The Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon, the first of the US Air Force multi-role fighter aircraft, is the world’s most prolific fighter with more than 2,000 in service with the USAF and 2,500 operational with 25 other countries.
YF-16, the prototype to the F-16 Fighting Falcon – lockheedmartin
The F-16 and the F-15 Eagle were the world’s first aircraft able to withstand higher g-forces than the pilots. The Fighting Falcon entered service in 1979. The last of 2,231 F-16 fighters for the US Air Force was delivered in March 2005. The first two-seat F-16D version was accepted by the US Government in January 2009.
Foreign orders have included Bahrain (ten delivered), Greece (60 block 52 all delivered), Iraq (36), Israel (50), Egypt (24 block 40), Morocco (24), New Zealand (28), United Arab Emirates (80 block 60, first delivered 2005), Singapore (20), South Korea (20 block 52 all delivered), Oman (12), Chile (ten block 50) and Poland (48 block 52).
F-16 Fighting Falcon cockpit
US Air Force – Airman 1st Class Kevin Tanenbaum
Advanced equipment being fitted on the current build of the F-16 includes Honeywell colour flat-panel liquid crystal multifunction displays, digital terrain system, modular mission computer, colour video camera to record the pilot’s view of the head-up display (HUD), a colour triple-deck video recorder and an enhanced programmable display generator.
1.LANDING GEAR HANDLE
moving the gear handle up retracts the landing gear once the aircraft is airborn.
2.AOA(Angle of Attack) Indicator
The AOA indicator is an instrument that shows the angle of attack of the aircraft. In order to genirate lift, the jet needs to have a positive angle of attack or fly at a positive angle into the relative wind (airflow).
The airspeed indicator shows the aircraft’s airspeed in hundreds of knots. when the red needle is on the “4”, you going 400 knots.
4.MDF (Multi Functional Displays)
Two displays on either side of the centre console in the cokpit that can show all radar modes including combat and navigation, as well as other vital information.
5.THREAT WARNING SYSTEM
This system detects radar contacting your aircraft and detemines its type, strength and bearing.
6. HUD (heads-up-display)
A glass panel in front of the cockpit that shows important navigation and weapons information.
7.ICP (Integrated Control Panel)
Panel used for weapons release, landing, navigation and Communications.
8. Oil Pressure Indicator
The Oil pressure indocator dipsays engine oil pressure, ranging from 0 to 100 psi (pounds per squar inch).
9.RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) Indicator
The RPM indicator displays the engine revolutions per minute.
RPM is expressed as a percentage from 0% to 100%
10. Nozzle Position Indocator
This instrument dispalys the position of the engine nozzle.
the indicator wil be mostly open at at idle, closed at Mil power (100% thrust), and fully open at full afther burner.
11. VVI (Vertical Velocity Indicator)
The vertical Velocity Indicator is an instrument that shows your rate of climb or descent in feet per minute.
12. ADI(Attitude Direction Indicator)
The instrument that displays the aircraft pitch and control.
The F-16C/F users “fly-by-wire” Technolgy on an F16 the stick does not control cables that are linked to the surface, but tather inputs to a computer which in turn controls servos or hydaulics for the flaps and rudder, ect…
14. HIS (Horizontal Situation Indocator)
The HSI is a round moving dial that shows the aircraft’s compass heading. When the aircraft turns, the dial moves to indicate the change in aircraft heading.
The altimete shows the height of the aircraft sbove MSL(Mean Sea Level)
16. Eject Handle
Under the USAF project Sure Strike, the F-16 is equipped with an improved data modem (IDM), which automatically provides target data to the HUD using data transmitted by a ground observer.
The seat-back angle of the aircraft has been increased from 13° to 30° to provide increased comfort for the pilot.
With a 30-degree recline angle and the single between-the-thighs, pull handle, the F-16 seat is a different ACESII ejection seat. ACME’s F-16 motion seat captures that recline angle, the center-pull handle and much more. The motion seat mirrors the actual ejection seat – It looks and feels like the real. But it’s more than just a pretty face…it’s a full motion cueing system.
Multiple motion channels and actuated harnesses mimic flight sensations. Vipers feel differently than other fighters, so tune our motion seat performance just for the F-16. Use it for training energy management, G-loads, stalls, air-combat, close formations, air refueling, bomb drops and gun runs, high speed landings, and barrier engagements…it’s realistic cues from engine crank to shut down and everything in between. Source acme-worldwide.com
F-16 center display unit
Raytheon has been awarded a $8.7 million U.S. Air Force primarily firm-fixed-price contract for work on F-16 Fighting Falcon center display units.
The deal calls for Raytheon to retrofit 130 F-16 center display units and support the organic depot maintenance stand-up.
Work will be performed in Indiana and is expected to be completed by September 2017.
The Air Force Life Cycle Management Center is the contracting activity.
The Fighting Falcon is a compact, multi-role fighter that is highly maneuverable and used in air-to-air combat and air-to-surface attack.
It provides a relatively low-cost, high-performance weapon system for the United States and its allies.
The first Fighting Falcon, a single-seat F-16A, was delivered to the service in 1979. Source upi
F-16E/F – lockheedmartin.com
“USAF F-16 aircraft are scheduled to receive the Boeing joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS).”
Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS)
Royal Thai Air Force F-16 – Thai internet images
In an air-to-air role, the JHMCS, combined with the AIM-9X missile, form the High-Off-BoreSight (HOBS) system. HOBS is an airborne weapon-interception system that enables pilots to accurately direct or “cue” onboard weapons against enemy aircraft merely by pointing their heads at the targets to guide the weapons, while performing high-G aircraft maneuvers that may be required to complete the attack.
In an air-to-ground role, the JHMCS is used in conjunction with targeting sensors (radar, FLIR, etc.) and “smart weapons” to accurately and precisely attack surface targets. It allows F-15E aircrew to provide unparalleled support to ground troops in the CAS environment.
In all roles, the JHMCS provides the pilot with aircraft performance, targeting, weaponry and threat warning information, regardless of where the pilot is looking, significantly enhancing pilot situation awareness throughout the mission. In a dual-seat aircraft, each crewmember can wear a JHMCS helmet, perform operations independent of each other, and have continuous awareness of where the other crewmember is looking.
Unlike one of its predecessor, the DASH system, which is integrated into the helmet itself, JHMCS is a clip-on attachment unit, which can be latched into position with one hand during flight (see photo below). It fits to modified HGU-55/P, HGU-56/P or HGU-68/P helmets and it features a newer, faster digital processing package than that used in the DASH. The overall design is more advanced than DASH, based on the collective knowledge accumulated by Elbit and Kaiser through the years.
The JHMCS has a magnetic helmet-mounted tracker (like DASH), which determines where the pilot’s head is pointed, combined with a miniature display system that projects information onto the pilot’s visor. A magnetic transmitter unit is fixed to the pilot’s seat and a magnetic field probe is mounted on the helmet to determine where the helmet is actually pointing. A Helmet Vehicle Interface ( HVI) interacts with the aircraft system bus to provide signal generation for the helmet display. The head tracker and visor display together act as a targeting device that can aim sensors and weapons.
To obtain a variety of information and sensor-based data pilots can refer to the visual display on the inside of the helmet while remaining in a “heads-up” or “outside” position during combat; this eliminates the break in visual contact that occurs when they look away to check the display readouts in the cockpit. This significantly improves pilot situational awareness during all mission elements. The visor display presents monochrome calligraphic symbology (stroke display) with information like airspeed, altitude, G-load, AoA, target range, targeting cues, threat warnings, etc. JHMCS provides support for raster scanned imagery to display FLIRor IRST pictures for night operations and provides collimated symbology and imagery to the pilot. JHMCS symbology covers a 20 degree field of view for the right eye, with an 18 mm exit pupil (see photo below).
To aim and fire a missile, pilots simply move their heads to align a targeting cross (placed in the middle of the projected imagery) with the target and press a switch on the flight controls to direct and fire a weapon.
To attack a ground target, the pilot can acquire the target with a sensor and note it’s location on the helmet display. Alternatively, the pilot can use the helmet display to cue sensors and weapons to a visually detected ground target. Note that precision ordnance cannot be released based on JHMCS targeting alone, the system is not accurate enough for this. However it can be used to direct the aircraft’s much more precise targeting systems (targeting pod) towards the target the pilot is looking at. This way the tedious “soda-straw” search limited to a display image generated by the narrow field of view targeting system can be shortened significatly. With JHMCS, target acquisition can follow a much quicker “look, sharpen, shoot” process.
The system can be used without requiring the aircraft to be maneuvered, significantly reducing the time needed to prosecute an attack, which also minimizes the time spent in the threat environment.
Since targets may be located at high-off-boresight line-of-sight locations in relation to the shooter, the system delivers a short-range intercept envelope that is significantly larger than any other air-to-air weapon in use. When combined with the AIM-9X missile, JHMCS allows effective target designation up to 80 degrees either side of the aircraft’s nose.
The JHMCS display assembly requires two cable connections: a high voltage power cable for operation and a data cable for information exchange with the host aircraft. Unlike in DASH the high voltage power supply is not embedded in the helmet, it feeds up via an umbilical, through a quick disconnect inline high coltage rated connector.
When used in conjunction with a datalink, the system permits handoff of visually detected targets from one aircraft to another, with the second aircraft receiving visual cueing to the target. Source f-15e.info
A follow-on programme, project Gold Strike, integrates an upgraded IDM for the transmission of images to and from a range of sources, including ground units and unmanned aircraft. The system can transmit images from the LANTIRN targeting pod and display video imagery to the cockpit.
The USAF F-16 aircraft receive the Boeing joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS), currently in full-rate production. Deliveries of production systems began in 2004, and the system was first deployed operationally during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
GEC-Marconi holographic Head-Up Display (HUD)
The GEC-Marconi holographic Head-Up Display (HUD) was the answer to the USAF’s request for a HUD capable of displaying the WVOW FliR-imagery of the LANTIRN Pod. The design of the new HUD was particularly challenging; conventional optics do not allow implementation of such a large combiner glass. New holographic technologies (diffraction gratings; simply put, they reflect light of a particular wavelength or color with high efficiency while transmitting all other wavelengths with little absorption) were applied, in the mean time ensuring that the HUD installation would not interfere with the ejection line (i.e. allow enough space for the legs and feet of the pilot during ejection). Source f-16.net
F-16 missiles and weapons
The aircraft has nine hardpoints for weapons payloads: one at each wing tip, three under each wing and one centreline under the fuselage. The ordnance is launched from Raytheon LAU-88 launchers, MAU-12 and Orgen bomb ejector racks. The port wing is fitted with a 20mm General Electric M61A1 multi-barrel cannon and the gunsight is interfaced to the cockpit HUD.
20mm General Electric M61A1 multi-barrel cannon
The M61 20mm Vulcan is an externally powered, six-barrel, rotary-fire gun having a rate of fire of up to 7200 spm. The firing rate is selectible at 4,000 spm or 6,000 spm. The gun fires standard electrically primed 20mm ammunition. The M61A1 is hydraulically or ram-air driven, electrically controlled, and uses a link less ammunition feed system.
Each of the gun’s six barrels fires only once during each revolution of the barrel cluster. The six rotating barrels contribute to long weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation. The gun’s rate of fire, essentially 100 rounds per second, gives the pilot a shot density that will enable a “kill” when fired in one-second bursts.
The M61 20mm cannon is a proven gun, having been the US military’s close-in weapon of choice dating back to the 1950s. The F-104, F-105, later models of the F-106, F-111, F-4, B-58, all used the M61, as does the Air Force’s F-15 , F-16 and F-22, and the Navy’s F-14 and F/A-18. The internally mounted 20mm cannon system is common to all versions of the F-15. This system combines the widely used (F-4, F-16, F-18) M61 cannon with 940 rounds (A through D models) or 500 rounds (E model) of ammunition. The cannon can be loaded with target practice, armor piercing, or high explosive incendiary rounds. The primary use of the cannon is in the extremely short range (less than 2000 feet) air-to-air environment, where more sophisticated air-to-air missiles are ineffective. Alternately, the cannon has limited usefulness in a ground strafing role.
The M61A2 is a lightweight version of the M61A1. Most of the weight savings was achieved by machining down the barrel thickness. Source 456fis.org
Air-to-air missiles which have been carried on the F-16 include the Lockheed Martin / Raytheon AIM-9 Sidewinder, Raytheon AMRAAM, Raytheon Sparrow, MBDA (formerly Matra BAe Dynamics) Skyflash and ASRAAM, and the MBDA R550 Magic 2. In April 2004, the F-16 first fired the new-generation AIM-9X Sidewinder, which is in full-rate production for the USAF.
The AIM-120 AMRAAM (Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile) is one of the most modern, powerful, and widely used air-to-air missiles in the entire world. After it entered limited service in 1991, this missile has been exported to about 35 countries around the world, where it has certainly been proven with over 3 900 test shots and 10 combat victories.
Many of the AMRAAM’s advantages come from its guidance system. It uses active radar homing to find its targets. Thus, the AMRAAM carries its own radar, allowing it to be fully independent of its launcher. The AMRAAM is advanced because it can be fired at targets beyond visual range during all weather conditions, day or night.
The AMRAAM is fitted with a large and powerful 22.7 kg High Explosive (HE) blast-fragmentation warhead. Although smaller than that of the AIM-7 Sparrow, it is still quite effective, as it is easily able to destroy or critically damage almost all fighter aircraft and even large transport planes. A proximity fuse detonates the warhead.
The AIM-120 possesses high maneuverability and speed for a medium-range air-to-air missile, due to its powerful engine and light weight. Its WPU-6/B rocket motor can propel the AMRAAM to the startling speed of Mach 4 (4 900 km/h), which is capable of easily overtaking even the fastest enemy aircraft. The AMRAAM also has high maneuverability. This missile combines its incredible speed and maneuverability with long range – up to 75 kilometers on the basic version, as opposed to the improves AIM-7 Sparrow’s maximum of 50 km. Source military-today.com
060716-F-2034C-009. DoD photo by Tech. Sgt. Shane A. Cuomo, U.S. Air Force. (Released)
The SEASPARROW Missile is a radar-guided, surface-to-air missile based on the Navy and Marine Corps AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile. The SEASPARROW has a cylindrical body with four mid-body wings and four tail fins. The U.S. Navy employs the RIM-7 Missile aboard three ship classes (CVN, LHA, and LHD) using the MK 57 NATO SEASPARROW Missile System (NSSMS) and MK 29 Guided Missile Launching System (GMLS).
SEASPARROW is a short-range, semi-active homing missile that makes flight corrections via radar uplinks. The missile provides reliable ship self-defense capability against a variety of air and surface threats, including high-speed, low-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs). It is widely deployed by U.S., NATO, and other international partner navies.
Originally developed as an air-to-air missile by Sperry and the U.S. Navy, SEASPARROW’s later versions were developed and produced by Raytheon and General Dynamics. The surface-to-air capability was developed in the early 1970s to provide self-defense capability for U.S. and other NATO surface combatants. SEASPARROW is launched from the Mk 29 Guided Missile Launching System (GMLS) and the Mk 48 Guided Missile Vertical Launching System (GMVLS). Source navy.mil
The AIM-9 missile is a supersonic, heat-guided, air-to-air missile carried by most western fighter aircraft. It was introduced in 1956 (AIM-9B). This missile is used for self-defense purposes in close range combat situation, less than 20 kilometers, also known as dogfight. Once the AIM-9 has been launched its seeker follows the heat signature of the enemy’s aircraft engines. Current AIM-9 blast fragmentation warhead detonates by proximity. The AIM-9 missiles have been delivered to more than 40 countries.
The AIM-9X missile is the next generation Sidewinder. AIM-9X will provide US and allied nations fighters with the following capabilities: full day/night employment, resistance to countermeasures, extremely high off-boresight acquisition and launch envelopes, enhanced maneuverability and improved target acquisition ranges. One of the main breakthrough of the AIM-9X missile is a thrust vector controlled airframe. AIM-9X carries a contact fuze device and a new IR seeker that will enable, through the JHMCS, high off-boresight engagements. Its digital design architecture will ensure future growth capability.
Diameter: 130 millimeter (5.12 inch)
Length: 3 meter (118 inch)
Wingspan: 350 millimeter (13.8 inch)
Max Range: 26,000 meter (14.0 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 850 mps (3,061 kph)
Warhead: 10 kilogram (22.0 pound)
Weight: 85 kilogram (187 pound)
Air-to-surface missiles carried on the F-16 include Maverick, HARM and Shrike missiles, manufactured by Raytheon, and anti-ship missiles include Boeing Harpoon and Kongsberg Penguin. Flight tests with the Lockheed Martin joint air-to-surface stand-off missile (JASSM) have been conducted from the F-16.
Guidance System: Electro-optical (TV) in A and B models; imaging infrared (IIR) in D, F and G models; laser guided in the E model.
The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-surface tactical missile designed for close air support, interdiction, and defense suppression. It is effective against a wide range of tactical targets, including armor, air defenses, ships, ground transportation, and fuel storage facilities.
The AGM-65F (infrared targeting optimized for ship tracking.) used on Navy P-3 aircraft, and the AGM-65E (laser guided) used on Marine Corps AV-8 aircraft have the larger (300 pound; 136 kg) penetrating warhead. The AGM-65A/B/D 125 pound (57 kg) shaped charge (electro-optical guided) is used by the Air Force F-16 and A-10 aircraft. The AGM-65 has two types of warheads, the anti-armor shaped charge with a point detonating base fuse and the other, a heavyweight warhead with a time-delayed fuse, which penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before firing. The latter is very effective against large, hard targets. The propulsion system for both types is a solid-rocket motor behind the warhead. Source military.com
Primary Function: Air-to-surface guided missile
Contractors: Raytheon Systems Co.
Power Plant: Thiokol TX-481 solid-propellant rocket motor
Launch Weight: AGM-65B/H, 462 pounds (207.90 kilograms); AGM-65D, 485 pounds (218.25 kilograms); AGM-65E, 777 pounds (353.2 kilograms); AGM-65F, 804 pounds (365.5 kilograms); AGM-65G, 670 pounds (301.50 kilograms); AGM-65K, 793 pounds (360.45 kilograms)
Diameter: 1 foot (30.48 centimeters)
Wingspan: 2 feet, 4 inches (71.12 centimeters)
Aircraft: Used aboard A-10, F-15E and F-16
Guidance System: AGM-65B/H/K, electro-optical television; AGM-65D/F/G, imaging infrared; AGM-65E, laser guided
Warheads: AGM-65B/D/H, 125 pounds (56.25 kilograms), cone shaped; AGM-65E/F/G/K, 300 pounds (135 kilograms) delayed-fuse penetrator, heavyweight
Unit Cost: $17,000 to $110,000 depending on the Maverick variant
Date Deployed: August 1972
The AGM-88 HARM (High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile) is an air-to-surface supersonic, long range missile designed to seek out and destroy enemy radar systems. It was designed as an advanced follow on to Standard ARM and Shrike anti-radiation missiles. The HARM’s guidance package, with full frequency coverage, is locked on enemy’s radar systems emissions following them through radar site. Radar systems physical destruction is achieved through a single blast fragmentation warhead. The first combat use of AGM-88 missiles was in Libya in 1986. During the gulf war in 1991, more than 2,000 HARMs were fired against Iraq’s radar systems becoming the weapon of choice in the suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD). The HARM missile can be released from many aircraft. The F-16C is the only HARM-capable aircraft of the US Air Force.
The HARM missile can operate in three modes: pre-emptive, missile-as-a-sensor and self-protect. In the pre-emptive mode the missile is fired before locking on the potential threat. Targeting is provided through pre-flight planning or cued via aircraft’s sensors. The missile-as-a-sensor mode allows aircraft to use externally attached HARM missiles as a sensor (using its seeker) to locate radar emissions. Self-protect mode means the missile is fired to destroy threatening radar emissions. The scope of capabilities of the HARM missile family expands from the basic AGM-88A introduced in 1982 to the latest AGM-88F planned for 2015-2016.
Diameter: 250 millimeter (9.84 inch)
Length: 4.17 meter (164 inch)
Wingspan: 1.13 meter
Max Range: 105 kilometer (57 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 630 mps (2,269 kph)
Warhead: 68 kilogram (150 pound)
Weight: 360 kilogram (794 pound)
The AGM-45 Shrike is an anti-radiation missile based on the body of the AIM-7C Sparrow air to air missile. The original AGM-45A uses the Mk 38 rocket motor as used in early versions of the Sparrow missile. The later AGM-45B uses the more powerful Mk 58 engine and has a much longer range. The AGM-45B also uses later versions all three blast fragmentation warhead options.
Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!
Data for AGM-45B:
||3.05 m (10 ft)
||91.4 cm (36 in)
||45.7 cm (18 in)
||20.3 cm (8 in)
||177 kg (390 lb)
||40 km (25 miles)
||Aerojet MK 78 dual-thrust solid-fueled rocket
||67.5 kg (149 lb) MK 5 MOD 1 (or MK 86 MOD 1) blast-fragmentation,
or 66.6 kg (147 lb) WAU-9/B blast-fragmentation
The Harpoon (RGM-84/UGM-84/AGM-84) is a U.S.-designed subsonic anti-ship cruise missile that has been in service since 1977. Numerous variants have been produced since its inception, including air-, ship-, and sub-launched versions. The Harpoon has also undergone multiple upgrades to improve its range and guidance. Variants of the Harpoon have been exported to 32 countries.
Originated from: United States
Possessed by: United States, Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, India, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, United Kingdom, and Venezuela
Class: Subsonic Cruise Missile
Basing: Fixed-wing aircraft, surface ships, submarine
Length: 3.8 m (air launched) 4.6 m (ship- & sub- launched)
Diameter: 0.343 m
Launch weight: 515.25 kg (air-launched) 690.8 kg (surface- & sub-launched)
Guidance: Inertial, semi-active radar
Payload: 224 kg
Warhead: HE fragmentation
Propulsion: Turbojet, solid propellant
Range: 90-240 km
Speed: 0.85 Mach (High subsonic), 291.55 m/s
In service: 1977
Joint air-to-surface stand-off missile (JASSM)
The AGM-158 JASSM (Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile) is a long range, fire and forget, air-to-surface, precision standoff missile designed to destroy high value, well defended, fixed and relocateable targets. The JASSM weapon can be employed day/night in adverse weather conditions. Once released the JASSM missile is guided using an anti-jam (SAAM module) GPS/INS navigation system. In the terminal phase of the flight an IR seeker ensures that the JASSM achieves its target. The JASSM stealthy airframe ensures weapon survivability even against heavily defended target with cutting-edge air defenses. It can be fitted with different 1,000-pound warheads according to the mission profile.
kpt. Krzysztof Nanuś
Length: 4.27 meter (168 inch)
Max Range: 360 kilometer (194 nautical mile)
Service Life: 15 year
Warhead: 450 kilogram (992 pound)
Weight: 1,020 kilogram (2,249 pound)
The first guided launch of the new joint direct attack munition (JDAM) was successfully carried out from an F-16. The F-16 was the first USAF aircraft to be fitted with the joint stand-off weapon (JSOW) in April 2000.
Joint stand-off weapon (JSOW)
The AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) precision strike weapon, manufactured by Raytheon Company, is a 1,000-pound air-to-surface missile that can carry several different lethal packages. The weapon’s standoff range of 12 to 63 nautical miles allows JSOW to remain outside the threat envelopes of enemy point defenses while effectively engaging and destroying targets. JSOW is integrated and in operational status on the F/A-18C/D/E/F, F-16, B-52, F-15E, B-1B and B-2 aircraft. Integration is underway on the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. It is a joint Navy-Air Force program, with the Navy as the lead service. Source military.com
Caption: Screen grabs from a Sony HD video camera, of the AGM-154C Joint Standoff Weapon in flight during firing at Woomera Test Range. Mid Caption: Australias new Super Hornets are testing their deployment capabilities as No. 1 Squadron conduct their first live weapon trials at the Woomera Test Range, north of Adelaide. Five F/A-18F Super Hornets and about 100 aircrew, maintenance and support personnel from No. 1 Squadron will operate from RAAF Edinburgh during the squadrons first deployment away from their main operating base at RAAF Amberley, Queensland.
|General Characteristics, JSOW A, A-1, C
|Primary Function: Air-to-surface Standoff from Outside Point Defenses (SOPD) weapon for use against a variety of targets.
|Contractor: Raytheon Co.
|Date Deployed: January 1999.
|Length: 160 inches (4.1 meters).
|Diameter: Box-shaped, 13 inches (33.02 cm) on a side.
|Wingspan: 106 inches (2.69 meters).
|Weight: 1,065 pounds (approximate).
|Range: Low-altitude, 12 nautical miles; high-altitude, 70 nautical miles.
|Guidance System: GPS/INS (Global Position/Inertial), Terminal IR Seeker (AGM-154C unique)
|Platforms: Navy: F/A-18 C/D, F/A-18 E/F, AV-8B, F-35. Air Force: F-16 Block 40/50, B-1, B-2, B-52, F-15, F-117, A-10, F-35A.
|Warhead: AGM-154A/145 BLU-97 combined-effects bomblets; AGM-154A-1, 500-pound BLU-111 warhead; AGM-154B, six P3I BLU-108 sensor-fuzed-weapon submunitions; AGM-154C, Broach multi-stage warhead.
|General Characteristics, JSOW C-1
|Contractor: Raytheon Co.
|Length: 160 inches (4.1 meters)
|Diameter: Box-shaped, 13 inches (33.02 cm) on a side
|Wingspan: 106 inches (2.69 meters)
|Weight: 1,065 pounds (approximate)
|Range: approximately 70 nautical miles
|Guidance System: Link-16 data link, GPS/INS, terminal IR seeker
|Platforms: F/A-18E/F, F-35A/C
|Warhead: Broach multi-stage warhead
|Last Update: 23 February 2017
The F-16 can be fitted with Lockheed Martin wind-corrected munitions dispenser (WCMD), which provides precision guidance for CBU-87, -89, and 97 cluster munitions. The system corrects for launch transients, ballistic errors, and winds aloft.
The F-16 is the first aircraft to use the USAF’s new weapon rack, the Edo Corporation BRU-57. The BRU-57 is a vertical ejection rack which doubles the aircraft’s capacity for precision-guided weapons such as the JDAM and WCMD.
BRU-57 ejection rack
BRU-57 ejection rack – defencesystems.net
All-weather stand-off weapons such as the AGM-84E stand-off land-attack missile (SLAM) and the AGM-142 Popeye II are planned to be included in future upgrades to the aircraft. Other advanced weapons include MICA, IRIS-T, Python IV, Active Skyflash air-to-air missile, ALARM anti-radiation missile, Apache multimission stand-off weapon, autonomous free-flight dispenser system and AS30L laser-guided missile.
AGM-84E stand-off land-attack missile (SLAM)
The AGM-84H SLAM ER (Expanded Response) is an upgraded version of the combat-proven land attack SLAM missile. The SLAM ER missile features an extended range an improved aerodynamic performance thanks to the use of planar wings. A new warhead has been provided to the SLAM ER missile for better penetration of hardened targets.
The data link provided to the SLAM ER missile allows pilot to update the target in the terminal phase of the flight. In fact, the pilot can engage a target even if it has no relevant IR signature and reducing collateral damage. The software of the SLAM missile has also been upgraded.
Diameter: 340 millimeter (13.4 inch)
Length: 4.37 meter (172 inch)
Wingspan: 2.18 meter
Max Range: 278 kilometer (150 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 237 mps (853 kph)
Warhead: 227 kilogram (500 pound)
Weight: 675 kilogram (1,488 pound)
RTAF F-16 with IRST-T – Mike Yeo
The IRIS-T, InfraRed Imaging System – Tail/Thrust Vector Controlled, is an International initiative to replace current AIM-9L/M Sidewinder short-range, air-to-air missiles. The missile combines advanced aerodynamics and thrust vector control in a tail controlled airframe to achieve outstanding performance. It utilizes a solid-propellant rocket motor. IRIS-T features a roll-pitch (128×128) IR seeker with �90� look angle for high off-boresight angle missile engagements. Engagements against targets in the rear hemisphere can be done successfully with the missile locked-on target after launch. IRIS-T outstanding agility is the key to successfully engage highly maneuverable advanced aircraft.
Overall, IRIS-T delivers increased agility, target acquisition range, hit accuracy, a more effective warhead and considerably improved protection against countermeasures compared with the Sidewinder missile. The mass, length, diameter and interface of the IRIS-T missile are very close to its predecessor achieving a high degree of compatibility which is a must for the IRIS-T program. During the flight tests, the IRIS-T achieved direct impact on the target even with IRCM (IR countermeasures) presence.
Off-Boresight Capability: 90 �
Diameter: 127 millimeter (5 inch)
Length: 3 meter (118 inch)
Weight: 89 kilogram (196 pound)
The F-16 carries the Lockheed Martin LANTIRN infrared navigation and targeting system. This is used in conjunction with a BAE Systems holographic display. Block 50/52 aircraft are equipped with the HARM targeting system, AN/ASQ-213 from Raytheon.
US Air National Guard F-16 aircraft are fitted with Northrop Grumman Litening II / Litening ER targeting pods.
Rare IRST Pod Toting “Ghost” F-16D Likely Based At Area 51 Spotted In Star Wars Canyon: Here
At first glance the Block 30 F-16D pictured above, serial number 86-0052, may look like any other F-16, but upon closer examination its registration and the unique equipment it carries makes it clear that it is anything but.
On the right intake “chin” station, the F-16 carries an infrared search and track (IRST) pod. You can learn all about what an IRST is and how they are being introduced onto American fighter aircraft in this past in-depth post of mine. But in summary, they have the ability to detect and discriminate enemy aircraft targets at relatively long ranges in a passive in manner. In other words, they don’t emit detectable electromagnetic energy like radar waves in order to detect an aircraft from afar, instead they do so by sensing the aircraft’s infrared signature, which is especially tough to hide for fast-flying, high-performance fighters—even stealthy ones.
Lockheed Martin LANTIRN infrared navigation and targeting system
Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night, or LANTIRN, is a system for use on the Air Force’s premier fighter aircraft — the F-15E Strike Eagle and F-16C/D Fighting Falcon. LANTIRN significantly increases the combat effectiveness of these aircraft, allowing them to fly at low altitudes, at night and under-the-weather to attack ground targets with a variety of precision-guided and unguided weapons.
LANTIRN consists of a navigation pod and a targeting pod integrated and mounted externally beneath the aircraft.
The navigation pod provides high-speed penetration and precision attack on tactical targets at night and in adverse weather. The navigation pod also contains a terrain-following radar and a fixed infrared sensor, which provides a visual cue and input to the aircraft’s flight control system, enabling it to maintain a pre-selected altitude above the terrain and avoid obstacles. This sensor displays an infrared image of the terrain in front of the aircraft, to the pilot, on a head-up display. The navigation pod enables the pilot to fly along the general contour of the terrain at high speed, using mountains, valleys and the cover of darkness to avoid detection. The pod houses the first wide-field, forward-looking infrared navigation system for Air Force air-superiority fighters.
The targeting pod contains a high-resolution, forward-looking infrared sensor (which displays an infrared image of the target to the pilot), a laser designator-rangefinder for precise delivery of laser-guided munitions, a missile boresight correlator for automatic lock-on of AGM-65D imaging infrared Maverick missiles, and software for automatic target tracking. These features simplify the functions of target detection, recognition and attack and permit pilots of single-seat fighters to attack targets with precision-guided weapons on a single pass.’
US Air Force – Staff Sgt. Taylor Harrison
Primary function: Low altitude navigation and targeting infrared for night flying
Contractor: Lockheed Martin, Inc.
Length: Navigation pod, 78.2 inches (1.99 meters); targeting pod, 98.5 inches (2.51 meters)
Diameter: Navigation pod, 12 inches (.31 meters); targeting pod, 15 inches (.38 meters)
Weight: Navigation pod, 451.1 pounds (204.6 kilograms); targeting pod, 530 pounds (240.7 kilograms)
Aircraft: F-15E, F-16C/D
Sensors: Infrared and terrain following radar sensors are on the navigation pod. Infrared and laser designator and ranging sensors are on the targeting pod
Introduction Date: March 1987
Unit Cost: Navigation pod, $1.38 million; targeting pod, $3.2 million
AN/ASQ-213 HARM targeting system
The HTS (HARM Targeting System) pod provides pilots to employ the AGM-88 HARM missile in its most effective mode. It can autonomously detect, identify and locate radar guided threats at long ranges. It displays the target location to the pilot for HARM designation and firing. The HTS is fully reprogrammable and has been designed for high reliability/maintainability. Originally designed for integration on the F-16C/D Block 50D, the HTS could be integrate on any MIL-STD-1553 compatible aircraft. The HTS allows multiple target track and greater target specificity. Currently, HTS pods have been improved in key areas such as search speed, memory size, target identification and handling capabilities. In late September 2006, Raytheon delivered the first Release 7 (R7) HTS pod to the US Air Force following the development contract award in 2001 and the retrofit follow-on program decision in 2005.
The R7 features GPS receiver, a digital receiver, a new power supply and a redesigned software load. In addition, the R7 is compatible with the latest currently fielded M3.4+ F-16 operational flight program (OFP) software and will enable pilots to destroy hostile emitters once employed with the upcoming M4.2+ OFP release. Source deagel.com
“Air-to-surface missiles carried on the F-16 Fighting Falcon include Maverick, HARM and Shrike missiles.”
In August 2001, Lockheed Martin was selected to provide the Sniper XR as the new advanced targeting pod for USAF F-16 and F-15E aircraft.
Sniper XR (extended range) incorporates a high-resolution mid-wave FLIR, dual-mode laser, CCD TV, laser spot tracker and laser marker combined with advanced image processing algorithms. Deliveries began in March 2003.
Sniper XR advanced targeting pod
Sniper pods provide improved long-range target detection/identification and continuous stabilized surveillance for all missions, including close air support of ground forces. The Sniper pod enables aircrews to detect and identify weapon caches and individuals carrying armaments, all outside jet noise ranges. Superior imagery, a video datalink and J-series-weapons-quality coordinates provided by the Sniper pod enable rapid target decisions and keep aircrews out of threat ranges.
High resolution imagery for non-traditional intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (NTISR) enables the Sniper pod to play a major role in Air Force operations in theater, providing top cover for ground forces, as well as increasing the safety of civilian populations.
Sniper pods include a high definition mid-wave forward looking infrared (FLIR), dual-mode laser, HDTV, laser spot tracker, laser marker, video data link, and a digital data recorder. Advanced image processing algorithms, combined with rock steady stabilization techniques, provide cutting-edge performance. The pod features automatic tracking and laser designation of tactical size targets via real-time imagery presented on cockpit displays. The Sniper pod is fully compatible with the latest J-series munitions for precision weapons delivery against multiple moving and fixed targets.
Advanced Targeting Pod – Sensor Enhancement (ATP-SE) design upgrades include enhanced sensors, advanced processors, and automated NTISR modes.
Primary function: positive identification, automatic tracking and laser designation, NTISR
Prime contractor: Lockheed Martin
Length: 98.2 inches (252 centimeters)
Diameter: 11.9 inches (30 centimeters)
Weight: 446 pounds (202 kilograms)
Aircraft: F-15E, F-16 Block 30/40/50, A-10, B-1
Sensors: high resolution FLIR and HDTV, dual mode laser designator, laser spot tracker and laser marker
Date deployed: January 2005
Inventory: not available
(Current as of September 2015)
F-16 fighters for Oman are equipped with BAE Systems advanced airborne reconnaissance system. Those for Poland and Morocco are equipped with the Goodrich DB-110 reconnaissance pod.
Goodrich DB-110 reconnaissance pod
The DB-110 is a dual-band 110-inch focal length reconnaissance system that is capable of producing high-resolution imagery from nadir to a stand-off range of 80-plus nautical miles, day or night. Developed as a derivative of the strategic Senior Year Electro-optical Reconnaissance System (SYERS) sensor on the USAF U-2, the DB-110 can collect more than 10,000 square miles of high-resolution imagery per hour and serves as the cornerstone of many air forces’ tactical and strategic ISR capabilities. It is currently in service with 14 nations on multiple platforms.
“The DB-110 is a transformative system, enabling aircraft like the F-16 and F-15 to perform high-end ISR missions that previously were conducted by dedicated strategic platforms,” said Mike Don, Director of International Airborne Programs at UTC Aerospace Systems. “With the DB-110, an F-16 can be flexibly deployed to conduct peace time cross-border surveillance from international airspace, or during times of conflict, quickly transit through contested airspace that may be inaccessible by UAVs to conduct time-sensitive tactical-reconnaissance missions. DB-110 is truly a force-multiplier for fast-jet operators worldwide.”
In addition to operations on the F-16 and F-15, the DB-110 is operational on special mission aircraft like the Bombardier Global Express and maritime patrol aircraft like the P-3, and was recently demonstrated on the MQ-9 Reaper.
“Special mission aircraft represent a uniquely effective space for the DB-110,” explained Gavin Dyer, a senior technical fellow at UTC Aerospace Systems. “They enable the DB-110 to work in conjunction with other sensors, such as Synthetic Aperture Radar and signals intelligence, thereby producing multilayer intelligence products and a more holistic view of the battlespace. ” Source utcaerospacesystems.com
Block 50 F-16 aircraft for the USA are equipped with the Lockheed Martin superheterodyne AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver. The F-16 is also compatible with a range of jammers and electronic countermeasures equipment, including Northrop Grumman AN/ALQ-131, Raytheon AN/ALQ-184, Elisra SPS 3000 and Elta EL/L-8240, and the Northrop Grumman ALQ-165 self-protection suite.
Danish Air Force F-16 launch the BriteCloud 218: Here
AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver
Advanced radar warning receiver system
• U.S. Air Force standard advanced RWR
• Unambiguous threat detection/identification
• Advanced architecture for high-density environment
• C-J band coverage — growth to MMW and other bands
• Designed for easy RF compatibility/interoperability with a wide range of aircraft and EW avionics
• User/flightline reprogrammable
• Demonstrated high operational MTBF and low MTTR
• Two-level maintenance assures low life-cycle cost
• Over 1000 systems; baseline equipment on F-16, B-1B, C-130J and UK RMPA aircraft
• Expanded situational awareness enabling long-range response
strategy — threat avoidance
• Easy interoperability with a wide range of aircraft and avionics
• Demonstrated high operational MTBF and low MTTR
• Two-level maintenance assures low life-cycle costs
• User reprogrammability
• Operational on F-16 and C-130 — combat-proven
• Provides effective threat warning and primary sensor/control for expanded defensive aids systems
• Retrofits easily into numerous aircraft utilizing installed antennas and displays
Northrop Grumman AN/ALQ-131
The AN/ALQ-131 Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) pod is the most successful ECM system ever built. Northrop Grumman has fielded more than 1,600 ALQ-131 pods, which used state-of-the-art technology to successfully protect aircrews and aircraft in every conflict since becoming operational in the 1980s.
To stay ahead of new and emerging threats with advanced capabilities, Northrop Grumman revolutionized the ALQ-131 pod through the insertion of digital technology into the pod. With the incorporation of the Northrop Grumman Digital Receiver Exciter (DRE), the ALQ-131 will have fifth generation capabilities and performance. The DRE architecture is a derivative of technologies from the most capable fighter aircraft, including F-16 Block 60 and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. This upgrade does not change the pod’s size, weight or power requirements; neither does it induct any mandatory aircraft modification. Source northropgrumman.com
The AN/ALQ-184 is a self-defense electronic countermeasures pod used on USAF tactical aircraft. It operates in both receive and transmit modes to selectively direct high power jamming against multiple emitters. This system is very reliable detecting potential threats. The ALQ-184 is available in two-(Mid and High band) and three-band (Mid, High and Low band) configurations. It was designed as the replacement for the AN/ALQ-119 and AN/ALQ-131 electronic warfare pods.
The combat-proven ALQ-184 is qualified for use on F-16s, A-10As, F-4s, F-111s, F-15s, A-7s and C-130s. The ALQ-184 was employed successfully during operation Desert Storm in 1991. The ALQ-184 was purchased by the United States and Taiwan. Source deagel.com
Lockheed Martin ALE-40 and ALE-47 chaff and infrared flare dispenser systems are installed in an internal flush mount. ALE-40 is pilot-controlled but the ALE-47 installed in block 50 can be operated in fully-automatic, semi-automatic or manual mode.
ALE-47 chaff and infrared flare dispenser system
The device is used by all the U.S. military services, as well as 20 other countries. It ALE-47 adds software to the earlier AN/ALE-40, but adds considerable intelligence. It also can use the expendable cartridges built for the ALE-40 and ALE-39. This earlier generation of cartridges did not have their own computers, but were simple flares or radar-reflecting chaff bundles.
New cartridges, such as the RT-1489/ALE (GEN-X) expendable decoy, intelligently retransmit a radar signal that reproduces the reflection for which a semi-active radar homing missile is aiming. Cartridges for various electronic intelligence functions are being built to the same form factor, as well as the CADDIE chemical sensors described below.
It replaces the older towed ALE-50 with the AN/ALE-55, which remains connected to the aircraft electronic warfare computers. Source citizendium.org
F-16s for the Greek Air Force are being fitted with the Raytheon advanced self-protection integrated suite (ASPIS) II which includes Northrop Grumman ALR-93(V) threat warning system, Raytheon ALQ-187 jammer and BAE Systems ALE-47 chaff / flare dispenser. F-16s for Chile and Pakistan are fitted with the ITT AN/ALQ-211 (V) 4 electronic warfare suite.
Raytheon advanced self-protection integrated suite (ASPIS) II
Raytheon’s Advanced Countermeasures Electronic System
Raytheon’s Advanced Countermeasures Electronic System is a fully integrated electronic warfare (EW) suite with robust situational awareness and powerful jamming capabilities. ACES represents the most modern EW digital technology available, providing a secure electronic shield against anti-aircraft missiles and threats from enemy radars.
Designed to detect, identify and counter contemporary threats in a high density environment, ACES integrates Raytheon’s ALQ-187(V)2 jammer, the ALR-93 radar warning receiver and the ALE-47 countermeasures dispenser system — offering an effective and dependable advanced electronic countermeasures self-protection system for the F-16. Source raytheon.com
ITT AN/ALQ-211 (V) 4 electronic warfare suite
The Exelis Advanced Integrated Defensive Electronic Warfare Suite (AIDEWS) provides fighter aircraft with the technology edge for mission success and survivability. Based on a modular system approach, AIDEWS can be tailored to unique customer requirements to provide integrated radar warning and RF countermeasures and advanced stand-alone radar warning.
This modular systems approach is now available in an externally mounted pod, either for EW System upgrades or to add EW capability to a wide array of fighter aircraft. The pod-based system leverages our proven modular, scalable ALQ-211 system and ensures EW capability for deployment around the world. Source harris.com
Royal Thai Air Force F-16 – Thai internet images
The Northrop Grumman AN/APG-68 radar provides 25 separate air-to-air and air-to-ground modes, including long-range, all-aspect detection and tracking, simultaneous multiple-target tracking, and high-resolution ground mapping. The planar antenna array is installed in the nose of the aircraft.
An upgraded version of the radar, AN/APG-68(V)9, has begun flight testing. The upgrade features a 30% increase in detection range, five times increase in processing speed, ten times increase in memory, as well as significant improvements in all modes, jam-resistance and false alarm rate.
The APG-68(V)9 enables engagement of air-to-air and air-to-surface threats with greater accuracy and at greater ranges than legacy F-16 fire control radars.
The radar provides autonomous, all-environment, precision air-to-surface targeting with a high-resolution synthetic aperture radar ground mapping mode.
- Faster, farther aerial target target acquisition, with 33% greater air-to-air range than legacy radars
- Synthetic aperture radar ground mapping mode
- Reduced weight, power, and cooling
- 25%-45% lower support costs
- Higher reliability with greater than 120% MTBF improvement over legacy radar
- Compatible with LITENING and other EO pods
- Compatible with EW systems
- Compatible with AMRAAM, AIM-9X, and other missiles and GPS weapons such as JDAM, JSOW and WCMD
- Retrofit kit can be installed in approximately 2 days on the flight line
- Robust logistics base, with hundreds of systems fielded
- Compatible with all F-16 avionics suites.
||Altitude Max: 0 m
|Range Max: 111.1 km
||Altitude Min: 0 m
|Range Min: 0.4 km
||Generation: Late 1980s
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
|SENSORS / EW:
|AN/APG-68(V)9 CCIP – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 111.1 km
Air Force F-16 gets APG-83 radar
A fleet of F-16s are now getting new F-35 Active Electronically Scanned radar, and other upgrades including upper wing skin and fittings, upper and lower bulkhead, and canopy sill longeron. The effort, called a Service Life Extension Program, is already underway; Low Rate Initial Production started last year, according to Capt. Hope Cronin, Air Force spokeswoman.
Current Air Force F-16s have flown roughly 6-to-7 thousand flight hours, en route to the original plan to fly the planes out to 8,000 hours. Now, however, the Air Force plan is to fly the jets all the way out to 12,000 hours, given the extent of the combat upgrades.
The SLEP program consists of 12 structural modifications and an existing Time Compliance Technical Order. The Air Force is upgrading 372 F-16 aircraft from the existing mechanically scanned radar (APG-68) to an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) (APG-83), Cronin explained.
“This upgrade provides greater bandwidth, speed, & agility enabling F-16s to detect, track, & identify a greater number of targets, faster and at longer ranges,” she told Warrior Maven.
The new AESA radar can track up to 20-targets at one time, Randy Howard, Lockheed Martin F-16 Director of Strategy and Business Development, told Warrior Maven.
“The F-16 is a much more capable weapon due to the AESA radar. We are taking lessons learned from the F-35 and rolling them back into the F-16. The ASEA is able to see a wide area laterally, horizontally, diagonally and vertically,” he told Warrior Maven. Source foxnews.com
The APG-83 AESA provides the following capability enhancements over legacy mechanically scanned APG-66 & APG-68 radars to ensure F-16s, F-18s and other 4th gen aircraft remain operationally viable and sustainable for decades to come:
- Autonomous, all-environment stand-off precision targeting
- BIG SAR wide area high-res maps
- High quality, coordinate generation
- Greater target detection and tracking range
- Faster search and target acquisition
- Smaller target detection
- Multi-target tracking
- Robust electronic protection (A/A and A/G)
- Enhanced combat ID
- Interleaved mode operations for greater situational awareness
- Maritime modes
- 3-5X greater reliability and availability
||Altitude Max: 0 m
|Range Max: 296.3 km
||Altitude Min: 0 m
|Range Min: 0.2 km
||Generation: Early 2010s
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Narrow Beam Interleaved Search and Track [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)
|SENSORS / EW:
|AN/APG-83 SABR AESA – (F-16, LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Long-Range
Max Range: 296.3 km
Navigation and communications
The F-16 was the first operational US aircraft to receive a global positioning system (GPS). The aircraft has an inertial navigation system and either a Northrop Grumman (Litton) LN-39, LN-93 ring laser gyroscope or Honeywell H-423.
Other navigation equipment includes a BAE Systems Terprom digital terrain navigation system, Gould AN/APN-232 radar altimeter, a Rockwell Collins AN/ARN-118 tactical air navigation system (TACAN) and Rockwell Collins AN/ARN-108 instrument landing system.
AN/APN-232 radar altimeter
The CARA Receiver-transmitter (RT) transmits a signal to the earth’s surface, receives the reflected signal, processes the information, and provides the resulting altitude-related data from 0 to 50,000 feet to various avionics systems. The system is designed to meet the stringent environments of present and future applications and is compatible with both high and low altitude high-performance aircraft.
“The F-16 Fighting Falcon carries the Lockheed Martin LANTIRN infrared navigation and targeting system.”
CARA is interfaced and qualified with multiple safety-critical functions, including:
- Automatic landing systems (on aircraft so-equipped)
- Manual landings in all aircraft, especially under conditions of reduced visibility
- Automatic Terrain-Following (ATF) systems (e.g., F-16 and F-15 with LANTIRN, Sniper, etc.)
- Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (GCAS, in most USAF platforms)
- A-GCAS in the F-16
The communications systems include the Raytheon UHF AN/ARC-164 receiver / transmitter and Rockwell Collins VHF AM/FM AN/ARC-186 together with AN/APX101 identification friend or foe (IFF) and encryption / secure communications systems. The AN/APX-101 is being upgraded with BAE Systems AN/APX-113.
BAE Systems AN/APX-113 IFF
Combined Interrogator Transponders are compact, versatile IFF systems for highly mobile platforms. They provide the warfighter with added ability to identify friendly aircraft in a secure environment.
Products: AN/APX-113 (V), AN/APX-125, and AN/APX-126
- Modes 1, 2, 3/A, C, 4, 5, S (XP only), and ADS-B
- DoD AIMS certified
- Multiple antenna configurations
The aircraft is powered by a single engine: the General Electric F110-GE-129 or Pratt and Whitney F100-PW-229. The fuel supply is equipped with an inert gas anti-fire system. An inflight refuelling probe is installed in the top of the fuselage.
General Electric F110-GE-129
Pratt and Whitney F100-PW-229
Lockheed Martin completed developmental flight testing on new conformal fuel tanks (CFT) for the F-16, which will significantly add to the aircraft’s mission radius. First flight of the F-16 equipped with the new tanks was in March 2003. Greece is the launch customer for the CFT.
Jörgen Nilsson Photography
F-16 Fighting Falcon international orders and deliveries
“The F-16 Fighting Falcon is the world’s most prolific fighter.”
Israel, with the world’s largest F-16 fleet outside the USAF, has ordered 110 F-16I aircraft, of which the first was delivered in December 2003. These aircraft have Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 engines, Elbit avionics, Elisra electronic warfare systems and Rafael weapons and sensors, including Litening II laser target designator pods. Italy leased 34 aircraft until the first tranche of Eurofighter deliveries are completed.
In December 2005, Greece ordered a further 30 block 52+ fighters (20 F-16C single seat and 10 F-16D two-seat) to be delivered from 2009. Under the Peace Xenia IV purchase programme, the total number of fighters ordered by Greece’s HAF (Hellenic Air Force) rose to 170. The first Peace Xenia IV F-16 Block 52 advanced aircraft was delivered on 19 March 2009. The remaining aircraft were delivered by 2010.
In June 2005, Pakistan requested the foreign military sale (FMS) of 36 F-16C/D block 50/52 aircraft. In June 2006, the Pentagon notified congress of its intention to agree the sale and Lockheed Martin was awarded a contract for 12 F-16C and six F-16D block 52 aircraft in December 2006. The aircraft are armed with AMRAAM and Sidewinder missiles and the Sniper targeting pod. The planned order of the second 18 aircraft was cancelled.
In September 2006, Turkey requested the sale of an additional 30 advanced block 50 F-16 aircraft. The order was signed in May 2007. The aircraft were delivered in 2011 and 2012. The total cost of these additional aircraft is estimated at more than $2.9bn excluding Turkey’s $1.1bn upgrade programme for its existing F-16 fleet.
Steven Harrison-Green @flickr
In December 2007, Morocco requested the sale of 24 F-16C/D block 50/52 aircraft. The deal includes the aircraft, mission equipment and a support package provided by Lockheed Martin and other US and international contractors. The Royal Moroccan Air Force (RMAF) placed a $233.6m order in June 2008.
The F-16IN Super Viper, which is a development of block 60, has been designed for the Indian Air force. It is a fourth-generation fighter that meets the medium multirole combat aircraft (MMRCA) requirements. It includes Northrop Grumman APG-80 AESA radar and General Electric F110-132A engine with 32,000lb of thrust.
Various F-16 upgrade and modernisation programmes are underway in Turkey, Pakistan and Jordan, and within the US Air Force. Future upgrades include air refuelling probes, auxiliary power unit, auto ground collision avoidance systems and automatic manoeuvring attack.
Lockheed Martin handed over the first of 36 F-16 Block 52 aircraft to the Iraqi Air Force in June 2014.
In December 2015, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics was awarded a $914m fixed-price incentive and cost-plus contract to upgrade F-16 aircraft for the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF). Work is scheduled for completion by June 2023.
F-16 common configuration implementation programme (CCIP)
A total of 650 USAF Block 40/50 F-16s are being upgraded under the common configuration implementation programme (CCIP). The first phase of the programme (first aircraft completed in January 2002) provides core computer and colour cockpit modifications.
The second phase, which began in September 2002, involved fitting the advanced AN/APX-113 interrogator / transponder and Lockheed Martin Sniper XR advanced FLIR targeting pod.
The third, which started in July 2003, adds Link 16 datalink, the Boeing joint helmet-mounted cueing system and an electronic horizontal situation indicator. Operational testing of the M3 upgraded fighters was completed in September 2004. Deliveries were completed in 2010.
A216 Block 40/50 F-16 aircraft of the Turkish Air Force are to be upgraded with elements of the CCIP, under an agreement reached in April 2005. Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to supply the modernisation kits in December 2006. The upgrade is scheduled for completion in 2016.
The export version of the Sniper XR pod, the PANTERA, has been ordered by the Royal Norwegian Air Force. The first was delivered in November 2003.
Block 50/52 is the eighth major modification block of the F-16 that incorporates colour cockpit displays, new electronic warfare suite, advanced weapons and sensors and more powerful engines.
Mitsubishi F-2: Details
F-16E/F Block 60 upgrade
The block 60 F-16E/F, which is being developed for the United Arab Emirates, features extra payload and range, in part due to the new F110-132 engine being developed by General Electric, which produces 145kN of thrust.
New avionics for the block 60 includes a higher-speed mission computer, a new display processor, three large colour LCD displays, and an advanced data transfer unit with a fibre-optic data transfer network. Precision targeting is achieved by the Northrop Grumman integrated navigation FLIR and targeting FLIR system using mid-wave infrared arrays and Northrop Grumman’s APG-80 agile beam active electronically scanned (AESA) radar.
Northrop Grumman is providing the integrated electronic warfare suite. First flight of the block 60 aircraft took place in December 2003. Deliveries of 80 block 60 aircraft to the UAE began in May 2005 and concluded in 2009.
Photo by Elliboom
Main material source airforce-technology.com
Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated
Main image US Air Force – Senior Airman Dylan Murakami
Revised Apr 20, 2019
Updated Feb 21, 2021