Russian Borei-class nuclear sub (Project 955)

Borei Class is a Russian fourth-generation nuclear-powered missile submarine. It is intended to eventually replace the ageing Delta III and Typhoon Class submarines and become an important deterrent of the Russian Navy. It is the first class of submarines developed by Russia since the soviet era.

Borei Class

Delta III Class submarine

Although the Soviets were pioneers in firing missiles from submarines, their early systems were short-ranged. The 34 units of the Yankee class, built between 1967 and 1974, were apparently based on stolen American plans for the Benjamin Franklin class. These provided the foundation for the follow-on Delta class, an enlarged development of the Yankee design. The first Deltas entered service in 1972, the original Delta I design being succeeded by the interim Delta II with 16 missiles rather than the original 12.

   These were followed from 1976 by the Project 667 BDR Kalmar class, better known to NATO as the Delta III. These had a larger and longer turtle-back abaft the sail. Fourteen Delta III class submarines were built at Severodvinsk.

   The Delta III submarines housed R-29R submarine-launched ballistic missiles (NATO designation SS-N-18). It was the first Soviet sea-based multiple-warhead system. Though currently used version, the R-29RL has a single 450 kT warhead. These missiles have a range of 9 000 km and can reach all targets in China, Europe and the United States.

   Development of the follow-on Project 667 BDRM Delfin class, known to West as the Delta IV, began in 1975. The first boat was commissioned in 1985. It is a further modification of the Delta III, with an increased diameter pressure hull and a longer bow section. Displacement has increased by 1 200 tons and it is 12 m longer.

   The Delta III submarines which served in the Northern fleet formed a division and were based at Sayda and at Olyenya port. In the early 90s the ballistic missile submarines were transferred to Yagyelnaya. Pacific Fleet Delta IIIs were based on Kamchatka.

   In 1990 Soviet Navy operated a total of 13 Delta III class submarines. By 2017 only 3 of these submarines remained in service with the Russian Navy. These boats are already exceeding their planned service lives. It is likely that in the near future all Delta III class boats will be decommissioned. Currently a number of new Borei class ballistic missile submarines are being built in Russia. Once in service these will replace the Delta III and Delta IV class boats.

Delta III classDelta III Class submarines
Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
K-424 1974 1976 1976 decommissioned in 1995
K-441 1974 1976 1976 decommissioned in 1995
K-449 1974 1976 1977 scrapped in 2008
K-455 1974 1976 1976 in reserve, probably decommissioned
K-490 1975 1977 1977 in reserve, probably decommissioned
K-487 1975 1977 1977 in reserve, probably decommissioned
Borisoglebsk (K-496) 1975 1977 1977 decommissioned in 2008
Zelenograd (K-506) 1975 1978 1978 decommissioned in 2010
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy (K-211) 1976 1979 1979 in reserve since 2012
Podolsk (K-223) 1977 1979 1979 active, in service
K-180 1977 1980 1980 scrapped in 2008
Sviatoy Georgiy Pobedonosets (K-433) 1978 1980 1980 active, in service
Orenburg (BS-136, ex K-129) 1979 1981 1981 converted to special purpose submarine
Ryazan (K-44) 1980 1982 1982 active, in service
Country of origin Russia
Entered service 1976
Crew 130 men
Diving depth (operational) ?
Diving depth (maximum) 390 m
Sea endurance ?
Dimensions and displacement
Length 155 m
Beam 11.7 m
Draught 9 m
Surfaced displacement ?
Submerged displacement ?
Propulsion and speed
Surfaced speed 12 knots
Submerged speed 24 knots
Nuclear reactors 2 x VM-4-2
Steam turbines 2 x 90 MW
Armament
Missiles 16 x SS-N-18 ‘Stingray’ submarine-launched ballistic missiles
Torpedoes 4 x 533-mm and 2 x 400-mm bow tubes

Delta III data military-today.com

Typhoon Class submarine

RFS Dmitry Donskoy TK-208 Russian Submarine Ship 1

The Project 941 or Akula, Russian “Акула” (“Shark”) class submarine (NATO reporting name: Typhoon) is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. With a submerged displacement of 48,000 tonnes, the Typhoons are the largest class of submarine ever built, large enough to accommodate decent living facilities for the crew when submerged for months on end. The source of the NATO reporting name remains unclear, although it is often claimed to be related to the use of the word “typhoon” (“тайфун”) by Leonid Brezhnev in a 1974 speech while describing a new type of nuclear ballistic missile submarine, as a reaction to the US Navy Ohio-class submarines.

The Russian Navy canceled its Typhoon modernization program in March 2012, stating that modernizing one Typhoon would be as expensive as building two new Borei-class submarines. With the announcement that Russia has eliminated the last SS-N-20 Sturgeon SLBMs in September 2012, the remaining Typhoons have reached the end of service.

Typhoon Class submarines
# Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
TK-208 Dmitriy Donskoy June 30, 1976 September 27, 1980 December 29, 1981 In service. Upgraded to project 941UM for use of Bulava missiles(1 launcher)
TK-202 April 22, 1978 September 23, 1982 December 28, 1983 Withdrawn from active service in June 1999, scrapped with the financial support of the U.S.
TK-12,Simbirsk April 19, 1980 December 17, 1983 December 26, 1984 Withdrawn from active service in 1996, scrapped 2006–2008
TK-13 February 23, 1982 April 30, 1985 December 26, 1985 Withdrawn from active service in 1997, scrapped 2007–2009
TK-17 Arkhangelsk August 9, 1983 December 12, 1986 December 15, 1987 Decommissioned in 2006 Still in reserve with the Northern Fleet.
TK-20 Severstal August 27, 1985 April 11, 1988 December 19, 1989 Decommissioned in 2004 Still in reserve with the Northern Fleet.
TK-210 1986 1990 (scrapped on the ways)  
General characteristics
Type: Ballistic missile submarine
Displacement:
  • 23,200–24,500 t (22,830–24,110 long tons) surfaced
  • 33,800–48,000 t (33,270–47,240 long tons) submerged
Length: 175 m (574 ft 2 in)
Beam: 23 m (75 ft 6 in)
Draught: 12 m (39 ft 4 in)
Propulsion:
  • 2 × OK-650 pressurized-water nuclear reactors, 190 MWt each
  • 2 × VV-type steam turbines, 37 MW (49,600 hp) each
  • 2 shafts with 7-bladed shrouded screws
Speed:
  • 22.22 knots (41.15 km/h; 25.57 mph) surfaced
  • 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph) submerged
Endurance: 120+ days submerged
Test depth: 400 m (1,300 ft)
Complement: 160
Armament:
Notes: Ships in class include: TK-208 TK-202 TK-12 TK-13TK-17 TK-20 TK-210

Typhoon class data wikiwand.com

Designated Project 935, it began in 1996 to manufacture the first unit of the Borei Class submarine. The project name was changed to Project 955 and the submarine was redesigned to accommodate the new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) Bulava (SS-NX-30), in place of the abandoned R-39UTTH Bark missile.

Project 935

93504 Project 935

Project 955

shemaProject 955

Currently Yury Dolgoruky, Alexander Nevsky, Vladimir Monomakh and Knyaz Vladimir are the four submarines ordered under this project. These vessels were designed by Rubin Marine Equipment Design Bureau and built by Northern Machine Building Enterprise (Sevmash shipyard).

Russia has plans to build eight Borei Class submarines for its naval fleet by 2015.

Development of the Yury Dolgoruky vessel

The first in the class of the submarines is the Yury Dolgoruky vessel. The total cost of the submarine is $713m, including the research and development expenditure of $280m.

Project 955A, the higher version of Project 955, might build the Vladimir Monomakh and other follow-up submarines. This programme would have various improvements and would have a different hull shape.

Construction of the Borei Class submarines

The first submarine, Yury Dolgoruky, was laid down in November 1996. She was launched in February 2008 and began her sea trials in June 2009. The ship was formally inducted into the Russian Navy in January 2013.

Alexander Nevsky (K-550), the second submarine, was laid down in March 2004 and launched in December 2010. The ship is expected to be commissioned in 2013, after completing a series of sea trials that started in October 2011.

Alexander Nevsky (K-550)

Vladimir Monomakh is the third Borei Class submarine. She was laid down in March 2006 and launched in December 2012. The fourth Borei Class ship, Knyaz Vladimir, was laid down in July 2012.

Ships

Number Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Note
K-535 Yuriy Dolgorukiy 955
(09550)
2 November 1996 12 February 2008 10 January 2013[32] Northern[40] In active service
K-550 Aleksandr Nevskiy 955
(09551)
19 March 2004 13 December 2010 23 December 2013[41][42] Pacific[11] In active service
K-551 Vladimir Monomakh 955
(09551)
19 March 2006 30 December 2012[43] 19 December 2014[44][45] Pacific In active service.[46]
  Knyaz Vladimir 955А[2](09552) 30 July 2012 [47][48] December 2016 est.[49] 2017 est. Pacific Under construction. The first of Project 955A.
  Knyaz Oleg 955А
(09552)
27 July 2014[50][51] N/A 2018 est. Pacific Under construction.
  Generalissimus Suvorov[52] 955А
(09552)
26 December 2014[52] N/A 2019 est. Northern Under construction.
  Imperator Aleksandr III[53] 955А
(09552)
18 December 2015 N/A By 2020[54] Pacific Under construction.
  Knyaz Pozharskiy[55] 955А
(09552)
23 December 2016[56] N/A By 2020[54] Northern Under construction.

Source wikiwand.com

Project 955A Borei II the Knyaz Vladimir will be launched in August: Here

Excerpt

MOSCOW (Sputnik) — The Knyaz Vladimir submarine will boost the potential of the nuclear component of the Navy’s submarine forces, he said.

“In August of this year, the next Borey project SSBN Knyaz Vladimir, which will enhance the potential of the nuclear component of the Navy’s submarine forces, will be launched at the Sevmash enterprise in Severodvinsk,” Korolev told graduates of Russian Navy institutions.

CIMS

CICS (combat information management system) “District” – in class capabilities not lower CICS “Omnibus” development group “Morinformsystem” Agat “(Central Research Institute” AGAT “, used in the PLA  pr.971 ), combining real-time control of all combat systems, information about the condition of the vehicle and information on the means of observation and targeting. Work CICS provides several onboard computer. probably CICS ship can receive and transmit data to other vehicles on the protected sonar data transmission system.  Source militaryrussia.ru
Central post SSBN K-535 “Yury Dolgoruky” pr.09551, 01.10.2013, the ( source ).

Bulava SLBM missiles on the Russian subs

The Bulava SLBM (designated RSM-56 in the START treaty), which is based on the Topol M design, would be fitted onto the Borei Class submarines.

Bulava SLBM (designated RSM-56 in the START treaty)

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General data:  
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 36800 kg
Length: 12.1 m Span: 2.0 m
Diameter: 2.0 Generation: None
Properties: Ballistic Missile (ICBM/IRBM/SRBM), Weapon – INS Navigation, Warhead – Multiple Independent Re-Entry Vehicles (MIRV), Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Land Structure – Soft, Land Structure – Hardened, Runway, Mobile Target – Soft, Mobile Target – Hardened
Weapons:
SS-N-32 [6 MIRV x 150kT Nuclear] – (RSM-56 Bulava) Guided Weapon
Land Max: 8334 km.

Source cmano-db.com

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These missiles are developed by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology and would be launched on the Project 955 platform.

SSBN K-550 “Alexander Nevsky” pr.955 “Northwind”, Severodvinsk 09.11.2011 (photo – Sergey Mamontov, http://ria.ru ).

The missile is 12.1m long and has a diameter of 2.1m (including the launch container). It weighs a total of 36.8 metric tonnes and is capable of carrying six to ten re-entry vehicles with a yield of 100kt-150kt each.

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The Borei Class submarines have lower displacement levels than the Typhoon Class, which can carry a similar number of missiles. Yury Dolgoruky would carry 16 of these missiles, while the improved versions of the Borei Class submarines might carry 20 of them.

The submarine will also carry six of the SS-N-15 missiles. Each SS-N-15 is a 533mm calibre anti-ship missile has a range of 45km and is capable of being fitted with a 20kt warhead or a type 40 torpedo.

SS-N-15 missiles

SS-N-15 is a 533mm calibre anti-ship missile
General data:  
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 2445 kg
Length: 8.2 m Span: 0.53 m
Diameter: 0.53 Generation: None
Properties: Bearing-Only Launch (BOL), Weapon – INS Navigation, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Submarine
Weapons:
SS-N-15 Starfish [RPK-6 Vodopad, UMGT-1 Torpedo] – (1982, 83R) Guided Weapon
Subsurface Max: 40.7 km.

Source cmano-db.com

Comments by Navy Recognition:
The new torpedo is being tested at Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan. The Futlyar torpedo will be of heat-seeking design like the baseline model, but it will retain the ability to be controlled from the submarine. The Futlyar also will be given an improved homing system with an extended underwater target lock-on range.

The new torpedo will equip the Project 955A Borei-A (NATO reporting name: Dolgorukiy-class), Project 885 Yasen-class (Severodvinsk-class) and Project 885M Yasen-M in the first place. With the beginning of the Futlyar’s full-rate production, the production of the Fizik torpedo will be discontinued. The Futlyar has been developed by the St. Petersburg Research Institute of Marine Hardware and the Dagdizel plant will handle its production.

Hatch for loading ammunition torpedo launchers and covers SGAPD on SSBN K-535 “Yury Dolgoruky” pr.955, Severodvinsk, PO “Sevmash”, September 17, 2009 ( http://forums.airbase.ru )

Rescue System

Popup pr.955 submarine rescue chamber (sketch of the Deep Blue Sea collection, http://paralay.iboards.ru )

A pop-up rescue chamber (VSC), calculated for the entire crew of the submarine, the submarine is in the body to the tail of the SLBM.VSC is for missile compartment. Liferafts class KSU-600N-4 (5 pieces). Source militaryrussia.ru

Vessel propulsion systems

The submarine is powered by an OK-650 nuclear reactor, AEU steam turbine, a shaft and a propeller. The Borei Class submarines are the first in Russia to run on the pump jet propulsion system. Source: naval-technology.com

Output from the workshop submarine K-535 “Yury Dolgoruky” po.955, 15.04.2007 (photo http://oborona.ru )

According to the Russian military, Borei-class are state-of-the-art submarines, featuring characteristics superior to any submarine currently in service worldwide.

Propulsion :

– NPS with pressurized water reactor thermal neutron BM-5 or similar with a steam generating unit (PPU) OK-650V capacity of 190 MW – similar installed on PLA pr.971 . Management and protection of the SPE (CPS) – “Aliot”. On SSBN pr.955U unconfirmed will be installed a new generation of nuclear power DTH KTP-6-85 with a steam-turbine plant, which, according to unconfirmed reports, is called “Azurite-90.”
 
– 1 x block-shaft steam turbine plant (PTU) with OK-GTZA 9VM or the like with improved depreciation of about 50,000 hp
 
– 2 x submersible thrusters 2 speed propulsion motors capacity PG-160 at 410 hp (370 hp dr.dannym) (?). Located in advancing columns aft submarine. 
Retractable thrusters spiral column with an electric PLA pr.971 AKULA, similar thruster is used to NPBMS pr.955 (frame from documentary PO “Sevmash”, http://forums.airbase.ru )
Mechanics – one shaft, one hydrojet propulsion system GRDK-3.5m – water jet propulsion system (UFS) with high propulsion characteristics similar presumably used to SSGNs pr.885 . Two reclining thrusters. Nasal hydroplanes with flaps, drawers, similar to PLA pr.971 (at least on the first boat pr.955).

Energy – probably two turbogenerator AC OK-2 with a capacity of 3200 kW, two reversible DC-DC converter. Backup power – probably two groups of lead-acid batteries, 1-2 x genset reversible converter, fuel tank – 10 days. System control electro-energy system “Luga-B” / “Luga-Boreas.” Central Power System “cosine-B” / “cosine Northwind.”  Source militaryrussia.ru

Photo from sea trials SSBN “Yury Dolgoruky” 09-26.09.2010, at “jump” is executed September 12, 2010 ( http://www.sevmash.ru/ )

The Borei-class subs are replacing outgoing nuclear subs of the previous generation and are set to become the backbone of Russia’s sea-based nuclear defenses.

A Borei-class sub is 170 meters long and 13.5 meters wide, and can dive up to 450 meters.

They have a compact, hydro-dynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and are the first to use pump-jet propulsion among Russian submarines. Their submerged cruise speed is at least 30 knots (56 kilometers per hour).

Safety measures for the subs include a rescue chamber that can host all 107 crew members.

The Bulava missile has had a somewhat troublesome development history, with technical glitches plaguing the early tests. Altogether there have been 22 launches in the SLBM’s history. However, out of the last 10 launches, only one failed.

The SSBN Vladimir Monomakh was handed over to the Russian Navy on December 10, having completed all trials and tests, including a successful Bulava launch in September.

The underwater missile launch was carried out from the White Sea off the northwest Russian coast. All warheads hit the Kura test range in the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, the Defense Ministry said in a statement.

Launch video: Russian nuclear sub test-fires Bulava ballistic missile

That missile launch was followed by two more successful launches carried out by the SSBN Yury Dolgorukiy in October and the SSBN Alexander Nevsky in November.

A fourth Borei-class submarine, Knyaz Vladimir, is currently under construction in Severomorsk, while a fifth, Knyaz Oleg, was laid down at the Sevmash shipyard in July.

The SSBN Knyaz Oleg will become the first of the upgraded Project 955A submarines, which will boast smaller hulls and cons as well as even better acoustics and lower sound levels.

The sixth Borei-class sub, SSBN Knyaz Suvorov, will be laid down in Severomorsk on December 21.

By 2020, the Defense Ministry plans to have eight Borei-class subs as the backbone of the naval component of the country’s strategic nuclear deterrent.

Source © Autonomous Nonprofit Organization “TV-Novosti”, 2005–2015. All rights reserved.


Borei-class sub1dbb533098f14dcbf6e9341c7a4c785eBulava ICBM:

Updated Jul 17, 2017

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