship missile defense


Raytheon Systems Company
(formerly Hughes Missile Systems Company and purchased from General Dynamics Pomona Division in 1992)


12,500 pounds (5,625 kg)
Later models 13,600 pounds (6,120 kg)



Gun Type

M-61A1 Gatling

Type of Fire

3,000 rounds per minute
– Later models 4,500 rounds/min
(starting 1988 production, Pneumatic Gun Drive)

Magazine Capacity

989 rounds
Later models 1,550 rounds




Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot (APDS),
Depleted Uranium or Tungsten sub-caliber penetrator.


Self-contained search and track radar

Search Radar

Ku-band; digital MTI

Track Radar

Ku-band; pulse Doppler monopulse

E/O Sensor

FLIR Imaging System with Automatic ACQ Tracker

Fire Control

Director with closed-loop spotting

Gun Drive


Mount Drive


Babcock Mark 32 Mod 9 two-tube torpedo launchers

Two Babcock Mark 32 Mod 9 two-tube torpedo launchers will be carried, and used to fire Eurotorp MU90 torpedoes at submarines.

Eurotorp MU90 torpedoes

The MU90/IMPACT Advanced Lightweight Torpedo is the leader of the 3rd generation of LWTs. Designed and built with the most advanced technology, the weapon is of fire-and-forget type conceived to cope with any-task any-environment capability requirements and meet the ASW operational needs of the 21st century.

The weapon has been designed to counter any type of nuclear or conventional submarine, acoustically coated, deep and fast-evasive, deploying active or passive anti-torpedo effectors.

The MU90 is “the” EUROPEAN lightweight torpedo.

The MU90 torpedo has reached performance, efficiency and safety far beyond any competitor.

The torpedo can be deployed by any type of platform such as vessels, fixed and rotary wing aircraft, submarines, missile and continental shelf mine. A specific MU90 Hard-Kill version anti-torpedo-torpedo has also been developed. Source eurotorp.com

Main Dynamic Features

Linearly Variable speed


29 to >> 50 kts**



>10,000 m at max. speed**
> 23,000m at min. speed**

Minimum depth for launching


< 25 m

Max. operating depth


>> 1000 m**

Agility and manoeuvrability



Diameter (NATO Standard)


323,7 mm



2850 mm



304 kg

Main Acoustic Features

Operational bandwidth



Acoustic coverage


120°H x 70°V

Simultaneous targets


Up to 10

Main Counter-Counter Measures

Stationary target detection capability

Decoy classification

Anti-Jammer tactics

AWD helicopter system

The Hobart Class will feature a flight deck and a hangar to allow the operations of helicopters and UAVs. The existing hangar design will be modified to carry a wide range of helicopters.

Hobart Class countermeasures

The destroyer will be equipped with a ES-3701 tactical radar electronic support measures (ESM) and surveillance system. In December 2008, the AWD Alliance awarded a contract for the supply of a decoy launching system to Terma. Four deck-mounted MK-137 130mm decoy launchers can fire decoys to deceive incoming anti-ship missiles. Other countermeasures include Nulka active missile decoy launchers and ASW torpedo decoys.

Electronic warfare sensors consist of the ITT EDO Reconnaissance and Surveillance Systems ES-3701 electronic support measures (ESM) radar, a SwRI MBS-567A communications ESM system, an Ultra Electronics Avalon Systems multipurpose digital receiver, and a Jenkins Engineering Defence Systems low-band receiver. Countermeasures include four launchers for Nulka decoy missiles, plus four six-tube launchers for radio frequency, infrared, and underwater acoustic decoys.

ES-3701 Tactical Radar ESM and Surveillance System

This radar surveillance and precision mono-pulse DF system is an ideal ESM system for submarines, surface ships and land-based applications. The ES-3701 provides Situation Awareness, Targeting, Self-protection and Surveillance and utilizes a Windows HMI for graphical analysis and emitter display. The HMI can also be run on multifunction console.

ES-3701 Tactical Radar ESM and Surveillance System – Image: Exelis inc


>>100% POI with interfering signal rejection
>>2-18 GHz standard instantaneous frequency coverage
>>360° instantaneous azimuth coverage
>>Provides precision long range over-the-horizon targeting
>>Processes modern complex radar signals
>>Multi-mode radar report merging
>>Multi-path and reflection processing
>>2-18 GHz receiver calibration and BITE
>>Built-in Training Simulator


>>1 million Pulse Per Second (PPS) signal environments
>>>10,000 emitter mode threat library capacity
>>Tracks 500 signals simultaneously
>>PDW preprocessing for high duty cycle signal environments
>>Tunable 2-18 GHz CW notch filters for OMNI and DF channels


>> -65 dBm automatic processing sensitivity
>> -70 dBm tangential signal sensitivity
>> 60 dB instantaneous processing dynamic range
>> 2° RMS DF accuracy over the entire dynamic range
>> 3 MHz frequency measurement accuracy
>> 50 nsec minimum pulsewidth measurement


>>Windows Workstation HMI
>>Real-time pulse analysis displays

Source Exelis inc

Four launchers for Nulka decoy missiles

The Nulka active missile decoy is the most sophisticated soft-kill anti-ship missile defence system available for the protection of surface warships. It is currently deployed on over 150 Australian, US and Canadian warships.

The system is the result of a collaborative development between Australia and the US, and brings together advanced flight vehicle guidance and control techniques, and sophisticated RF electronic technologies. Fully autonomous after launch, the unique flight vehicle design allows the decoy’s flight-path to be maintained with a high degree of precision over a wide range of environmental conditions, resulting in extremely high levels of mission effectiveness against modern anti-ship missiles.

BAE Systems Australia is prime contractor and System Design Agent. Nulka is Australia’s largest regular defence export program and pre-planned product improvement activities are ongoing to enhance the performance of the system.

Benefit to customer:  The customer benefits by having sustainment, repair, resupply and capability upgrade support across the Navy fleets for the ongoing availability of the Nulka system. Source baesystems.com

Nulka missile decoy tested: HERE


Terma DL-12T decoy launcher dispenses infrared, radar and acoustic decoys

Terma DL-12T decoy launcher – Image: terma.comTerma DL-12T decoy launcher dispenses infrared, radar and acoustic decoys

Communications equipment includes HF, VHF, and UHF radios, Link 11 and Link 16 tactical data exchange uplinks, ASTIS MCE (Advanced SATCOM Terrestrial Infrastructure System Maritime Communications Elements) terminals, and Inmarsat equipment.  Source gutenberg.us

AWD sensors

The AWD’s sensor suite will include AN/SPY-1D(V) phased array radar, horizon search radar, SAM Electronics X-band navigation radar, integrated hull-mounted and towed array sonar system, and VAMPIR infrared search and track (IRST) system.

In addition to the main radar, the Hobarts will be fitted with a Northrop Grumman AN/SPQ-9B X-band pulse Doppler horizon search radar, a Raytheon Mark 99 fire-control system with two continuous wave illuminating radars for missile direction, and two L-3 Communications SAM Electronics X-band navigation radars. The ships are fitted with a Ultra Electronics Maritime Systems’ Modular Multistatic Variable Depth Sonar System, which included a hull-mounted sonar, a quad directional active-passive receive array, a passive torpedo detection array, and a high-powered towed sonar source. Other sensors include an Ultra Electronics Series 2500 electro-optical director, a Sagem VAMPIR IR search and track system, and Rafael Toplite stabilised target acquisition sights for each ship’s Typhoons.  Source gutenberg.us

Northrop Grumman AN/SPQ-9B X-band pulse Doppler horizon search radar

The AN/SPQ-9 Surface Surveillance and Tracking Radar, developed by Northrop Grumman Norden Systems, Melville, NY, is a track-while-scan radar used with the MK-86 Gunfire Control system on surface combatants. The AN/SPQ-9B detects sea skimming missiles at the horizon even in heavy clutter while simultaneously providing detection and tracking of surface targets and beacon responses. The AN/SPQ-9B is available as a stand-alone radar or as a replacement for the AN/SPQ-9 in the Mk 86 Gun Fire Control System, which will be integrated into the Mk 1 Ship Self Defense System (SSDS). The Radar Set AN/SPQ-9B is a high resolution, X-band narrow beam radar that provides both air and surface tracking information to standard plan position indicator (PPI) consoles. The AN/SPQ-9B scans the air and surface space near the horizon over 360 degrees in azimuth at 30 Revolutions Per Minute (RPM). Real-time signal and data processing permit detection, acquisition and simultaneous tracking of multiple targets. The AN/SPQ-9B provides raw and clear plot (processed) surface video, processed radar air synthetic video, gate video, beacon video synchro signals indicating antenna relative azimuth, Azimuth Reference Pulses (ARP), and Azimuth Change Pulse (ACP). The radar will maintain its capabilities in the presence of clutter from the sea, rain, land, discrete objects, birds, chaff and jamming. In the Radiate state the AN/SPQ-9B has three modes of operation: the Air mode, Surface mode and Beacon mode. Both Air and Surface modes have a submode for Organic Combat System Operator/Team Training. The AN/SPQ-9B serves as a complement to high-altitude surveillance radars to detect missiles approaching just above the sea surface. The system emits a one-degree beam that, at a range of approximately 10 nautical miles, is capable of detecting missiles at altitudes up to 500 feet. Since the beamwidth expands over distance, the maximum altitude will increase at greater ranges. Source fas.org

Raytheon Mark 99 fire-control system

MK-99 Fire Control System (FCS)@rightwing.sakura.ne.jp

The MK-99 Fire Control System (FCS) is a major component of the AEGIS Combat System. It controls the loading and arming of the selected weapon, launches the weapon, and provides terminal guidance for AAW missiles. FCS controls the continuous wave illuminating radar, providing a very high probability of kill. The Mk-99 Fire Control System (FCS) also controls the target illumination for the terminal guidance of Ship Launched SM-2 Anti-Air Missiles.

2 x MK 81 AN/SPG-62

The AN/SPG-62 is a continuous wave, illumination radar for the Standard SM-2 missile in the Aegis air defense missile system. Three (DDG 51) or four (CG 47) Mk 99 missile control directors trigger the SPG-62′s illumination signal as the Standard missile nears its target, bathing the target in a coded signal that the missile’s semiactive homing seeker tracks until the missile explodes or hits the target.

  • BAND I/J
  • ANTENNA DIAMETER 7 ft 6 in (2.29 m)

Source what-when-how.com

Ultra Electronics Maritime Systems’ Modular Multistatic Variable Depth Sonar System

Ultra Electronics Series 2500 electro-optical director

SERIES 2500 Naval EO System

Series 2500 EO Sensor is configured for all system functions to be controlled by one operator, either from a Combat Management Systems multi-function consoles or from a dedicated EOFCS Console.  The system is automatic in operation, although the  operator can override automatic modes and revert to manual control at any time.


Series 2500


  • Integrated sensor suite, comprising IR & TV cameras, laser rangefinders and designators
  • Advanced digital auto-tracker with multiple target detection, acquisition and tracking
  • Intelligent auto-cueing for threat evaluation and weapon allocation for asymmetric defence
  • Multiple weapon control with digital gun lead prediction for all surface, air and shore bombardment engagements
  • Intuitive single operator control of multiple sensor platforms and weapon configurations
  • Open architecture for integration with any Combat Management System or weapon system
  • Modular designs for flexible system solution configuration and ease of maintenance

SERIES 2500 comprises two main system modules: 

  • Electro Optical Director (EOD) – the EOD is a precision dual-axis stabilised director fitted with a high resolution thermal imager, colour TV camera and 10Hz eyesafe laser rangefinder
  • Platform Control Cubicle (PCC)– the PCC is a compact below decks enclosure containing; servo electronics, processors and system interfaces

2500 Capabilities

  • Primary sensor for single or multiple guns
  • Long range IR, TV and laser sensors
  • Positive identification of surface and air targets
  • Automatic multiple target detection and queuing
  • Automatic target acquisition
  • Automatic multi-mode tracking
  • Accurate stabilisation and position reporting
  • Computer controlled engagement of air, surface and shore targets
  • Gun lead-angle prediction including correction for ballistic and meteorological effects
  • On screen splash marker for line and range spotting
  • Electronic alignment of sensors and weapons
  • Flexible interface to CMS and other systems

Source ultra-ccs.com

Sagem VAMPIR IR search and track system

Vampir NG Vampir

NG is a very long-range infrared search/track system. It provides naval ships with passive panoramic surveillance functions including automatic detection, tracking and reporting of symmetric or asymmetric threats, from sea-skimming anti-ship missiles to Fast Incoming Attack Craft.

Vampir NG offers two operational modes: “ocean” mode allows very large range search at high sea while “littoral” mode allows long-range and large elevation search along the coast. The false alarm rate is very low, even in the littoral environment.

It is the most sensitive system on the market as well as the first one using the ultra-rapid “step-and-stare” principle enabling 360° coverage with a single high-performance IR camera. With unsurpassed performance and reliability, VAMPIR NG is the best selling naval IRST worldwide. Source sagem.com

Rafael Toplite stabilised target acquisition sights for each ship’s Typhoons

2 x 25mm  Typhoon is a family of lightweight, stabilized, remote controlled weapon systems for a full range of weapons, including:

  • Battle proven
  • Highly accurate in day and night operations
  • Lightweight
  • No deck penetration is required
  • Simple operation with high reliability
  • Cost effective
  • Modular design enable future upgrades


Toplite, highly stabilized, multi-role, multi-sensor optronic payload, is a day/night observation and targeting, configured for naval, air and ground surveillance and targeting systems.

Toplite provides the services required for precision guidance for guided weapons, day or night and under adverse weather conditions. Toplite enables observation, target detection, recognition and identification by the use of various sensors including FLIR, CCD and laser rangefinder. Toplite features both manual and automatic target tracking. The system includes the following sub-systems:

  • FLIR: 3rd GEN (3-5micron) or 8-12micron TDi
  • CCD camera B/W or color
  • Eye safe laser rangefinder
  • Laser designator (optional)
  • Advanced correlation tracker

Source rafael.co.il

Hobart Class propulsion

industries_defence_awd-trials_p5Picture: Russell Millard – Image: theleadsouthaustralia.com.au

The AWD will be equipped with a combined diesel and gas (CODAG) propulsion system with two GE LM 2500 gas turbines and two diesel engines. The vessel will also be fitted with a bow thruster for improved manoeuvrability.

Combined diesel and gas (CODAG) propulsion system

5,650 kW/7,577 hp Bravo V16 Propulsion Diesel engine


7LM2500-SA-MLG38 gas turbine

gas_turbine_propulsion_engineGeneral Electric Marine model 7LM2500-SA-MLG38 gas turbine

2 × General Electric Marine model 7LM2500-SA-MLG38 gas turbines, 17,500 kilowatts (23,500 hp) each and 2 × Caterpillar Bravo 16 V Bravo diesel engines, 5,650 kilowatts (7,580 hp) each and 2 × controllable pitch propellers



Main material source: naval-technology.com

Updated Nov 21, 2017